East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER)

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Welcome to the East Midlands Evidence Repository.

The East Midlands Evidence Repository (EMER) is the official institutional research repository for; Derbyshire Community Health Services, Leicester Partnership Trust, NHS Nottingham and Nottinghamshire CCG, Nottinghamshire Healthcare, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton and the University Hospitals Of Leicester

EMER is intended to make NHS research more visible and discoverable by capturing, storing and preserving the East Midlands research output and making it available to the research community through open access protocols.

Wherever possible, full-text content is provided for all research publications in the repository. Content grows daily as new collections are added.



  • A proof of concept for continuous, non-invasive, free-living vital signs monitoring to predict readmission following an acute exacerbation of COPD: a prospective cohort study

    Hawthorne, Grace; Greening, Neil; Chaplin, Emma; Clinch, Lisa; Steiner, Michael; Singh, Sally (2022-04-26)
    Background: The use of vital signs monitoring in the early recognition of an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) post-hospital discharge is limited. This study investigated whether continuous vital signs monitoring could predict an AECOPD and readmission. Methods: 35 people were recruited at discharge following hospitalisation for an AECOPD. Participants were asked to wear an Equivital LifeMonitor during waking hours for 6 weeks and to complete the Exacerbations of Chronic Pulmonary Disease Tool (EXACT), a 14-item symptom diary, daily. The Equivital LifeMonitor recorded respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), skin temperature (ST) and physical activity (PA) every 15-s. An AECOPD was classified as mild (by EXACT score), moderate (prescribed oral steroids/antibiotics) or severe (hospitalisation). Results: Over the 6-week period, 31 participants provided vital signs and symptom data and 14 participants experienced an exacerbation, of which, 11 had sufficient data to predict an AECOPD. HR and PA were associated with EXACT score (p < 0.001). Three days prior to an exacerbation, RR increased by mean ± SD 2.0 ± 0.2 breaths/min for seven out of 11 exacerbations and HR increased by 8.1 ± 0.7 bpm for nine of these 11 exacerbations. Conclusions: Increased heart rate and reduced physical activity were associated with worsening symptoms. Even with high-resolution data, the variation in vital signs data remains a challenge for predicting AECOPDs. Respiratory rate and heart rate should be further explored as potential predictors of an impending AECOPD. Trial registration: ISRCTN registry; ISRCTN12855961. Registered 07 November 2018-Retrospectively registered, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN12855961.
  • Anticoagulation, therapy of concomitant conditions, and early rhythm control therapy: a detailed analysis of treatment patterns in the EAST - AFNET 4 trial

    Ng, G Andre (2021-09-02)
    Aims: Treatment patterns were compared between randomized groups in EAST-AFNET 4 to assess whether differences in anticoagulation, therapy of concomitant diseases, or intensity of care can explain the clinical benefit achieved with early rhythm control in EAST-AFNET 4. Methods and results: Cardiovascular treatment patterns and number of visits were compared between randomized groups in EAST-AFNET 4. Oral anticoagulation was used in >90% of patients during follow-up without differences between randomized groups. There were no differences in treatment of concomitant conditions between groups. The type of rhythm control varied by country and centre. Over time, antiarrhythmic drugs were given to 1171/1395 (84%) patients in early therapy, and to 202/1394 (14%) in usual care. Atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation was performed in 340/1395 (24%) patients randomized to early therapy, and in 168/1394 (12%) patients randomized to usual care. 97% of rhythm control therapies were within class I and class III recommendations of AF guidelines. Patients randomized to early therapy transmitted 297 166 telemetric electrocardiograms (ECGs) to a core lab. In total, 97 978 abnormal ECGs were sent to study sites. The resulting difference between study visits was low (0.06 visits/patient/year), with slightly more visits in early therapy (usual care 0.39 visits/patient/year; early rhythm control 0.45 visits/patient/year, P < 0.001), mainly due to visits for symptomatic AF recurrences or recurrent AF on telemetric ECGs. Conclusion: The clinical benefit of early, systematic rhythm control therapy was achieved using variable treatment patterns of antiarrhythmic drugs and AF ablation, applied within guideline recommendations.
  • Developing appropriate pulmonary rehabilitation services in Sri Lanka: Assessment of people living with COPD and healthcare providers in urban and semi urban areas in Sri Lanka

    Steiner, Michael; Singh, Sally (2022-03-25)
    Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide, corresponding to 5% of all deaths globally, with more than 90% occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) is a routine clinical service for COPD management, often used in western countries. At present, there is no formal PR in Sri Lanka; a culturally appropriate programme is required that considers the views of adults living with COPD and healthcare providers (HCPs) who would be involved in the referral or delivery of PR. Purpose: The study assessed the attitudes and preferences of Sri Lankan adults living with COPD and attitudes and barriers of HCPs making PR referrals to inform an appropriate PR programme. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with the ethical clearance of Colombo south teaching hospital ERC committee (ERC Application No. 674), among adults living with COPD and HCPs in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. Adults living with COPD were enrolled August 2018-December 2018 using systematic random sampling from Colombo South Teaching Hospital and were assessed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. HCPs were recruited from Colombo South Teaching Hospital and Jaffna Teaching Hospital between August 2018 and November 2018 and assessed using self-administered questionnaire. Results: Responses from 138 adults living with COPD (53% male, 52% aged ≥60 years) and 277 HCPs were collected. The majority of adults living with COPD were interested in participating in PR (80%) and would prefer PR to be delivered in a supervised, group-based, setting with hospital-based (49%). Adults living with COPD were mostly (73%) willing to spend between 30 minutes and 2 hours per day for PR-related activities. Among HCPs, 234 (83%) were nurses, 29 (11%) were hospital doctors and 14 (4%) were family physicians. The majority of HCPs stated that they were unsure about referring adults with COPD for PR (86%) and 61% stated considerable uncertainty regarding the availability of resources for PR. Nearly half of the HCPs (45%) felt they were not adequately prepared to refer adults living with COPD to PR programmes. Most HCPs (92%) reported that PR is worthwhile for COPD management. Conclusion: Adults living with COPD in Sri Lanka are willing to attend PR and would prefer group-based programmes delivered in hospitals, under the supervision of qualified personnel. Awareness about PR is poor and there is a lack of readiness to refer to PR amongst HCPs. There is an urgent need to train HCPs on PR and develop effective referral strategies to support PR uptake and delivery for adults living with COPD in Sri Lanka.
  • Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a systematic review

    Dawson, Alan; Kutywayo, Kudzayi; Fennell, Dean; Fakis, Apostolos (2022-04-11)
    Introduction: Cytoreductive surgery has been used a part of multimodality treatment in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The residual microscopic disease that remains will lead to disease progression in the majority of patients. Delivery of hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy at the time of surgery has been used to address this microscopic disease, however it's effect and place in the multimodality treatment sphere is unknown. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of surgery and hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy in patients with MPM on overall survival and disease-free interval. Methods: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from database inception through to June 2021. Studies reporting overall survival and/or disease-free interval in patients with MPM undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy were considered. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A narrative review was performed. Results: Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion comprising 598 patients. Surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy was associated with a median overall survival and disease-free interval ranging from 11 to 75 months and 7.2 to 57 months, respectively. These appeared to be superior to patients not receiving hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (overall survival: 5-36 months and disease-free interval: 12.1-21 months). A higher dose of hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy was associated with an improvement in overall survival compared with a lower dose: 18-31 months versus 6-18 months, respectively. The most common morbidity was atrial fibrillation followed by renal complications. Conclusion: Surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy offers a safe and effective therapy with an improvement in disease-free interval and overall survival, particularly when hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy is administered at a higher dose. Prospero registration number: CRD42019129002.
  • Systemic corticosteroid use in UK Uveitis practice: results from the ocular inflammation steroid toxicity risk (OSTRICH) study

    Kumar, Periyasamy (2021-02-02)
    Objectives: To ascertain adherence to an international consensus target of ≤7.5 mg/day of prednisolone for maintenance systemic corticosteroid (CS) prescribing in uveitis and report the frequency of courses of high-dose systemic CS in the UK. Methods: We conducted a national, multicentre audit of systemic CS prescribing for uveitis at 11 UK sites between November 2018 and March 2019. High-dose CS was defined as (1) maintenance >7.5 mg prednisolone for >3 consecutive months, or (2) >1 course ≥40 mg oral CS or ≥500 mg intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone in the past 12 months. Case notes of patients exceeding threshold CS doses were reviewed by an independent uveitis specialist and judged as avoidable or not, based upon a scoring matrix. Results: Of 667 eligible patients, 285 (42.7%) were treated with oral or IV CS over the preceding 12 months; 96 (33.7%) of these exceeded the threshold for high-dose CS. Twenty-five percent of prescribing in patients on excess CS was judged avoidable; attributed to either prescribing long-term CS without evidence of consideration of alternative strategies, prescribing error or miscommunication. More patients received immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) in the group treated with CS above threshold than below threshold (p < 0.001) but there was no significant difference in doses of IMT. Conclusion: 33% of patients had been prescribed excessive corticosteroid when compared to the reference standard. An analysis of decision-making suggests there may be opportunity to reduce excess CS prescribing in 25% of these patients.

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