East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER)

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Welcome to the East Midlands Evidence Repository.

The East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER) is the official institutional research repository for; Derbyshire Community Health Services, Leicester Partnership Trust, NHS Nottingham and Nottinghamshire CCG, Nottinghamshire Healthcare, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton and the University Hospitals Of Leicester

EMER is intended to make NHS research more visible and discoverable by capturing, storing and preserving the East Midlands research output and making it available to the research community through open access protocols.

Wherever possible, full-text content is provided for all research publications in the repository. Content grows daily as new collections are added.



  • Eczema Care Online behavioural interventions to support self-care for children and young people: two independent, pragmatic, randomised controlled trials

    Santer, Miriam; Muller, Ingrid; Becque, Taeko; Stuart, Beth; Hooper, Julie; Steele, Mary; Wilczynska, Sylvia; Sach, Tracey H; Ridd, Matthew J; Roberts, Amanda; et al. (2022-12)
    Objective To determine the effectiveness of two online behavioural interventions, one for parents and carers and one for young people, to support eczema self-management. Design Two independent, pragmatic, parallel group, unmasked, randomised controlled trials. Setting 98 general practices in England. Participants Parents and carers of children (0-12 years) with eczema (trial 1) and young people (13-25 years) with eczema (trial 2), excluding people with inactive or very mild eczema (≤5 on POEM, the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure). Interventions Participants were randomised (1:1) using online software to receive usual eczema care or an online (www.EczemaCareOnline.org.uk) behavioural intervention for eczema plus usual care. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was eczema symptoms rated using POEM (range 0-28, with 28 being very severe) every four weeks over 24 weeks. Outcomes were reported by parents or carers for children and by self-report for young people. Secondary outcomes included POEM score every four weeks over 52 weeks, quality of life, eczema control, itch intensity (young people only), patient enablement, treatment use, perceived barriers to treatment use, and intervention use. Analyses were carried out separately for the two trials and according to intention-to-treat principles. Results 340 parents or carers of children (169 usual care; 171 intervention) and 337 young people (169 usual care; 168 intervention) were randomised. The mean baseline POEM score was 12.8 (standard deviation 5.3) for parents and carers and 15.2 (5.4) for young people. Three young people withdrew from follow-up but did not withdraw their data. All randomised participants were included in the analyses. At 24 weeks, follow-up rates were 91.5% (311/340) for parents or carers and 90.2% (304/337) for young people. After controlling for baseline eczema severity and confounders, compared with usual care groups over 24 weeks, eczema severity improved in the intervention groups: mean difference in POEM score −1.5 (95% confidence interval −2.5 to −0.6; P=0.002) for parents or carers and −1.9 (−3.0 to −0.8; P<0.001) for young people. The number needed to treat to achieve a 2.5 difference in POEM score at 24 weeks was 6 in both trials. Improvements were sustained to 52 weeks in both trials. Enablement showed a statistically significant difference favouring the intervention group in both trials: adjusted mean difference at 24 weeks −0.7 (95% confidence interval −1.0 to −0.4) for parents or carers and −0.9 (−1.3 to −0.6) for young people. No harms were identified in either group. Conclusions Two online interventions for self-management of eczema aimed at parents or carers of children with eczema and at young people with eczema provide a useful, sustained benefit in managing eczema severity in children and young people when offered in addition to usual eczema care.
  • Medical treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding in primary care: 10-year data from the ECLIPSE trial

    Kai, Joe; Dutton, Brittany; Vinogradova, Yana; Hilken, Nicholas; Gupta, Janesh; Daniels, Jane (2022-12)
    Background: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem that can significantly affect women's lives. There is a lack of evidence on long-term outcomes after seeking treatment. Aim: To assess continuation rates of medical treatments and rates of surgery in women 10 years after initial management for HMB in primary care. Design and setting: This was a prospective observational cohort study. Method: Women with HMB who participated in the ECLIPSE primary care trial (ISRCTN86566246) completed questionnaires 10 years after randomisation to the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) or other usual medical treatments (oral tranexamic acid, mefenamic acid, combined oestrogen-progestogen; or progesterone alone). Outcomes were rates of surgery, medical treatments, and quality of life using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results: The responding cohort of 206 women was demographically and clinically representative of the original trial population. Mean age at baseline was 41.9 years (SD 4.9) and 53.7 years (SD 5.1) at follow-up. Over the 10-year follow-up, 60 of 206 (29.1%) women had surgery (hysterectomy n = 34, 16.5%; endometrial ablation n = 26, 12.6%). Between 5 and 10 years, 89 women (43.2%) ceased all medical treatments and 88 (42.7%) used LNG-IUS alone or in combination with other treatments. Fifty-six women (27.2%) were using LNG-IUS at 10 years. There were improvements over time in quality-of-life scores, with no evidence of differences in these or other outcomes between the two groups. Conclusion: Medical treatments for women with HMB can be successfully initiated in primary care, with low rates of surgery and improvement in quality of life observed a decade later.
  • Scale, scope and impact of skill mix change in primary care in England: a mixed-methods study

    McDermott, Imelda; Spooner, Sharon; Goff, Mhorag; Gibson, Jon; Dalgarno, Elizabeth; Francetic, Igor; Hann, Mark; Hodgson, Damian; McBride, Anne; Checkland, Katherine; et al. (2022-05)
    Background: General practices have had difficulty recruiting and retaining enough general practitioners to keep up with increasing demand for primary health care in recent years. Proposals to increase workforce capacity include a policy-driven strategy to employ additional numbers and a wider range of health professionals. Objectives: Our objective was to conduct a comprehensive study of the scale, scope and impact of changing patterns of practitioner employment in general practice in England. This included an analysis of employment trends, motivations behind employment decisions, staff and patient experiences, and how skill mix changes are associated with outcome measures and costs. Design: NHS Digital workforce data (2015–19) were used to analyse employment changes and to look at their association with outcomes data, such as the General Practitioner Patient Survey, General Practitioner Worklife Survey, prescribing data, Hospital Episode Statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework and NHS payments to practices. A practice manager survey (August–December 2019) explored factors motivating general practices’ employment decisions. An in-depth case study of five general practices in England (August–December 2019) examined how a broader range of practitioners is experienced by practice staff and patients. Results: We found a 2.84% increase in reported full-time equivalent per 1000 patients across all practitioners during the study period. The full-time equivalent of general practitioner partners decreased, while the full-time equivalent of salaried general practitioners, advanced nurse practitioners, clinical pharmacists, physiotherapists, physician associates and paramedics increased. General practitioners and practice managers reported different motivating factors regarding skill mix employment. General practitioners saw skill mix employment as a strategy to cope with a general practitioner shortage, whereas managers prioritised potential cost-efficiencies. Case studies demonstrated the importance of matching patients’ problems with practitioners’ competencies and ensuring flexibility for practitioners to obtain advice when perfect matching was not achieved. Senior clinicians provided additional support and had supervisory and other responsibilities, and analysis of the General Practitioner Worklife Survey data suggested that general practitioners’ job satisfaction may not increase with skill mix changes. Patients lacked information about newer practitioners, but felt reassured by the accessibility of expert advice. However, General Practitioner Patient Survey data indicated that higher patient satisfaction was associated with a higher general practitioner full-time equivalent. Quality and Outcomes Framework achievement was higher when more practitioners were employed (i.e. full-time equivalent per 1000 patients). Higher clinical pharmacist full-time equivalents per 1000 patients were associated with higher quality and lower cost prescribing. Associations between skill mix and hospital activity were mixed. Our analysis of payments to practices and prescribing costs suggested that NHS expenditure may not decrease with increasing skill mix employment.
  • The onset, progress and factors influencing degenerative arthritis of the wrist following scaphoid fracture non-union

    Dias, Joseph; Kheiran, Amin; Adeleye, Emmanuel; Wildin, Clare; Ullah, Aamer; Bhowal, Bhaskar
    Background/aims: Scaphoid non-union causes osteoarthritis but factors associated are poorly understood. We investigated the rate of osteoarthritis after scaphoid fracture non-union, and if duration and fracture location influenced arthritis and its severity. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional observational study of 278 consecutive cases with scaphoid fracture non-union retrieved data on demographics, non-union duration, fracture location, dorsal intercalated segment instability (DISI), severity and distribution of wrist arthritis. Patient Evaluation Measure (PEM) and Quality of Life assessed impact on patients. Regression models investigated prediction of osteoarthritis by different variables. Time-to-event analysis investigated osteoarthritis evolution. Missing (MAR) data for the PEM and QoL was imputed and analysed. Results: 278 patients, 246 males, aged 27.9 years (range 11 to 78 years), with a scaphoid fracture non-union confirmed on computed tomography (CT) scans (243) and plain radiographs (35) were reviewed. The interval between injury and imaging was 3.3 years (SD 5.9 years; range 0.1-45). The fracture was proximal to the ridge in 162, distal to the ridge in 83 and in the proximal 20% in 33. DISI (RLA ≥ 10°) occurred in 93.5% (260/278). Osteoarthritis was identified in 62.2% (173/278), and we classified a SNAC pattern in 93.6% (162/173). Of these, 100 (61.7%) had SNAC 1, 22 (13.6%) SNAC 2, 17 (10.5%) SNAC 3, and 23 (14.2%) SNAC 4. The mean duration in years for SNAC 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.5, 6.0, 8.2, and 11.3 years respectively. In fractures proximal to the ridge, 50% had arthritis in 2.2 years. Whereas in proximal pole, and distal to the ridge, 50% developed in 3.8 and 6.6 years, respectively. The PEM score was 42.8% (SD 18.9%) in those without arthritis and 48.8% (SD 21.5%) in those with arthritis. The mean QoL was 0.838 in patients without SNAC and 0.792 with SNAC. Conclusion: Scaphoid fracture non-union caused early carpal collapse, majority had osteoarthritis usually observed within a year following injury and occurred earliest in proximal waist fractures. Distribution of osteoarthritis (SNAC stage) may not always follow a distinctive pattern, as previously described.
  • FIT stratification in the COVID era - Is it safe for rectal bleeding?

    Seehra, Jaspreet; Bailey, James A; Chapman, Caroline J; Morling, Joanne R; Humes, David J; Banerjea, Ayan (Oxford University Press, 2021)
    Aims: Faecal Immunochemical Tests (FIT) are increasingly used for stratification of colorectal cancer risk in symptomatic patients. FIT is not currently recommended for use in patients with rectal bleeding, but recent studies have reported its safe use. We report our experiences of FIT in patients presenting with rectal bleeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method(s): Patients referred to NUH NHS Trust with rectal bleeding from 15/04/20-15/08/20 were invited to complete a postal-based FIT (OCSensor). Demographics, symptoms, investigations and results were recorded. Outcomes were retrospectively reviewed using an electronic hospital system. Result(s): 344 patients were invited to participate, with 301 (87.5%) returning FITs in accordance with testing protocol. 36 patients declined to be seen, 4 were considered not fit for investigation, and 4 had incomplete records. 257 patients were included in the final analysis with 10 CRC detected (3.9%). Rectal bleeding (257, 100%) was the most common presenting symptom followed by change in bowel habit (133, 51.8%). 10 CRC were diagnosed (3.9%). 2 CRC were detected with FIT 100 mug Hb / g faeces (8/45, 17.8%). FIT result was significantly associated with CRC diagnosis (p<0.0001). 4 with CRC had anaemia (4/53, 7.5%), 1 had thrombocytosis (1/12, 8.3%). Conclusion(s): FIT missed 20% of CRC in this patient group with the application of a very low threshold (<4 mug Hb / g faeces). Both cancers missed by FIT were detectable on digital rectal examination, emphasising the importance of this examination in primary care.

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