Recent Submissions

  • To plate, or not to plate? A systematic review of functional outcomes and complications of plate fixation in patellar fractures.

    Ilo, Kevin
    PURPOSE: Poor outcomes and high complication and reoperation rates have been reported with tension-band wiring (TBW) in the management of patellar fractures and particularly the comminuted ones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional outcomes and complication rates of patellar fractures managed with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with a plate. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMCare, CINAHL, AMED and HMIC were searched, and the PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent reviewers extracted the data from the included studies and assessed them for the risk of bias. RESULTS: Plating of patellar fractures is associated with satisfactory range of movement (ROM) and postoperative function and low pain levels. We found a 10.44% complication rate and a low reoperation rate. Reoperations were mainly performed for metalwork removal. CONCLUSION: ORIF with plating of patellar fractures is a safe alternative in the management of patellar fractures and may be associated with a lower complication and reoperation rate compared to TBW. Future randomized prospective studies are needed to validated the results of the present systematic review.
  • Assessing the use of the frequency, etiology, direction, and severity classification system for shoulder instability in physical therapy research - A scoping review.

    Bateman, Marcus
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the implementation of the Frequency, Etiology, Direction, and Severity (FEDS) classification for shoulder instability by the physical therapy scientific community since its publication in 2011. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on January 10, 2024 in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, and SciELO databases, as well as Google Scholar. Studies investigating physical therapy interventions in people with shoulder instability, and reporting selection criteria for shoulder instability were considered eligible. A narrative synthesis was conducted. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were included. None reported using the FEDS classification as eligibility criteria for shoulder instability. Only 42% of the studies provided data of all four criteria of the FEDS classification. The most reported criterion was direction (92%), followed by etiology (85%), severity (65%), and frequency (58%). The most common reported descriptor for profiling shoulder instability was "dislocation" (83.3%), followed by "first-time" (66.7%), "anterior" (62.5%), and "traumatic" (59.1%). Regarding other instability classifications, only one study (4%) used the Thomas & Matsen classification, and two (8%) the Stanmore classification. CONCLUSIONS: The FEDS classification system has not been embraced enough by the physical therapy scientific community since its publication in 2011.
  • Potentially modifiable factors associated with health-related quality of life among people with chronic kidney disease: baseline findings from the National Unified Renal Translational Research Enterprise CKD (NURTuRE-CKD) cohort.

    Lucas, Bethany; Taal, Maarten; Benavente, Melissa
    BACKGROUND: Many non-modifiable factors are associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) experienced by people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesize that potentially modifiable factors for poor HRQoL can be identified among CKD patients, providing potential targets for intervention. METHOD: The National Unified Renal Translational Research Enterprise Chronic Kidney Disease (NURTuRE-CKD) cohort study recruited 2996 participants from nephrology centres with all stages of non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Baseline data collection for sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical information, including Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale renal, Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HADS) and the 5-level EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D-5L) as HRQoL measure, took place between 2017 and 2019. EQ-5D-5L dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) were mapped to an EQ-5D-3L value set to derive index value. Multivariable mixed effects regression models, adjusted for known factors affecting HRQoL with recruitment region as a random effect, were fit to assess potentially modifiable factors associated with index value (linear) and within each dimension (logistic). RESULTS: Among the 2958/2996 (98.7%) participants with complete EQ-5D data, 2201 (74.4%) reported problems in at least one EQ-5D-5L dimension. Multivariable linear regression identified independent associations between poorer HRQoL (EQ-5D-3L index value) and obesity (body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m2, β -0.037, 95% CI -0.058 to -0.016, P = .001), HADS depression score ≥8 (β -0.159, -0.182 to -0.137, P < .001), anxiety score ≥8 (β -0.090, -0.110 to -0.069, P < .001), taking ≥10 medications (β -0.065, -0.085 to -0.046, P < .001), sarcopenia (β -0.062, -0.080 to -0.043, P < .001) haemoglobin <100 g/L (β -0.047, -0.085 to -0.010, P = .012) and pain (β -0.134, -0.152 to -0.117, P < .001). Smoking and prescription of prednisolone independently associated with problems in self-care and usual activities respectively. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RASi) prescription associated with fewer problems with mobility and usual activities. CONCLUSION: Potentially modifiable factors including obesity, pain, depression, anxiety, anaemia, polypharmacy, smoking, steroid use and sarcopenia associated with poorer HRQoL in this cohort, whilst RASi use was associated with better HRQoL in two dimensions.
  • An Update Summary on the Learning Sciences Within an Ophthalmic Context.

    Khanna, Aishwarya
    Clinical reasoning, specifically diagnostic decision-making, has been a subject of fragmented literature since the 1970s, marked by diverse theories and conflicting perspectives. This article reviews the latest evidence in medical education, drawing from scientific literature, to offer ophthalmologists insights into optimal strategies for personal learning and the education of others. It explores the historical development of clinical reasoning theories, emphasising the challenges in understanding how doctors formulate diagnoses. The importance of clinical reasoning is underscored by its role in making accurate diagnoses and preventing diagnostic errors. The article delves into the dual process theory, distinguishing between type 1 and type 2 thinking and their implications for clinical decision-making. Cognitive load theory is introduced as a crucial aspect, highlighting the limited capacity of working memory and its impact on the diagnostic process. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is explored as a framework for optimal learning environments, emphasising the importance of scaffolding and deliberate practice in skill development. The article discusses semantic competence, mental representation, and the interplay of different memory stores-semantic, episodic, and procedural-in enhancing diagnostic proficiency. Self-regulated learning (SRL) is introduced as a student-centric approach, emphasising goal setting, metacognition, and continuous improvement. Practical advice is provided for minimising cognitive errors in clinical reasoning, applying dual process theory, and considering cognitive load theory in teaching. The relevance of deliberate practice in ophthalmology, especially in a rapidly evolving field, is emphasised for continuous learning and staying updated with advancements. The article concludes by highlighting the importance of clinical supervisors in recognising and supporting trainees' self-regulated learning and understanding the principles of various teaching and learning theories. Ultimately, a profound comprehension of the science behind clinical reasoning is deemed fundamental for ophthalmologists to deliver high-quality, evidence-based care and foster critical thinking skills in the dynamic landscape of ophthalmology.
  • Artificial Intelligence ChatGPT’s Perspective on Implementation of Augmented Intelligence within Orthopaedic Practice—A Comparative Narrative Synthesis?

    Ashwood, Neil; Dekker, Andrew
    ChatGPT has obvious benefits in the way it can interrogate vast amounts of reference information and utilise metadata generation to answer questions posed to it and is freely available having been developed through human feedback. Already there are ethical and practical implications on its impact on learning and research. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been seen as a way of improving healthcare provision by delivering more robust outcomes but measuring these and implementing AI within this setting is at present limited and disjointed. Methods: ChatGPT was interrogated to see what it felt were the barriers to its implementation within healthcare and in particular ortho paedic practice. The evidence for this determination was then examined for validity and applicability for a practical roll out at a Trust, Regional or Na tional level. Results: AI can synthesise a vast amount of information to help it answer specific questions. The context and structure of any question will de termine the usefulness of the answer which can then be used to develop prac tical solutions based on experience and resource limitations. Conclusions: AI has a role in service development and can quickly focus a working group to areas to consider when practically implementing change
  • Factors influencing older women's decision-making related to treatment of operable breast cancer: A qualitative systematic review

    Klukowska, Anita
    Objective There is variation in practice in the treatment of older women with breast cancer. International guidelines highlight the importance of patient autonomy in treatment decision-making. The aim of this study is to identify factors which influence decision-making in older women with operable breast cancer, which will enable us to further understand how to support these patients. Methods Systematic review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines was performed to identify factors which influence treatment decision-making in older women with operable breast cancer. Medline, Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched. Results The search yielded 5840 results; 13 articles met the inclusion criteria and reported on a total of 1118 women. Thematic analysis identified three key themes in which decision-making factors could be categorised. These were healthcare-related factors, patient-related factors and impact of treatment. Healthcare-related factors included communication with clinicians and provision of information. Patient-related factors were age, pre-existing knowledge, preconceptions of breast cancer and treatment, decision-making style and co-morbidities. The impact of treatment considerations included body image and effect on quality of life. Decision-making style was frequently reported; older women did not demonstrate one preferred style. Conclusions The findings have highlighted the complex interplay of factors which influence how older women make breast cancer treatment-decisions. Clinicians should have an awareness of the factors highlighted to maximise their ability to provide support and personalised care to older women with breast cancer whilst treatment decisions are made.
  • The incidence and severity of diabetic hand infection presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Morris, H; Gillott, E.; Bainbridge, Chris; Johnson, Nick
    Diabetic hand infections are difficult to treat and can present with high morbidity. We set out to identify any changes in presentation and disease severity during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 61 pre-COVID and 32 during COVID patients with diabetes with a hand infection requiring intravenous antibiotics were included in the study. The pandemic caused a decrease in the number and proportion of presentations. Hospital admissions reduced as service provision was amended to enable increased outpatient treatment. However, there was a significant increase in surgical management (25 vs. 21, p = 0.02), total complications (5 vs. 8, p < 0.05) and incidence of amputations (2 vs. 4, p = 0.09). Mean haemoglobin A1C was also higher (48 mmol/L vs. 40 mmol/L, p < 0.05). While fewer patients attended the service during the pandemic, we witnessed an increased severity of hand infections in those we treated. There is a role for daily outpatient administration of intravenous antibiotics in selected patients to reduce the number of hospital admissions.
  • Systematic review of nerves at risk at the wrist in common surgical approaches to the forearm: Anatomical variations and surgical implications

    Ashwood, Neil
    Three commonly used approaches to the forearm in orthopedic surgery are Henry's, Thompson's, and the ulnar approach, each of which has the potential to cause injury to nerves around the wrist. Preserving these nerves is important to prevent complications such as neuroma formation and motor and sensory changes to the hand. We conducted a review of the literature to assess the nerves at risk and whether ‘safe zones’ exist to avoid these nerves. An independent reviewer conducted searches in Embase and MEDLINE of the literature from 2010 to 2020. A total of 68 papers were identified, with 18 articles being included in the review. Multiple nerves were identified as being at risk for each of the approaches described. In the anterior approach, the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBMN) is most at risk of injury. An incision immediately radial to the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) or directly over the FCR is most likely to avoid injury to both superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and PCBMN. With Thompson's approach, the safest zone for an incision is directly over or slightly radial to Lister's tubercle to avoid injury to SBRN and lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. For the ulnar approach, a safe zone was shown to be on the ulnar side of the wrist around the ulnar styloid (US) when the forearm was in supination or a neutral position to avoid injury to the dorsal branch of the ulna nerve (DBUN). Care must be taken around the US due to the density of nerves and the proximity of the last motor branch of the posterior interosseous nerve to the ulnar head. This review highlighted the proximity of nerves to the three most common surgical incisions used to access the forearm. In addition, anatomical variations may exist, and each of the nerves identified as being at risk has multiple branches. Both factors increase the potential of intraoperative damage if the anatomy is not properly understood. The surgeon must adhere carefully to the established approaches to the wrist and distal forearm to minimize damage to nerves and optimize surgical outcomes for the patient.
  • Day case orthopaedic trauma surgery effectiveness: a systematic review

    Ashwood, Neil
    Day case surgery facilitates effective orthopaedic care for ambulatory trauma cases and can act as an effective pathway in times of reduced resource availability within acute hospitals. A systematic review of the available literature was performed using a narrative synthesis to look for themes underpinning day case trauma practice. A 25 papers were selected from a total of 9956 papers screened to identify those papers that considered day case trauma surgery and its impact on clinical outcome, patient satisfaction and feasibility of delivery within the UK. 9014 patients had day case trauma operations within the 25 papers identified, 86% had general anaesthesia and 14% either regional or local anaesthesia. The mean reported age was 37.5 years with a wide age range (2-83) years treating roughly similar proportions of men and women with a high satisfaction rate when recorded. All areas of the upper limb were operated on apart from the scapula the commonest being the wrist. In the lower limb surgery was undertaken in the knee, ankle or foot with removal of foreign body or ankle fixation being the commonest procedures undertaken. Prevalence of complications at 0.0156% of cases undergoing day case surgery was seen to be lower than in a similar group of inpatient cases. resources are stretched. Day case surgery for trauma procedures within orthopaedics is safe, cost effective and well tolerated by patients. It frees up resources to facilitate treatment and should be utilised within each hospital to enable timely care.
  • Molecular mechanisms underpinning favourable physiological adaptations to exercise prehabilitation for urological cancer surgery

    Blackwell, James; Williams, John; Lund, Jonathan
    BACKGROUND: Surgery for urological cancers is associated with high complication rates and survivors commonly experience fatigue, reduced physical ability and quality of life. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) as surgical prehabilitation has been proven effective for improving the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of urological cancer patients, however the mechanistic basis of this favourable adaptation is undefined. Thus, we aimed to assess the mechanisms of physiological responses to HIIT as surgical prehabilitation for urological cancer. METHODS: Nineteen male patients scheduled for major urological surgery were randomised to complete 4-weeks HIIT prehabilitation (71.6 ± 0.75 years, BMI: 27.7 ± 0.9 kg·m2) or a no-intervention control (71.8 ± 1.1 years, BMI: 26.9 ± 1.3 kg·m2). Before and after the intervention period, patients underwent m. vastus lateralis biopsies to quantify the impact of HIIT on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity, cumulative myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and anabolic, catabolic and insulin-related signalling. RESULTS: OXPHOS capacity increased with HIIT, with increased expression of electron transport chain protein complexes (C)-II (p = 0.010) and III (p = 0.045); and a significant correlation between changes in C-I (r = 0.80, p = 0.003), C-IV (r = 0.75, p = 0.008) and C-V (r = 0.61, p = 0.046) and changes in CRF. Neither MPS (1.81 ± 0.12 to 2.04 ± 0.14%·day-1, p = 0.39) nor anabolic or catabolic proteins were upregulated by HIIT (p > 0.05). There was, however, an increase in phosphorylation of AS160Thr642 (p = 0.046) post-HIIT. CONCLUSIONS: A HIIT surgical prehabilitation regime, which improved the CRF of urological cancer patients, enhanced capacity for skeletal muscle OXPHOS; offering potential mechanistic explanation for this favourable adaptation. HIIT did not stimulate MPS, synonymous with the observed lack of hypertrophy. Larger trials pairing patient-centred and clinical endpoints with mechanistic investigations are required to determine the broader impacts of HIIT prehabilitation in this cohort, and to inform on future optimisation (i.e., to increase muscle mass).
  • Real world impact of Christmas BMJ research.

    Johnson, Graham; Tabner, Andrew
    None available.
  • Identifying clusters of objective functional impairment in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal disease using unsupervised learning.

    Klukowska, Anita
    OBJECTIVES: The five-repetition sit-to-stand (5R-STS) test was designed to capture objective functional impairment (OFI), and thus provides an adjunctive dimension in patient assessment. It is conceivable that there are different subsets of patients with OFI and degenerative lumbar disease. We aim to identify clusters of objectively functionally impaired individuals based on 5R-STS and unsupervised machine learning (ML). METHODS: Data from two prospective cohort studies on patients with surgery for degenerative lumbar disease and 5R-STS times of ≥ 10.5 s-indicating presence of OFI. K-means clustering-an unsupervised ML algorithm-was applied to identify clusters of OFI. Cluster hallmarks were then identified using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. RESULTS: We included 173 patients (mean age [standard deviation]: 46.7 [12.7] years, 45% male) and identified three types of OFI. OFI Type 1 (57 pts., 32.9%), Type 2 (81 pts., 46.8%), and Type 3 (35 pts., 20.2%) exhibited mean 5R-STS test times of 14.0 (3.2), 14.5 (3.3), and 27.1 (4.4) seconds, respectively. The grades of OFI according to the validated baseline severity stratification of the 5R-STS increased significantly with each OFI type, as did extreme anxiety and depression symptoms, issues with mobility and daily activities. Types 1 and 2 are characterized by mild to moderate OFI-with female gender, lower body mass index, and less smokers as Type I hallmarks. CONCLUSIONS: Unsupervised learning techniques identified three distinct clusters of patients with OFI that may represent a more holistic clinical classification of patients with OFI than test-time stratifications alone, by accounting for individual patient characteristics.
  • Development of a resource-use measure to capture costs of diabetic foot ulcers to the United Kingdom National Health Service, patients and society

    Game, Frances
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) add a significant burden to the lives of people with diabetes in the United Kingdom. They can have a considerable impact on a patient's daily life, with treatment requiring frequent changes of dressings and clinic attendances. Nurses and other allied health professionals (AHPs) within the community provide most wound care representing the primary cost driver. AIMS: To collaboratively explore key resource use related to the management of DFUs to develop, and pilot, a participant-reported measure to inform economic evaluations. METHODS: A literature search and semi-structured interviews determined health and non-health resource use in management of DFUs. A consensus view of the selected items was established in a modified Delphi study and further tested for acceptability and validity in a pilot study. RESULTS: Primary care consultations with a podiatrist or orthotist, district nurse visits, out-of-hours and emergency care, scans and investigations, and consumables provided in clinics were rated as the most important resource use items. CONCLUSIONS: This work has informed the development of a measure that captures resource use considered important by the people most affected by DFUs; patients, family members and carers, and the healthcare professionals key to DFU management.
  • Celiac Disease and Intussusception: A Common Association in Children.

    Ali, Qamar
    OBJECTIVES: In young childhood, intestinal intussusception (IS) is the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. A lead point such as Meckel diverticulum, polyps, tumors, enlarged lymph nodes, cystic fibrosis, and Schoenlein-Henoch purpura are recognized causes. Association between celiac disease (CD) and IS has been well recognized in adults but rarely in children. Data on causes and outcome of intussusception among Saudi children are lacking in the literature. Our objectives were to characterize the pattern of IS among Saudi children and investigate the frequency, clinical presentation, and outcome of intussusception among children with CD. METHODS: We searched the hospital's picture archiving and communications system for abdominal imaging studies (ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan, and barium contrast studies), performed between 2008 and 2019, using "intussusception" as a search key word. The hospital medical records of the identified cases of intussusception (aged 0-14 years) were then retrospectively reviewed to collect demographic, clinical, laboratory and imaging findings, management, and outcome. RESULTS: During the study period, 57 cases were identified as confirmed IS (31 boys, median age 1.95 years, range 0.33-11 years). Abdominal ultrasound was the diagnostic imaging study in 93%. An underlying cause (secondary IS) could be identified in 19 (33.3%) cases: CD in 6, malignancy and Henoch-Schoenlein purpura, 5 each, and Meckel diverticulum in 3; the remaining 38 (66.6%) cases of IS were idiopathic (primary IS). The presence of hypoalbuminemia and abdominal distension were significantly associated with secondary IS as compared with primary IS (P < 0.001, P = 0.006, respectively). All of the 6 cases of IS associated with CD resolved spontaneously, but 3 were recurrent. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary causes contributed to a large proportion of IS in our study cohort (33%) as compared with 5% to 10% in the literature. Celiac disease is an underrecognized cause of IS among children. A child with IS and hypoalbuminemia, anemia, or chronic diarrhea needs to be investigated for CD to avoid unnecessary surgery.
  • Transoral robotic tongue base mucosectomy for head and neck cancer of unknown primary. 6-years outcome experience.

    Mettias, Bassem; Laugharne, David; Mortimore, Sean; Nijim, Hazem
    None available.
  • Statistical primer: using prognostic models to predict the future: what cardiothoracic surgery can learn from Strictly Come Dancing

    Mawhinney, Jamie
    OBJECTIVES: Prognostic models are widely used across medicine and within cardiothoracic surgery, where predictive tools such as EuroSCORE are commonplace. Such models are a useful component of clinical assessment but may be misapplied. In this article, we demonstrate some of the major issues with risk scores by using the popular BBC television programme Strictly Come Dancing (known as Dancing with the Stars in many other countries) as an example. METHODS: We generated a multivariable prognostic model using data from the then-completed 19 series of Strictly Come Dancing to predict prospectively the results of the 20th series. RESULTS: The initial model based solely on demographic data was limited in its predictive value (0.25, 0.22; R2 and Spearman's rank correlation, respectively) but was substantially improved following the introduction of early judges' scores deemed representative of whether contestants could actually dance (0.40, 0.30). We then utilize our model to discuss the difficulties and pitfalls in using and interpreting prognostic models in cardiothoracic surgery and beyond, particularly where these do not adequately capture potentially important prognostic information. CONCLUSION: Researchers and clinicians alike should use prognostic models cautiously and not extrapolate conclusions from demographic data alone.
  • Guideline of guidelines: Postprostatectomy incontinence

    Pavithran, A
    The diagnosis of Postprostatectomy Incontinence (PPI) relies heavily on expert opinions. Challenges in assessing and treating PPI arise due to limited robust evidence and the absence of a concise definition, resulting in diverse reported incidence rates. In addition, unclear pathophysiological mechanisms, and lack of consensus on diagnostic work-up and treatment selection contribute to knowledge gaps. We aimed to provide a comprehensive review of guidelines from various professional organisations on the work-up and management of PPI. The following guidelines were included in this review: European Association of Urology (EAU 2023), American Urological Association/Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction (AUA/SUFU 2019), International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI, 2018), the Canadian Urological Association (CUA, 2012) and the Urological Society of India (USI, 2018). In general, the guidelines concur regarding the significance of conducting a comprehensive history and physical examination for patients with post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI). However, there are variations among the guidelines concerning the recommended additional investigations. In cases of troublesome PPI, male slings are typically recommended for mild to moderate urinary incontinence (UI), while artificial urinary sphincters (AUS) are preferred for moderate to severe UI, although the precise definition of this severity remains unclear. The guidelines provided by AUA/SUFU and the ICI have offered suggestions for managing complications or persistent/recurrent UI post-surgery, though some differences can be observed within these recommendations as well. This is a first of its kind review encompassing Guidelines on PPI spanning over a decade. Although guidelines share overarching principles, nuanced variations persist, posing challenges for clinicians. This compilation consolidates and highlights both the similarities and differences among guidelines, providing a comprehensive overview of PPI diagnosis and management for practitioners. It is our expectation that as more evidence emerges in this and other areas of PPI management, the guidelines will converge and address crucial patient-centric aspects.

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