East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER)

East Midlands Evidence Repository logo

Welcome to the East Midlands Evidence Repository.

The East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER) is the official institutional research repository for; Derbyshire Community Health Services, Leicester Partnership Trust, NHS Nottingham and Nottinghamshire CCG, Nottinghamshire Healthcare, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton and the University Hospitals Of Leicester

EMER is intended to make NHS research more visible and discoverable by capturing, storing and preserving the East Midlands research output and making it available to the research community through open access protocols.

Wherever possible, full-text content is provided for all research publications in the repository. Content grows daily as new collections are added.



  • Ethnicity and outcomes for patients with gastrointestinal disorders attending an emergency department serving a multi-ethnic population

    Abeyratne, Ruw; Brunskill, Nigel; Coats, Tim; Martin, Christopher A; Pareek, Manish (2024-07-02)
    Background: Ethnic inequalities in acute health acute care are not well researched. We examined how attendee ethnicity influenced outcomes of emergency care in unselected patients presenting with a gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective cohort analysis of anonymised patient level data for University Hospitals of Leicester emergency department attendees, from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2021, receiving a diagnosis of a GI disorder was performed. The primary exposure of interest was self-reported ethnicity, and the two outcomes studied were admission to hospital and whether patients underwent clinical investigations. Confounding variables including sex and age, deprivation index and illness acuity were adjusted for in the analysis. Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to examine ethnic differences across outcome measures and covariates. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between ethnicity and outcome measures. Results: Of 34,337 individuals, median age 43 years, identified as attending the ED with a GI disorder, 68.6% were White. Minority ethnic patients were significantly younger than White patients. Multiple emergency department attendance rates were similar for all ethnicities (overall 18.3%). White patients had the highest median number of investigations (6, IQR 3-7), whereas those from mixed ethnic groups had the lowest (2, IQR 0-6). After adjustment for age, sex, year of attendance, index of multiple deprivation and illness acuity, all ethnic minority groups remained significantly less likely to be investigated for their presenting illness compared to White patients (Asian: aOR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87; Black: 0.67, 95% CI 0.58-0.79; mixed: 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.86; other: 0.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.93; p < 0.0001 for all). Similarly, after adjustment, minority ethnic attendees were also significantly less likely to be admitted to hospital (Asian: aOR 0.63, 95% CI 0.60-0.67; Black: 0.60, 95% CI 0.54-0.68; mixed: 0.60, 95% CI 0.51-0.71; other: 0.61, 95% CI 0.54-0.69; p < 0.0001 for all). Conclusions: Significant differences in usage patterns and disparities in acute care outcomes for patients of different ethnicities with GI disorders were observed in this study. These differences persisted after adjustment both for confounders and for measures of deprivation and illness acuity and indicate that minority ethnic individuals are less likely to be investigated or admitted to hospital than White patients.
  • Sex differences in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis and clinical care: A national study of population healthcare records in Wales

    Sayal, Kapil (2024)
    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have observed sex biases in the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Females are less likely to be diagnosed or prescribed ADHD medication. This study uses national healthcare records, to investigate sex differences in diagnosis and clinical care in young people with ADHD, particularly regarding recognition and treatment of other mental health conditions. METHODS: The cohort included individuals diagnosed with ADHD, born between 1989 and 2013 and living in Wales between 2000 and 2019. Routine primary and secondary healthcare record data were used to derive diagnoses of ADHD and other neurodevelopmental and mental health conditions, as well as ADHD and antidepressant medications. Demographic variables included ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation and contact with social services. RESULTS: There were 16,458 individuals diagnosed with ADHD (20.3% females, ages 3-30 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 3.9:1. Higher ratios (4.8:1) were seen in individuals diagnosed younger (<12 years), with the lowest ratio (1.9:1) in those diagnosed as adults (>18). Males were younger at first recorded ADHD diagnosis (mean = 10.9 vs. 12.6 years), more likely to be prescribed ADHD medication and younger at diagnosis of co-occurring neurodevelopmental conditions. In contrast, females were more likely to receive a diagnosis of anxiety, depression or another mental health condition and to be prescribed antidepressant medications, prior to ADHD diagnosis. These sex differences were largely stable across demographic groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the evidence base that females with ADHD are experiencing later recognition and treatment of ADHD. The results indicate that this may be partly because of diagnostic overshadowing from other mental health conditions, such as anxiety and depression, or initial misdiagnosis. Further research and dissemination of findings to the public are needed to improve awareness, timely diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in females.
  • Scalability, test-retest reliability and validity of the Brief INSPIRE-O measure of personal recovery in psychiatric services

    Slade, Mike (2024)
    INTRODUCTION: Mental health services have transitioned from treating symptoms to emphasizing personal recovery. Despite its importance, integrating personal recovery into clinical practice remains work in progress. This study evaluates the psychometric qualities of the Brief INSPIRE-O, a five-item patient-reported outcome measure assessing personal recovery. METHOD: The study collected data from 2018 to 2020 at the Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark, using an internet-based system examining 8,192 non-psychotic patients - receiving outpatient treatment. MATERIALS: This study evaluated the Brief INSPIRE-O and used measures of symptomatology (SCL-10), well-being (WHO-5), and social functioning (modified SDS). RESULTS: The study population comprised 76.8% females with a mean age of 32.9 years, and diagnoses included anxiety (28%), depression (34%), and personality disorder (19%). The mean Brief INSPIRE-O score (39.9) was lower than the general population norm (71.1). The Brief INSPIRE-O showed acceptable test-retest reliability (0.75), scalability (0.39), and internal consistency (0.73). Correlations with other mental health criteria were in the expected direction for symptomatology (-0.46), well-being (0.60), and social functioning (-0.43) and remained consistent across diagnoses. DISCUSSION: The Brief INSPIRE-O demonstrated strong psychometric qualities and could be recommended as a measure of personal recovery for use in both research and clinical practice. Its strong theoretical basis and short completion time make it suitable for use for research. Incorporating Brief INSPIRE-O into clinical assessment will further support the process of mental health systems re-orientating towards personal recovery.

View more