East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER)

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Welcome to the East Midlands Evidence Repository.

The East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER) is the official institutional research repository for; Derbyshire Community Health Services, Leicester Partnership Trust, NHS Nottingham and Nottinghamshire CCG, Nottinghamshire Healthcare, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton and the University Hospitals Of Leicester

EMER is intended to make NHS research more visible and discoverable by capturing, storing and preserving the East Midlands research output and making it available to the research community through open access protocols.

Wherever possible, full-text content is provided for all research publications in the repository. Content grows daily as new collections are added.



  • Hotspots: Adherence in home foot temperature monitoring interventions for at-risk feet with diabetes-A narrative review

    Jones, Petra; Davies, Melanie; Webb, David (2023-07-25)
    Background: Home foot temperature monitoring (HFTM) is recommended for those at moderate to high ulcer risk. Where a > 2.2°C difference in temperature between feet (hotspot) is detected, it is suggested that individuals (1) notify a healthcare professional (HCP); (2) reduce daily steps by 50%. We assess adherence to this and HFTM upon detecting a recurrent hotspot. Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched until 9 June 2023 for English-language peer-reviewed HFTM studies which reported adherence to HFTM, daily step reduction or HCP hotspot notification. The search returned 1030 results excluding duplicates of which 28 were shortlisted and 11 included. Results: Typical adherence among HFTM study participants for >3 days per week was 61%-93% or >80% of study duration was 55.6%-83.1%. Monitoring foot temperatures >50% of the study duration was associated with decreased ulcer risk (Odds Ratio: 0.50, p < 0.001) in one study (n = 173), but no additional risk reduction was found for >80% adherence. Voluntary dropout was 5.2% (Smart mats); 8.1% (sock sensor) and 4.8%-35.8% (infrared thermometers). Only 16.9%-52.5% of participants notified an HCP upon hotspot detection. Objective evidence of adherence to 50% reduction in daily steps upon hotspot detection was limited to one study where the average step reduction was a pedometer-measured 51.2%. Conclusions: Ulcer risk reduction through HFTM is poorly understood given only half of the participants notify HCPs of recurrent hotspots and the number of reducing daily steps is largely unknown. HFTM adherence and dropout are variable and more research is needed to determine factors affecting adherence and those likely to adhere.
  • Results of the COVID-19 mental health international for the health professionals (COMET-HP) study: depression, suicidal tendencies and conspiracism.

    Mahalingappa, Sridevi
    INTRODUCTION: The current study aimed to investigate the rates of anxiety, clinical depression, and suicidality and their changes in health professionals during the COVID-19 outbreak. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data came from the larger COMET-G study. The study sample includes 12,792 health professionals from 40 countries (62.40% women aged 39.76 ± 11.70; 36.81% men aged 35.91 ± 11.00 and 0.78% non-binary gender aged 35.15 ± 13.03). Distress and clinical depression were identified with the use of a previously developed cut-off and algorithm, respectively. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests, multiple forward stepwise linear regression analyses, and Factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tested relations among variables. RESULTS: Clinical depression was detected in 13.16% with male doctors and 'non-binary genders' having the lowest rates (7.89 and 5.88% respectively) and 'non-binary gender' nurses and administrative staff had the highest (37.50%); distress was present in 15.19%. A significant percentage reported a deterioration in mental state, family dynamics, and everyday lifestyle. Persons with a history of mental disorders had higher rates of current depression (24.64% vs. 9.62%; p < 0.0001). Suicidal tendencies were at least doubled in terms of RASS scores. Approximately one-third of participants were accepting (at least to a moderate degree) a non-bizarre conspiracy. The highest Relative Risk (RR) to develop clinical depression was associated with a history of Bipolar disorder (RR = 4.23). CONCLUSIONS: The current study reported findings in health care professionals similar in magnitude and quality to those reported earlier in the general population although rates of clinical depression, suicidal tendencies, and adherence to conspiracy theories were much lower. However, the general model of factors interplay seems to be the same and this could be of practical utility since many of these factors are modifiable.
  • The use of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to reduce body weight and food cravings: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Al-Khyatt, Waleed; Alhindi, Y A; Idris, Iskandar
    Several studies demonstrated non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are safe and simple techniques that can reduce body weight, food cravings, and food consumption in patients with obesity. However, a systematic to evaluate the efficacy of active NIBS versus sham stimulation in reducing body weight and food cravings in patients with obesity is not available. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Control Trial between January 1990 and February 2022. Mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcome variables with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to examine the effects of NIBS on body weight and body mass index (BMI), whereas the hedges's g test was used to measure the effects on food craving. Nineteen RCTs involving 571 participants were included in this study. Active neurostimulation (TMS and tDCS) was significantly more likely than sham stimulation to reduce body weight (TMS: -3.29 kg, 95% CI [-5.32, -1.26]; I2  = 48%; p < .001; tDCS: -0.82 kg, 95% CI [-1.01, -0.62]; I2  = 0.0%; p = .00) and BMI (TMS: -0.74, 95% CI [-1.17, -0.31]; I2  = 0% p = .00; tDCS: MD = -0.55, 95% CI [-2.32, 1.21]; I2  = 0% p = .54) as well as food cravings (TMS: g = -0.91, 95% CI [-1.68, -0.14]; I2  = 88 p = .00; tDCS: g = -0.32, 95% CI [-0.62, -0.02]; p = .04). Compared with sham stimulation, our findings indicate that active NIBS can significantly help to reduce body weight and food cravings. Hence, these novel techniques may be used as primary or adjunct tools in treating patients with obesity.
  • Digital health and acute kidney injury: consensus report of the 27th Acute Disease Quality Initiative workgroup.

    Selby, Nicholas
    Acute kidney injury (AKI), which is a common complication of acute illnesses, affects the health of individuals in community, acute care and post-acute care settings. Although the recognition, prevention and management of AKI has advanced over the past decades, its incidence and related morbidity, mortality and health care burden remain overwhelming. The rapid growth of digital technologies has provided a new platform to improve patient care, and reports show demonstrable benefits in care processes and, in some instances, in patient outcomes. However, despite great progress, the potential benefits of using digital technology to manage AKI has not yet been fully explored or implemented in clinical practice. Digital health studies in AKI have shown variable evidence of benefits, and the digital divide means that access to digital technologies is not equitable. Upstream research and development costs, limited stakeholder participation and acceptance, and poor scalability of digital health solutions have hindered their widespread implementation and use. Here, we provide recommendations from the Acute Disease Quality Initiative consensus meeting, which involved experts in adult and paediatric nephrology, critical care, pharmacy and data science, at which the use of digital health for risk prediction, prevention, identification and management of AKI and its consequences was discussed.
  • What is the significance of a faecal elastase-1 level between 200 and 500μg/g?

    Mathew, A; Mathew
    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is a cause of malabsorption. It is generally diagnosed if faecal elastase-1 (FE-1) levels are below 200 µg/g. Pancreatic function is assumed to be normal when faecal elastase levels are >500 µg/g. The significance of faecal elastase levels above 200 µg/g but less than 500 µg/g is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study reports the response to treatment in patients who had an FE-1 level between 200 and 500 µg/g. RESULTS: Of these 82 patients, 28 were offered pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT). A clinical response, defined as an improvement in their initial symptoms after commencing PERT, was seen in 20 patients (71%), 7 with potentially predisposing conditions and 13 with functional diarrhoea. PERT particularly abolished or improved diarrhoea, steatorrhoea and flatulence. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should, therefore, be aware that a trial of PERT given to patients with FE-1 levels between 200 and 500 µg/g may lead to improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms.

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