East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER)

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Welcome to the East Midlands Evidence Repository.

The East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER) is the official institutional research repository for; Derbyshire Community Health Services, Leicester Partnership Trust, NHS Nottingham and Nottinghamshire CCG, Nottinghamshire Healthcare, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton and the University Hospitals Of Leicester

EMER is intended to make NHS research more visible and discoverable by capturing, storing and preserving the East Midlands research output and making it available to the research community through open access protocols.

Wherever possible, full-text content is provided for all research publications in the repository. Content grows daily as new collections are added.



  • Associations of Muscle Strength with Central Aspects of Pain: Data from the Knee Pain and Related Health in the Community (KPIC) Cohort.

    Walsh, David A (Journal of Personalized Medicine, 2023-09)
    Knee pain is associated with lower muscle strength, and both contribute to disability. Peripheral and central neurological mechanisms contribute to OA pain. Understanding the relative contributions of pain mechanisms to muscle strength might help future treatments. The Knee Pain and related health In the Community (KPIC) cohort provided baseline and year 1 data from people with early knee pain (n = 219) for longitudinal analyses. A cross-sectional analysis was performed with baseline data from people with established knee pain (n = 103) and comparative data from people without knee pain (n = 98). Quadriceps and handgrip strength indicated local and general muscle weakness, respectively. The indices of peripheral nociceptive drive were knee radiographic and ultrasound scores. The indices associated with central pain mechanisms were Pressure Pain detection Threshold (PPT) distal to the knee, and a validated self-report Central Aspects of Pain Factor (CAPF). The associations were explored using correlation and multivariable regression. Weaker quadriceps strength was associated with both high CAPF and low PPT at baseline. Year 1 quadriceps weakness was predicted by higher baseline CAPF (β = -0.28 (95% CI: -0.55, -0.01), p = 0.040). Weaker baseline and year 1 handgrip strength was also associated with higher baseline CAPF. Weaker baseline quadriceps strength was associated with radiographic scores in bivariate but not adjusted analyses. Quadriceps strength was not significantly associated with total ultrasound scores. Central pain mechanisms might contribute to muscle weakness, both locally and remote from the knee.
  • Traumatic injuries of the immature hip and pelvis.

    Gnap, Rose (Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 2023-10)
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pelvis and hip account for 0.3--4% of fractures of the immature skeleton, and generally result from high energy trauma. These fractures range in severity from apophyseal avulsions to complete disruptions of the pelvic ring. The purpose of this article is to review the presentation, diagnosis, treatment and complications of these injuries in order to inform clinicians involved in their management. There is a lack of evidence-based management protocols for fractures of the immature pelvis largely due to their rarity and lack of robust scientific literature on the topic. RECENT FINDINGS: Computed tomography/MRI is essential as up to 30% of pelvis and 70% of acetabular fractures are not identified on initial radiographs. A sub-optimal outcome is common in unstable fractures treated conservatively and adequate reduction and surgical stabilization is often required to avoid long-term morbidity. SUMMARY: A coordinated approach involves resuscitation and temporary stabilization with planned definitive fixation. It is generally accepted that these injures should be managed in paediatric trauma centres. Whilst injuries vary in pattern and severity, we present an overview that considers the evaluation and treatment of the paediatric patient with pelvic and hip fractures to ensure that these injuries are identified promptly and treated by surgeons familiar with contemporary management algorithms.
  • The utility of volumetric MRI in assessment of volume changes in ventral diencephalon in autistic children.

    Mahmoud, Hassan Ali Ahmed (Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, 2023-10)
    Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobehavioural disorder, characterized by abnormal affiliative and socio-emotional responses which are generally regulated by certain neuropeptides in the hypothalamus (an anatomic component of the ventral diencephalon (VD)). The use of volumetric MRI for studying VD volume change could provide a novel approach for identification of structural brain changes in ASD; this could assist in understanding the pathophysiology of ASD and would reflect on treatment strategies. The aim of the current work was to investigate the role of MRI volumetric analysis of the ventral diencephalon in young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Methods Fifty children diagnosed with ASD underwent volumetric brain analysis, on a fully automated MRI brain volumetry system (volBrain), with voxel-based morphometry of various segmental structures of the brain including the VD, using vol2Brain 1.0 pipeline software analysis suite. Results There were 48 out of 50 children who demonstrated abnormal VD volume which was found below the normal limits compared with reference standard normalized volume. All cases were normocephalic demonstrating normal intra-cranial cavity volumes. Forty out of fifty cases showed increased total volume of grey matter, and eighteen out of fifty cases showed increased total volume of white matter. Regarding the amygdala and hippocampus, there were only two cases (4.0%) which showed slightly increased relative volume of the total amygdala, and two other cases (4.0%) demonstrated increased relative volume of the total hippocampus. Comparison between the autistic patients and normal references revealed a significant difference regarding the VD volume and total volume of grey matter, whereas no significant differences were found regarding the white matter amygdala and hippocampus. Conclusions Based on the consistent significant volume decrease in the ventral diencephalon in patients with childhood autism, this study concluded that volumetric MRI analysis could be useful for diagnosis of childhood spectrum disorder and could be utilized as a reliable screening method in the clinically vague cases. Further study with a larger sample size including more age groups is recommended for more validation of the results.
  • Core outcomes and factors influencing the experience of care for children with severe acute exacerbations of asthma: a qualitative study

    Roland, Damian (2023-11)
    Objective: To identify the outcomes considered important, and factors influencing the patient experience, for parents and caregivers of children presenting to hospital with a severe acute exacerbation of asthma. This work contributes to the outcome-identification process in developing a core outcome set (COS) for future clinical trials in children with severe acute asthma. Design: A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews with parents and caregivers of children who presented to hospital with a severe acute exacerbation of asthma. Setting: Hospitals in 12 countries associated with the global Pediatric Emergency Research Networks, including high-income and middle-income countries. Interviews were conducted face-to-face, by teleconference/video-call, or by phone. Findings: Overall, there were 54 interviews with parents and caregivers; 2 interviews also involved the child. Hospital length of stay, intensive care unit or high-dependency unit (HDU) admission, and treatment costs were highlighted as important outcomes influencing the patient and family experience. Other potential clinical trial outcomes included work of breathing, speed of recovery and side effects. In addition, the patient and family experience was impacted by decision-making leading up to seeking hospital care, transit to hospital, waiting times and the use of intravenous treatment. Satisfaction of care was related to communication with clinicians and frequent reassessment. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the outcomes that parents and caregivers believe to be the most important to be considered in the process of developing a COS for the treatment of acute severe exacerbations of asthma.
  • The impact of pre-operative mental health on outcomes of foot and ankle surgery: A scoping review

    Haq, Ibrahim I; Bhatia, Maneesh (2023-11-08)
    Background: Evidence suggests that certain groups of orthopaedic patients have an increased prevalence of mental health disorders than the general population. This scoping review aims to evaluate the effect of pre-operative mental health on outcomes of foot and ankle surgery. Methods: A literature search was performed in four databases. Studies investigating a relationship between preoperative mental health and postoperative patient reported outcome measures (PROMs), complications, readmissions or reoperations were included. Results: Of the 19 studies investigating the effect of preoperative mental health on PROMs, 16 (84.2%) reported a significant relationship between poorer preoperative mental health and inferior postoperative PROMs. Poorer mental health was associated with an increased rate of complications, readmissions and/or reoperations in four studies. Conclusions: Poorer preoperative mental health is associated with significantly inferior outcomes following foot and ankle surgery. Clinicians should evaluate mental health to stratify likely outcomes and aid in the management of patient expectations. Level of evidence: Level IV: Scoping review of Level II-IV studies.

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