East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER)

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Welcome to the East Midlands Evidence Repository.

The East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER) is the official institutional research repository for; Derbyshire Community Health Services, Leicester Partnership Trust, NHS Nottingham and Nottinghamshire CCG, Nottinghamshire Healthcare, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton and the University Hospitals Of Leicester

EMER is intended to make NHS research more visible and discoverable by capturing, storing and preserving the East Midlands research output and making it available to the research community through open access protocols.

Wherever possible, full-text content is provided for all research publications in the repository. Content grows daily as new collections are added.

  • Opportunities in digital health and electronic health records for acute kidney injury care.

    Selby, Nicholas
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of digital health is evolving rapidly with applications relevant to the prediction, detection and management of acute kidney injury (AKI). This review will summarize recent publications in these areas. RECENT FINDINGS: Machine learning (ML) approaches have been applied predominantly for AKI prediction, but also to identify patients with AKI at higher risk of adverse outcomes, and to discriminate different subgroups (subphenotypes) of AKI. There have been multiple publications in this area, but a smaller number of ML models have robust external validation or the ability to run in real-time in clinical systems. Recent studies of AKI alerting systems and clinical decision support systems continue to demonstrate variable results, which is likely to result from differences in local context and implementation strategies. In the design of AKI alerting systems, choice of baseline creatinine has a strong effect on performance of AKI detection algorithms. SUMMARY: Further research is required to overcome barriers to the validation and implementation of ML models for AKI care. Simpler electronic systems within the electronic medical record can lead to improved care in some but not all settings, and careful consideration of local context and implementation strategy is recommended.
  • Comparing an optimised physiotherapy treatment package with usual physiotherapy care for people with tennis elbow - protocol for the OPTimisE pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    Bateman, Marcus
    BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy is recommended for people with tennis elbow, but whilst a wide array of treatments is available, the optimal approach remains uncertain. We have therefore recently developed an optimised physiotherapy treatment package for tennis elbow based on a synthesis of the evidence, patient input and clinical consensus. It consists of detailed advice and education, a structured progressive exercise programme and provision of a counter-force elbow brace. Here, we report the protocol for our multicentre pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) designed to (a) examine the feasibility of our optimised physiotherapy treatment package and (b) to pilot trial processes for a future fully powered RCT to test clinical and cost-effectiveness compared with usual physiotherapy treatment. METHODS: A multicentre pilot and feasibility RCT will be conducted across three sites in England, recruiting up to 50 patients (or for a maximum of 12 months). Participants with tennis elbow, identified from physiotherapy clinic waiting lists and general practice surgeries, will be randomly allocated to receive the optimised physiotherapy treatment package or usual physiotherapy care. Analysis will focus on feasibility measures including consent rate, intervention fidelity, follow-up rate and outcome completion rate. A nested qualitative study will explore the acceptability of the study processes and patient and physiotherapist experiences of the new optimised intervention. DISCUSSION: This study will determine the feasibility of a new optimised physiotherapy treatment package for people with tennis elbow and pilot the processes for a future fully powered RCT. In the longer term, this treatment package may provide superior clinical outcomes for patients, in terms of pain and quality of life, and be more cost-effective for the health service. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with the ISRCTN database 19/7/2021, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN64444585.
  • The effect of different degrees of lockdown and self-identified gender on anxiety, depression and suicidality during the COVID-19 pandemic: Data from the international COMET-G study.

    Mahalingappa, Sridevi
    INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic various degrees of lockdown were applied by countries around the world. It is considered that such measures have an adverse effect on mental health but the relationship of measure intensity with the mental health effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here we report data from the larger COMET-G study pertaining to this question. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, data were gathered with an online questionnaire from 55,589 participants from 40 countries (64.85% females aged 35.80 ± 13.61; 34.05% males aged 34.90±13.29 and 1.10% other aged 31.64±13.15). Anxiety was measured with the STAI, depression with the CES-D and suicidality with the RASS. Distress and probable depression were identified with the use of a previously developed cut-off and algorithm respectively. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: It included the calculation of Relative Risk (RR), Factorial ANOVA and Multiple backwards stepwise linear regression analysis RESULTS: Approximately two-thirds were currently living under significant restrictions due to lockdown. For both males and females the risk to develop clinical depression correlated significantly with each and every level of increasing lockdown degree (RR 1.72 and 1.90 respectively). The combined lockdown and psychiatric history increased RR to 6.88 The overall relationship of lockdown with severity of depression, though significant was small. CONCLUSIONS: The current study is the first which reports an almost linear relationship between lockdown degree and effect in mental health. Our findings, support previous suggestions concerning the need for a proactive targeted intervention to protect mental health more specifically in vulnerable groups.
  • Promoting simulation-based training in radiology: A homemade phantom for the practice of ultrasound-guided procedures.

    Jethwa, K
    OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-guided intervention is an essential skill for many radiologists and critical for accurate diagnosis and treatment in many radiology sub specialties. Simulation using phantoms have demonstrated statistically significant benefits for trainees within the literature. We propose a novel phantom model which the authors feel is ideal for training clinical radiology trainees in the performance of ultrasound-guided procedures. METHODS: The recipe to prepare a homemade phantom is described. Results of a local survey from trainees preparing and using the phantom are also presented. RESULTS: This realistic training simulation model can be adapted to suit a variety of biopsy devices and procedures including soft tissue biopsy and cyst aspiration. The phantom mimics the sonographic appearances of soft tissue and biopsy targets can be concealed within. The phantom was easily prepared by 22 trainees (Likert score 4.5) and it functioned well (Likert score of 4.7). CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our phantom model is ideal for training clinical radiology trainees in the performance of ultrasound-guided core biopsy. The availability and low cost of the model, combined with the ease of preparation and reproducibility, make this an efficient and effective addition to the training process. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: A low cost easily handmade phantom recipe is described that could be easily implemented in training schemes.
  • Defining improvement in chronic kidney disease: regression and remission.

    Taal, Maarten
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: International definitions exist for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and kidney failure but despite evidence that kidney function may improve, there are no agreed definitions for regression and remission of CKD. In the light of recent novel kidney protective therapies and the promise of regenerative medicine to reverse kidney damage, it is time to critically examine these neglected aspects of CKD epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: We propose that CKD regression is viewed as a process of improvement defined as a sustained increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by ≥25% and an improvement in GFR category or increase in GFR of 1≥ml/min/year, whereas remission is considered a category of improvement defined as GFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 and urine albumin to creatinine ratio <30 mg/g. Several recent studies have reported improvement in kidney function in populations with CKD, even in the absence of specific therapy. Regression and remission of CKD are associated with increased likelihood of sustained improvement in kidney function as well as improved survival. SUMMARY: Further research is warranted to validate the proposed definitions and investigate associated mechanisms. We look to a future in which the goal of therapy is not merely to slow CKD progression but to improve kidney function and seek a cure.

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