East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER)

East Midlands Evidence Repository logo

Welcome to the East Midlands Evidence Repository.

The East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER) is the official institutional research repository for; Derbyshire Community Health Services, Leicester Partnership Trust, NHS Nottingham and Nottinghamshire CCG, Nottinghamshire Healthcare, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton and the University Hospitals Of Leicester

EMER is intended to make NHS research more visible and discoverable by capturing, storing and preserving the East Midlands research output and making it available to the research community through open access protocols.

Wherever possible, full-text content is provided for all research publications in the repository. Content grows daily as new collections are added.



  • Uptake of self-management education programmes for people with type 2 diabetes in primary care through the embedding package: a cluster randomised control trial and ethnographic study

    Davies, Melanie J; Glab, Agnieszka; Northern, Alison; Schreder, Sally (2024-04-25)
    Background: Self-management education programmes are cost-effective in helping people with type 2 diabetes manage their diabetes, but referral and attendance rates are low. This study reports on the effectiveness of the Embedding Package, a programme designed to increase type 2 diabetes self-management programme attendance in primary care. Methods: Using a cluster randomised design, 66 practices were randomised to: (1) a wait-list group that provided usual care for nine months before receiving the Embedding Package for nine months, or (2) an immediate group that received the Embedding Package for 18 months. 'Embedders' supported practices and self-management programme providers to embed programme referral into routine practice, and an online 'toolkit' contained embedding support resources. Patient-level HbA1c (primary outcome), programme referral and attendance data, and clinical data from 92,977 patients with type 2 diabetes were collected at baseline (months - 3-0), step one (months 1-9), step 2 (months 10-18), and 12 months post-intervention. An integrated ethnographic study including observations, interviews, and document analysis was conducted using interpretive thematic analysis and Normalisation Process Theory. Results: No significant difference was found in HbA1c between intervention and control conditions (adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval]: -0.10 [-0.38, 0.18] mmol/mol; -0.01 [-0.03, 0.02] %). Statistically but not clinically significantly lower levels of HbA1c were found in people of ethnic minority groups compared with non-ethnic minority groups during the intervention condition (-0.64 [-1.08, -0.20] mmol/mol; -0.06% [-0.10, -0.02], p = 0.004), but not greater self-management programme attendance. Twelve months post-intervention data showed statistically but not clinically significantly lower HbA1c (-0.56 [95% confidence interval: -0.71, -0.42] mmol/mol; -0.05 [-0.06, -0.04] %; p < 0.001), and higher self-management programme attendance (adjusted odds ratio: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.25; p = 0.017) during intervention conditions. Themes identified through the ethnographic study included challenges for Embedders in making and sustaining contact with practices and providers, and around practices' interactions with the toolkit. Conclusions: Barriers to implementing the Embedding Package may have compromised its effectiveness. Statistically but not clinically significantly improved HbA1c among ethnic minority groups and in longer-term follow-up suggest that future research exploring methods of embedding diabetes self-management programmes into routine care is warranted. Trial registration: ISRCTN23474120, registered 05/04/2018.
  • Quality metrics for same day emergency care-Consensus of a multi-professional panel of experts using a modified Delphi process

    Rahman, Latif (2024-04-21)
    Same Day Emergency Care (SDEC) services are at the heart of recovery plans for Emergency Care in the National Health Service. There are no validated metrics for the quality of care in SDEC. The Society for Acute Medicine's Quality Improvement Committee invited to a three-stage modified Delphi process to gather metrics used by clinicians. Proposed metrics were ranked and further explored by 33 participating experts from a broad range of backgrounds including clinicians, data scientists and operational managers. Experts ranked five system-based metrics highest. These focus on optimisation of the proportion of patients receiving same day care in and out of SDEC units. Patient and staff experience metrics were ranked low, possibly due to present lack of viable examples. The paper adds a glossary with the rationale for ranking of metrics and their use for the improvement of quality and safety of clinical care.
  • Femoral arterial cannulation for surgical repair of stanford type A aortic dissection

    Mariscalco, Giovanni (2024-04-30)
    Background: The benefits and harms associated with femoral artery cannulation over other sites of arterial cannulation for surgical repair of acute Stanford type A aortic dissection (TAAD) are not conclusively established. Methods: We evaluated the outcomes after surgery for TAAD using femoral artery cannulation, supra-aortic arterial cannulation (i.e., innominate/subclavian/axillary artery cannulation), and direct aortic cannulation. Results: 3751 (96.1%) patients were eligible for this analysis. In-hospital mortality using supra-aortic arterial cannulation was comparable to femoral artery cannulation (17.8% vs. 18.4%; adjusted OR 0.846, 95% CI 0.799-1.202). This finding was confirmed in 1028 propensity score-matched pairs of patients with supra-aortic arterial cannulation or femoral artery cannulation (17.5% vs. 17.0%, p = 0.770). In-hospital mortality after direct aortic cannulation was lower compared to femoral artery cannulation (14.0% vs. 18.4%, adjusted OR 0.703, 95% CI 0.529-0.934). Among 583 propensity score-matched pairs of patients, direct aortic cannulation was associated with lower rates of in-hospital mortality (13.4% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.004) compared to femoral artery cannulation. Switching of the primary site of arterial cannulation was associated with increased rate of in-hospital mortality (36.5% vs. 17.0%; adjusted OR 2.730, 95% CI 1.564-4.765). Ten-year mortality was similar in the study cohorts. Conclusions: In this study, the outcomes of surgery for TAAD using femoral arterial cannulation were comparable to those using supra-aortic arterial cannulation. However, femoral arterial cannulation was associated with higher in-hospital mortality than direct aortic cannulation. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration code: NCT04831073.
  • Early-onset type 2 diabetes and Tirzepatide treatment: A post hoc analysis from the SURPASS clinical trial program

    Davies, Melanie J (2024-06)
    Objective: We evaluated baseline characteristics of participants with early-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) from the SURPASS program and tirzepatide's effects on glycemic control, body weight (BW), and cardiometabolic markers. Research design and methods: This post hoc analysis compared baseline characteristics and changes in mean HbA1c, BW, waist circumference (WC), lipids, and blood pressure (BP) in 3,792 participants with early-onset versus later-onset T2D at week 40 (A Study of Tirzepatide [LY3298176] in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes Not Controlled With Diet and Exercise Alone [SURPASS-1] and A Study of Tirzepatide [LY3298176] Versus Semaglutide Once Weekly as Add-on Therapy to Metformin in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes [SURPASS-2]) or week 52 (A Study of Tirzepatide [LY3298176] Versus Insulin Degludec in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes [SURPASS-3]). Analyses were performed by study on data from participants while on assigned treatment without rescue medication in case of persistent hyperglycemia. Results: At baseline in SURPASS-2, participants with early-onset versus later-onset T2D were younger with longer diabetes duration (9 vs. 7 years, P < 0.001) higher glycemic levels (8.5% vs. 8.2%, P < 0.001), higher BW (97 vs. 93 kg, P < 0.001) and BMI (35 vs. 34 kg/m2, P < 0.001), and a similarly abnormal lipid profile (e.g., triglycerides 167 vs. 156 mg/dL). At week 40, similar improvements in HbA1c (-2.6% vs. -2.4%), BW (-14 vs. -13 kg), WC (-10 vs. -10 cm), triglycerides (-26% vs. -24%), HDL (7% vs. 7%), and systolic BP (-6 vs. -7 mmHg) were observed in both subgroups with tirzepatide. Conclusions: Despite younger age, participants with early-onset T2D from the SURPASS program had higher glycemic levels and worse overall metabolic health at baseline versus those with later-onset T2D. In this post hoc analysis, similar improvements in HbA1c, BW, and cardiometabolic markers were observed with tirzepatide, irrespective of age at T2D diagnosis. Future studies are needed to determine long-term outcomes of tirzepatide in early-onset T2D.
  • ICS intelligence functions – a toolkit to support the implementation of NHSE guidance

    Callaghan, David; Spilsbury, Peter; Wyatt, Steven; Bradley, Karen (The Strategy Unit / Nuffield Trust, 2023-03)
    In 2020, NHSE announced the expectation that ICSs should develop “shared cross-system intelligence and analytical functions that use information to improve decision-making at every level.” This expectation has been followed by more detailed guidance for health and care systems setting out: What an intelligence function is National enablers that can support their development How intelligence functions can help with decision-making; and What a good intelligence function looks like. Alongside this work, the Strategy Unit, with input from the Nuffield Trust, were commissioned by NHSE to create a toolkit to help ICSs introduce intelligence functions into their system plans. This toolkit provides a curated set of materials offering ideas, inspiration, and practical advice for getting started with an intelligence function that can be tailored to local contexts. The toolkit provides systems with: A clear description of different types of analyses systems can undertake, and the skills and resources they will need to execute them A set of actionable ‘tips for getting started’ with an intelligence function Available resources that can address some of the essential questions that will need to be explored as intelligence functions are developed; and A set of case studies describing how ICSs have already made progress in establishing their intelligence functions. This toolkit is another example of the Strategy Unit’s ongoing commitment to furthering the use of high-quality analysis across the NHS. For example, it should be considered alongside our recommendations for advancing the analytical capability of the NHS and its ICS partners. It is also clearly linked to our work with Decision Support Networks. The Strategy Unit is also organising the first national Health and Care Analytics Conference (HACA 2023) to celebrate and advance analysis as delivered by the NHS and local government across the UK.

View more