Recent Submissions

  • Atraumatic Isolated Peroneal Compartment Syndrome

    Ashwood, Neil
    26-year-old male presented with leg lateral aspect pain with numbness over foot dorsum lateral aspect for 6 hours after rugby training with no trauma. Slight peroneal compartment tightness with negative stretch test. Creatine kinase 4659U/L. Peroneal compartment discomfort was worsening, fasciotomy of all leg compartments was done with only lateral peroneal compartment affected. Sensory changes in presentation highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion. One could use biochemical mark ers aiding decision making on borderline situations, however we advise decompression in these cases. Although the patient had uneventful postoperative recovery, having ICP monitoring equipment or MRI would prevent overzealous opening of posterior compartment.
  • A Rare Presentation of Myositis Ossificans in a Diabetic Individual

    Hind, Jamie; Prabodhinee, Dhiren Jogiya; Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Suryawanshi, Suraj; Amara, Veda; Ashwood, Neil
    Introduction: Myositis ossificans (MO) is a disease with self-limiting, benign ossifying lesions. MO traumatica is most common cause and occurs after blunt trauma to muscle tissue and the most common site of occurrence is the anterior thigh often developing after an intramuscular hematoma. The pathophysiology of MO is not well understood. The association of myositis and diabetes is quite rare.Case Report: A 57-year-old male presented with a discharging ulcer on the right lateral lower leg. A radiograph was carried out to ascertain the degree of bone involvement. However, the X-ray showed calcifications. Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray imaging were used to exclude malignant disorders such as osteomyelitis or osteosarcoma. The diagnosis of myositis ossificans was confirmed with MRI. As the patient had a background of diabetes, this could have led to MO as a result of the macrovascular complication of a discharging ulcer; hence, diabetes could be considered a risk factor for the disease. Conclusion:The reader may appreciate that diabetic patients may present with MO and that repeated discharging ulcers may imitate the effects of physical trauma on calcifications. The specific take home message is that regardless of the apparent rarity of a disease and subversion to typical clinical presentation, it should still be considered. Furthermore, the exclusion of severe and malignant diseases which benign diseases may mimic is of utmost importance to correctly manage patients.
  • Correlation of IVF outcomes and number of oocytes retrieved: a UK retrospective longitudinal observational study of 172 341 non-donor cycles.

    Jayaprakasan, Kanna
    OBJECTIVE: How do numbers of oocytes retrieved per In vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycle impact on the live birth rate (LBR) and multiple gestation pregnancy (MGP) rates? DESIGN: Retrospective observational longitudinal study. SETTING: UK IVF clinics. POPULATION: Non-donor IVF patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: LBR per IVF cycle and MGP levels against number of oocytes retrieved into subgroups: 0, 1-5, 6-15, 16-25, 26-49 oocytes and 50+ oocytes. Relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs were calculated for each group against the intermediate responder with '6-15 oocytes collected'. RESULTS: From 172 341 attempted fresh oocyte retrieval cycles, the oocyte retrieved was: 0 in 10 148 (5.9%) cycles from 9439 patients; 1-5 oocytes in 42 574 cycles (24.7%); 6-15 oocytes in 91 797 cycles (53.3%); 16-25 oocytes in 23 794 cycles (13.8%); 26-49 oocytes in 3970 cycles (2.3%); ≥50 oocytes in 58 cycles (0.033%). The LBRs for the 1-5, 6-15, 16-25 and 26-49 subgroups of oocytes retrieved were 17.2%, 32.4%, 35.3% and 18.7%, respectively. The RR (95% CI) of live birth in comparison to the intermediate group (6-15) for 1-5, 16-25 and 26-49 groups was 0.53 (0.52 to 0.54), 1.09 (1.07 to 1.11) and 0.58 (0.54 to 0.62), respectively. The corresponding MGP rates and RR were 9.2%, 11.0%, 11.4% and 11.3%, respectively and 0.83 (0.77 to 0.90), 1.04 (0.97 to 1.11) and 1.03 (0.84 to 1.26), respectively. CONCLUSION: There was only limited benefit in LBR beyond the 6-15 oocyte group going to the 16-25 oocytes group, after which there was significant decline in LBR. The MGP risk was lower in 1-5 group.
  • Chronic ectopic pregnancy presenting as a suspected tubo-ovarian abscess: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Alao, A; Dasgupta, J; Biswas, Bivas
    Though there is no definite agreement on diagnostic criteria or definition of chronic ectopic pregnancy (CEP), it could be deemed to be a variant of pregnancy of unknown location with non-specific clinical signs and symptoms. This was a case of a para 2+2 who presented with lower abdominal pain and bleeding per vaginum, and initial ultrasound was suggestive of a tubo-ovarian abscess/mass. With a further MRI scan and a diagnostic laparoscopy, she was found to have a CEP and had a laparoscopic salpingectomy for management. The diagnosis of CEP could be quite challenging as a result of the protracted symptoms, often negative/low serum B-HCG and ultrasound features mimicking a pelvic mass. A high index of suspicion is needed, and an MRI scan and diagnostic laparoscopy often aid in diagnosis and management.
  • Redefining WILD syndrome: a primary lymphatic dysplasia with congenital multisegmental lymphoedema, cutaneous lymphovascular malformation, CD4 lymphopaenia and warts.

    Keeley, Vaughan;
    BACKGROUND: Primary lymphoedema (PL) syndromes are increasingly recognised as presentations of complex genetic disease, with at least 20 identified causative genes. Recognition of clinical patterns is key to diagnosis, research and therapeutics. The defining criteria for one such clinical syndrome, 'WILD syndrome' (Warts, Immunodeficiency, Lymphoedema and anogenital Dysplasia), have previously depended on a single case report. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present 21 patients (including the first described case) with similar clinical and immunological phenotypes. All had PL affecting multiple segments, with systemic involvement (intestinal lymphangiectasia/pleural or pericardial effusions) in 70% (n=14/20). Most (n=20, 95%) had a distinctive cutaneous lymphovascular malformation on the upper anterior chest wall. Some (n=10, 48%) also had hyperpigmented lesions resembling epidermal naevi (but probably lymphatic in origin). Warts were common (n=17, 81%) and often refractory. In contrast to the previous case report, anogenital dysplasia was uncommon-only found in two further cases (total n=3, 14%). Low CD4 counts and CD4:CD8 ratios typified the syndrome (17 of 19, 89%), but monocyte counts were universally normal, unlike GATA2 deficiency. CONCLUSION: WILD syndrome is a previously unrecognised, underdiagnosed generalised PL syndrome. Based on this case series, we redefine WILD as 'Warts, Immunodeficiency, andLymphatic Dysplasia' and suggest specific diagnostic criteria. The essential criterion is congenital multisegmental PL in a 'mosaic' distribution. The major diagnostic features are recurrent warts, cutaneous lymphovascular malformations, systemic involvement (lymphatic dysplasia), genital swelling and CD4 lymphopaenia with normal monocyte counts. The absence of family history suggests a sporadic condition, and the random distribution of swelling implicates mosaic postzygotic mutation as the cause.
  • Rupture of the Tibialis Posterior Tendon With Associated Bimalleolar Ankle Fracture.

    Clarke, D
    The acute traumatic rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon in association with closed ankle fractures is rare and often under-recognised. If recognised early, outcomes can be excellent. There are 28 known cases in the literature, and we report two further cases associated with bimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation. A 49-year-old presented with valgus deformity at the ankle joint and global tenderness following a work injury as a mechanic. A plain radiograph showed a displaced oblique comminuted fracture of the lateral malleolus with valgus angulation at a syndesmosis, with significant talar shift. The patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a seven-hole, one-third tubular plate and screws. A 35-year-old involved in a motorcycle collision with a car presented with swollen left ankle and valgus deformity. Plain radiographs revealed bimalleolar fracture subluxation. Closed reduction was unsuccessful and hence direct medial approach demonstrated a complete rupture of the posterior tendon. The medial malleolus was fixed using lag screws and washers. The tendon was repaired using the modified Kessler technique in both cases. The tibialis posterior plays a significant role in foot and ankle biomechanics due to its broad tendinous insertion. Acute traumatic rupture is rare, as it is protected due to its deep-seated anatomic location within the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Preoperative diagnosis of this injury is challenging and hence this diagnosis is often made intraoperatively. In both cases, there was a retraction of the proximal end beyond incision margins, and this can make tendon rupture difficult to identify intraoperatively as well. Upon identification, assessment of the tendon for degenerative changes was key to deciding upon suitability for primary repair. Despite its rarity, a high index of suspicion should be maintained in fracture dislocation of the ankle joint, especially when the mechanism is known to be pronation-external rotation.
  • Impact of malnutrition on health-related quality of life in persons receiving dialysis: a prospective study.

    Pittman, Zoe; Selby, Nicholas; Taal, Maarten
    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is severely impaired in persons receiving dialysis. Malnutrition has been associated with some measures of poor HRQoL in cross-sectional analyses in dialysis populations, but no studies have assessed the impact of malnutrition and dietary intake on change in multiple measures of HRQoL over time. We investigated the most important determinants of poor HRQoL and the predictors of change in HRQoL over time using several measures of HRQoL. We enrolled 119 haemodialysis and thirty-one peritoneal dialysis patients in this prospective study. Nutritional assessments (Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), anthropometry and 24-h dietary recalls) and HRQoL questionnaires (Short Form-36 (SF-36) mental (MCS) and physical component scores (PCS) and European QoL-5 Dimensions (EQ5D) health state (HSS) and visual analogue scores (VAS)) were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Mean age was 64 (14) years. Malnutrition was present in 37 % of the population. At baseline, malnutrition assessed by SGA was the only factor independently (and negatively) associated with all four measures of HRQoL. No single factor was independently associated with decrease in all measures of HRQoL over 1 year. However, prevalence/development of malnutrition over 1 year was an independent predictor of 1-year decrease in EQ5D HSS, and 1-year decrease in fat intake independently predicted the 1-year decline in SF-36 MCS and PCS, and EQ5D VAS. These findings strengthen the importance of monitoring for malnutrition and providing nutritional advice to all persons on dialysis. Future studies are needed to evaluate the impact of nutritional interventions on HRQoL and other long-term outcomes.
  • Cohort profile of the Sloane Project: methodology for a prospective UK cohort study of >15 000 women with screen-detected non-invasive breast neoplasia.

    Stevens-Harris, I; Sibbering, Mark
    PURPOSE: The introduction of breast screening in the UK led to an increase in the detection of non-invasive breast neoplasia, predominantly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-obligatory precursor of invasive breast cancer. The Sloane Project, a UK prospective cohort study of screen-detected non-invasive breast neoplasia, commenced in 2003 to evaluate the radiological assessment, surgical management, pathology, adjuvant therapy and outcomes for non-invasive breast neoplasia. Long-term follow-up and accurate data collection are essential to examine the clinical impact. Here, we describe the establishment, development and analytical processes for this large UK cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Women diagnosed with non-invasive breast neoplasia via the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) from 01 April 2003 are eligible, with a minimum age of 46 years. Diagnostic, therapeutic and follow-up data collected via proformas, complement date and cause of death from national data sources. Accrual for patients with DCIS ceased in 2012 but is ongoing for patients with epithelial atypia/in situ neoplasia, while follow-up for all continues long term. FINDINGS TO DATE: To date, patients within the Sloane cohort comprise one-third of those diagnosed with DCIS within the NHSBSP and are representative of UK practice. DCIS has a variable outcome and confirms the need for longer-term follow-up for screen-detected DCIS. However, the radiology and pathology features of DCIS can be used to inform patient management. We demonstrate validation of follow-up information collected from national datasets against traditional, manual methods. FUTURE PLANS: Conclusions derived from the Sloane Project are generalisable to women in the UK with screen-detected DCIS. The follow-up methodology may be extended to other UK cohort studies and routine clinical follow-up. Data from English patients entered into the Sloane Project are available on request to researchers under data sharing agreement. Annual follow-up data collection will continue for a minimum of 20 years.
  • The time course of disuse muscle atrophy of the lower limb in health and disease.

    Hardy, EJO; Doleman, Brett
    Short, intermittent episodes of disuse muscle atrophy (DMA) may have negative impact on age related muscle loss. There is evidence of variability in rate of DMA between muscles and over the duration of immobilization. As yet, this is poorly characterized. This review aims to establish and compare the time-course of DMA in immobilized human lower limb muscles in both healthy and critically ill individuals, exploring evidence for an acute phase of DMA and differential rates of atrophy between and muscle groups. MEDLINE, Embase, CINHAL and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to April 2021 for any study of human lower limb immobilization reporting muscle volume, cross-sectional area (CSA), architecture or lean leg mass over multiple post-immobilization timepoints. Risk of bias was assessed using ROBINS-I. Where possible meta-analysis was performed using a DerSimonian and Laird random effects model with effect sizes reported as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) at various time-points and a narrative review when meta-analysis was not possible. Twenty-nine studies were included, 12 in healthy volunteers (total n = 140), 18 in patients on an Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) (total n = 516) and 3 in patients with ankle fracture (total n = 39). The majority of included studies are at moderate risk of bias. Rate of quadriceps atrophy over the first 14 days was significantly greater in the ITU patients (MD -1.01 95% CI -1.32, -0.69), than healthy cohorts (MD -0.12 95% CI -0.49, 0.24) (P < 0.001). Rates of atrophy appeared to vary between muscle groups (greatest in triceps surae (-11.2% day 28), followed by quadriceps (-9.2% day 28), then hamstrings (-6.5% day 28), then foot dorsiflexors (-3.2% day 28)). Rates of atrophy appear to decrease over time in healthy quadriceps (-6.5% day 14 vs. -9.1% day 28) and triceps surae (-7.8% day 14 vs. -11.2% day 28), and ITU quadriceps (-13.2% day 7 vs. -28.2% day 14). There appears to be variability in the rate of DMA between muscle groups, and more rapid atrophy during the earliest period of immobilization, indicating different mechanisms being dominant at different timepoints. Rates of atrophy are greater amongst critically unwell patients. Overall evidence is limited, and existing data has wide variability in the measures reported. Further work is required to fully characterize the time course of DMA in both health and disease.
  • Bilateral STT Arthrodesis in a Young Patient with Occult Proximal Row Coalition.

    Wharton, RMH
    Background  Carpal coalitions have an incidence of 0.1 to 1% in Caucasians and up to 8 to 9% in African populations. They rarely cause clinical problems requiring investigation or treatment, but are commonly identified on imaging obtained for other indications. Case Description  We report a case of a 35-year-old male with progressive degenerative change of incomplete coalitions of the scaphotrapeziotrapezoid joint (STT) in the presence of bilateral complete osseous lunate-triquetral coalitions (Minnaar type 4). He was successfully treated with staged bilateral arthrodesis with excellent symptom resolution and preservation of function. Literature Review  In patients with isolated STT coalition six reports of surgery exist, two of which were for arthrodesis. This is the first described case of STT arthrodesis in a patient with coexistent lunate-triquetral coalition. Clinical Relevance  The STT arthrodesis remains a safe and effective treatment for STT pain even in cases of occult carpal coalition. Functional range of movement was well preserved. Level of evidence  This is a Level V study.
  • Taking the biscuit: defining excessive quantities of free refreshments in a healthcare library

    Tabner, Andrew; Johnson, Graham; White, Caroline; Toft, Suzanne
    Evidence suggests that complementary hot drinks and biscuits benefit an overworked and highly stressed healthcare workforce. But when signage in healthcare libraries asks patrons not to consume “excessive” quantities of free hot drinks and biscuits, how much is too much? Tabner and colleagues explore this resource allocation conundrum
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of ketamine-associated uropathy

    Chan, VW
    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review and meta-analysis focused on the literature regarding ketamine-associated uropathy to summarise its clinical manifestations, the results of urological assessments, and current management. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using keywords and MeSH terms related to ketamine abuse, urinary tracts, and urological examinations. Databases including Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 26 June 2020. RESULTS: In total, 1365 articles were retrieved; 45 articles (4921 patients) were included in the analysis of patient demographics, clinical manifestations, examination results, and treatments. Frequency was the most common manifestation (pooled prevalence 77.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=56.9%-92.2%), followed by urgency (69.9%, 95% CI=48.8%-87.3%) and suprapubic pain (60.4%, 95% CI=35.3%-82.9%). Upper urinary tract involvement was less common; the pooled prevalence of hydronephrosis was 30.2% (95% CI=22.0%-39.2%). Further workup revealed a pooled functional bladder capacity of 95.23 mL (95% CI=63.57-126.88 mL), pooled voided volume of 113.31 mL (95% CI=59.44- 167.19 mL), and pooled maximum urine flow rate of 8.69 mL/s (95% CI=5.54-11.83 mL/s). Cystoscopic examinations and bladder biopsy revealed frequent urothelial denudation, inflammatory changes, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Treatments included oral medications for symptomatic relief, intravesical therapy, and surgery (eg, hydrodistension and bladder reconstruction), but ketamine abstinence was necessary for improvement. CONCLUSION: Ketamine-associated uropathy frequently involves frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain; upper urinary tract involvement is less common. Affected patients showed reductions in bladder capacity and urine flow rate. Endoscopic and histological analyses often revealed cystitis. Despite variations in treatment, ketamine abstinence is important for all patients with ketamine-associated uropathy.
  • Management of self-harm injuries: a review of the evidence and guidance

    Oakley, Ben; O'Brien, M; Bainbridge, Chris; Johnson, Nick
  • Sodium-Glucose Co-transporter-2 Inhibitors Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series.

    Viswanath, Gokhare; Bandlamudi, N; Madhok, Brijesh
    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are glucose-lowering agents being increasingly used for cardio-renal protection in patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This systematic review identified the clinical risk factors and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in patients undergoing bariatric and metabolic surgery (BMS) on SGLT2i. We found 12 studies with a total of 16 patients (10 females; mean age of 51 years). Apart from one patient, all patients developed DKA in the post-operative period presenting at a median of 5 days after surgery. Most of the patients were euglycaemic on presentation with DKA. Patients undergoing BMS on SGLT2i are at increased risk of developing DKA that can mimic post-operative surgical complications causing diagnostic dilemmas, especially with the euglycaemic variant, and delaying treatment.
  • The Curious Case of Lip Tongue Fusion: A Consequence of Suboptimal Oral Care.

    Xu, Jimmy; Biyani, P; Orr, R
    Oral care is an often difficult and an unappreciated part of hospital life. Patients who are unable to provide their own care rely on assistance from hospital personnel. Most sequelae from suboptimal oral care often present over months if not years, in the form of dental caries and periodontal disease. We present an exception, where a 66-year-old patient who experienced widespread ulceration and necrosis from Capnocytophaga-related sepsis received suboptimal oral care, resulting in their tongue being fused to their lip. This was later divided by the oral and maxillofacial team resulting in restoration of full function. Future cases can be avoided in patients with similar symptoms, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or erythema multiforme, if rigorous oral care can be provided.

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