East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER)

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Welcome to the East Midlands Evidence Repository.

The East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER) is the official institutional research repository for; Derbyshire Community Health Services, Leicester Partnership Trust, NHS Nottingham and Nottinghamshire CCG, Nottinghamshire Healthcare, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton and the University Hospitals Of Leicester

EMER is intended to make NHS research more visible and discoverable by capturing, storing and preserving the East Midlands research output and making it available to the research community through open access protocols.

Wherever possible, full-text content is provided for all research publications in the repository. Content grows daily as new collections are added.

  • Glycaemic measures for 8914 adult FreeStyle Libre users during routine care, segmented by age group and observed changes during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Wilmot, Emma
    AIM: To evaluate the impact of the stay-at-home policy on different glucose metrics for time in range (%TIR 3.9-10 mmol/L), time below range (%TBR < 3.9 mmol/L) and time above range (%TAR > 10 mmol/L) for UK adult FreeStyle Libre (FSL) users within four defined age groups and on observed changes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Data were extracted from 8914 LibreView de-identified user accounts for adult users aged 18 years or older with 5 or more days of sensor readings in each month from January to June 2020. Age-group categories were based on self-reported age on LibreView accounts (18-25, 26-49, 50-64 and ≥65 years). RESULTS: In January, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the 65 years or older age group had the highest %TIR (57.9%), while the 18-25 years age group had the lowest (51.2%) (P < .001). Within each age group, TIR increased during the analysed months, by 1.7% (26-49 years) to 3.1% (≥65 years) (P < .001 in all cases). %TBR was significantly reduced only in the 26-49 years age group, whereas %TAR was reduced by 1.5% (26-49 years) to 3.0% (≥65 years) (P < .001 in both cases). The proportion of adults achieving both of the more than 70% TIR and less than 4% TBR targets increased from 11.7% to 15.9% for those aged 65 years or older (P < .001) and from 6.0% to 9.1% for those aged 18-25 years (P < .05). Mean daily glucose-sensor scan rates were at least 12 per day and remained stable across the analysis period. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the baseline glucose metrics for FSL users in the UK across different age groups under usual care. During lockdown in the UK, the proportion of adults achieving TIR consensus targets increased among FSL users.
  • Tolerability, gastric emptying patterns, and symptoms during the Nottingham Test Meal in 330 secondary care non-diabetic dyspeptic patients.

    Tucker, Emily
    BACKGROUND: Scintigraphy is used for overall assessment of gastric emptying. Adherence to an international consensus protocol is recommended to ensure quality; however, this has not been widely adopted because preparation of the "egg-beater" meal is inconvenient in clinical practice. In this report, we audit the tolerability and the results of gastric emptying scintigraphy with the 400 ml Tc-99 m-labeled liquid nutrient Nottingham Test Meal (NTM). METHODS: Results from 330 consecutive adult, non-diabetic patients with dyspeptic symptoms referred for gastric scintigraphy were analyzed. Gastric half-emptying time (T50) and validated measurements of early- and late-phase gastric emptying were acquired. Postprandial sensations of fullness, bloating, heartburn, nausea, and epigastric pain were recorded using 100 mm visual analog scales (VAS) before and 0, 30, and 90 min after NTM ingestion. Results were compared with those previously obtained in healthy subjects. KEY RESULTS: Almost all (98%) of the patients were able to consume the 400 ml NTM. Considering early- and late-phase gastric emptying, frequently observed patterns included normal early- with slow late-phase (25%) and fast early- with slow late-phase emptying (27%). Abnormal score of fullness and/ or dyspeptic symptoms were observed in 88% of dyspeptic patients. Abnormal fullness at T0 (after completed drink ingestion) was associated with slow late phase of gastric emptying, especially in women. CONCLUSIONS: Gastric scintigraphy with the NTM is simple to perform and well tolerated. Whether the identified abnormal gastric emptying patterns could predict different treatment outcome in patients with functional dyspepsia is the subject of ongoing prospective studies.
  • Motor unit dysregulation following 15 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation.

    Inns, Thomas; Bass, Joseph; Hardy, EJO; Wilkinson, Dawn; Stashuk, D; Atherton, P; Philiips, B; Piasecki, M
    KEY POINTS: Muscle mass and function decline rapidly in situations of disuse such as bed rest and limb immobilisation. The reduction in muscle function commonly exceeds that of muscle mass, which may be associated with the dysregulation of neural input to muscle. We have used intramuscular electromyography to sample individual motor unit and near fibre potentials from the vastus lateralis following 15 days of unilateral limb immobilisation. Following disuse, the disproportionate loss of muscle strength when compared to size coincided with suppressed motor unit firing rate. These motor unit adaptations were observed at multiple contraction levels and in the immobilised limb only. Our findings demonstrate neural dysregulation as a key component of functional loss following muscle disuse in humans. ABSTRACT: Disuse atrophy, caused by situations of unloading such as limb immobilisation, causes a rapid yet diverging reduction in skeletal muscle function when compared to muscle mass. While mechanistic insight into the loss of mass is well studied, deterioration of muscle function with a focus towards the neural input to muscle remains underexplored. This study aimed to determine the role of motor unit adaptation in disuse-induced neuromuscular deficits. Ten young, healthy male volunteers underwent 15 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation with intramuscular electromyography (iEMG) bilaterally recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL) during knee extensor contractions normalised to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), pre and post disuse. Muscle cross-sectional area was determined by ultrasound. Individual MUs were sampled and analysed for changes in motor unit (MU) discharge and MU potential (MUP) characteristics. VL CSA was reduced by approximately 15% which was exceeded by a two-fold decrease of 31% in muscle strength in the immobilised limb, with no change in either parameter in the non-immobilised limb. Parameters of MUP size were reduced by 11 to 24% with immobilisation, while neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmission instability remained unchanged, and MU firing rate decreased by 8 to 11% at several contraction levels. All adaptations were observed in the immobilised limb only. These findings highlight impaired neural input following immobilisation reflected by suppressed MU firing rate which may underpin the disproportionate reductions of strength relative to muscle size. Abstract figure legend Ten healthy young males underwent 15 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation with an irremovable leg brace. Muscle size, strength and neuromuscular characteristics were measured bilaterally. Muscle strength reduced to a greater extent than muscle size in the immobilised leg while remaining unaltered in the non-immobilised leg. Motor unit firing rate, measured bilaterally using intramuscular electromyography, was also reduced in the immobilised leg only. This occurred at contraction intensities both relative to follow-up muscle strength and muscle strength normalised to pre-immobilisation. These findings suggest that neural dysregulation contributes to the loss of muscle strength observed in situations of disuse atrophy in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • The management and diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury: a case study.

    Torr, Leah; Mortimore, Gerri
    Rhabdomyolysis is characterised by a rapid dissolution of damaged or injured skeletal muscle that can be the result of a multitude of mechanisms. It can range in severity from mild to severe, leading to multi-organ failure and death. Rhabdomyolysis causes muscular cellular breakdown, which can cause fatal electrolyte imbalances and metabolic acidosis, as myoglobin, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and other electrolytes move into the circulation; acute kidney injury can follow as a severe complication. This article reflects on the case of a person who was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury after a fall at home. Understanding the underpinning mechanism of rhabdomyolysis and the associated severity of symptoms may improve early diagnosis and treatment initiation.
  • The time course of disuse muscle atrophy of the lower limb in health and disease.

    Hardy, E; Inns, Thomas; Hatt, Jacob; Doleman, Brett; Bass, Joseph; Atherton, P; Lund, Jonathan; Phillips, Bethan
    Short, intermittent episodes of disuse muscle atrophy (DMA) may have negative impact on age related muscle loss. There is evidence of variability in rate of DMA between muscles and over the duration of immobilization. As yet, this is poorly characterized. This review aims to establish and compare the time-course of DMA in immobilized human lower limb muscles in both healthy and critically ill individuals, exploring evidence for an acute phase of DMA and differential rates of atrophy between and muscle groups. MEDLINE, Embase, CINHAL and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to April 2021 for any study of human lower limb immobilization reporting muscle volume, cross-sectional area (CSA), architecture or lean leg mass over multiple post-immobilization timepoints. Risk of bias was assessed using ROBINS-I. Where possible meta-analysis was performed using a DerSimonian and Laird random effects model with effect sizes reported as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) at various time-points and a narrative review when meta-analysis was not possible. Twenty-nine studies were included, 12 in healthy volunteers (total n = 140), 18 in patients on an Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) (total n = 516) and 3 in patients with ankle fracture (total n = 39). The majority of included studies are at moderate risk of bias. Rate of quadriceps atrophy over the first 14 days was significantly greater in the ITU patients (MD -1.01 95% CI -1.32, -0.69), than healthy cohorts (MD -0.12 95% CI -0.49, 0.24) (P < 0.001). Rates of atrophy appeared to vary between muscle groups (greatest in triceps surae (-11.2% day 28), followed by quadriceps (-9.2% day 28), then hamstrings (-6.5% day 28), then foot dorsiflexors (-3.2% day 28)). Rates of atrophy appear to decrease over time in healthy quadriceps (-6.5% day 14 vs. -9.1% day 28) and triceps surae (-7.8% day 14 vs. -11.2% day 28), and ITU quadriceps (-13.2% day 7 vs. -28.2% day 14). There appears to be variability in the rate of DMA between muscle groups, and more rapid atrophy during the earliest period of immobilization, indicating different mechanisms being dominant at different timepoints. Rates of atrophy are greater amongst critically unwell patients. Overall evidence is limited, and existing data has wide variability in the measures reported. Further work is required to fully characterize the time course of DMA in both health and disease.

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