• Gentamicin-associated acute kidney injury

      Selby, Nicholas; Fluck, Richard; Kolhe, Nitin; Shaw, Susan; Woodier, Nicholas (2009-12)
      BACKGROUND: The incidence of gentamicin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) as defined by the RIFLE criteria is unknown. AIM AND DESIGN: We performed a retrospective observational study to examine this and the predictive value of RIFLE stage on patient outcome in this setting. METHODS: We included all patients who were treated with gentamicin at our centre over a 1-month period. Data on 228 patients across all specialities were collected by manual searching of hospital notes and electronic pathology reporting systems. Information collected included baseline and peak serum creatinine results, gentamicin dose and serum levels, the presence of additional renal insults and the Stoke co-morbidity index. RESULTS: AKI occurred in 51 (24.4%) patients; 37 (17.7%) 'Risk', 9 (4.3%) 'Injury', 5 (2.4%) 'Failure'. Independent predictors of gentamicin associated AKI were number of gentamicin levels >2 mg/l (OR 1.845, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.79) and higher baseline serum creatinine (OR 1.014, 95% CI 1.001-1.028). There was a greatly increased risk of in-hospital mortality in the AKI group as compared to those without AKI (45.1% vs. 19.1%, OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.8-6.9, P = 0.0004). Risk of in hospital mortality increased with each RIFLE stage (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study shows that gentamicin-associated AKI remains a common and potentially serious clinical problem. There is a strong correlation between RIFLE class and in-hospital mortality.
    • UK Renal Registry 12th Annual Report (December 2009): chapter 12: epidemiology of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia amongst patients receiving dialysis for established renal failure in England in 2008: a joint report from the UK Renal Registry and the Health Protection Agency.

      Fluck, Richard (2010)
      BACKGROUND: From April 2007, all centres providing renal replacement therapy in England were asked to provide additional data on patients with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia using a secure web based system established to capture data for the mandatory surveillance of MRSA bacteremia. RESULTS: From April 2008 until March 2009 171 discrete episodes of MRSA bacteraemia were identified from the Health Protection Agency database as being potentially associated with patients in established renal failure (ERF) requiring dialysis. Of 171 records, 18 records were rejected by renal centres as not being associated with patients on dialysis or as being duplicates of other records. Following data validation by centres, 139 patients had vascular access documented (no episodes of bacteraemia were recorded amongst patients receiving peritoneal dialysis). Of these patients, 30.2% were utilising an arteriovenous fistula or graft and 69.8% were dialysing on a nontunnelled or tunnelled venous catheter. Two of the patients on arteriovenous fistulae had used venous catheters in the prior 28 days. Eleven patients had more than one episode in the year and accounted for 30 (20%) of the episodes of MRSA bacteraemia. Overall there was a reduction of 22% in episodes from the previous year. The median centre-specific rate of MRSA bacteraemia was 0.64 (range 0-3.49) episodes per 100 haemodialysis patients per year, and 0.55 (range 0-2.89) episodes per 100 dialysis (haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis combined) patients per year. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of MRSA bacteraemia in patients requiring long term dialysis continues to fall within the prevalent dialysis population in England, but there is still marked variation in centrespecific rates.
    • Primary small bowel liposarcoma (atypical lipomatous tumour) with myogenic differentiation.

      Deb, Rahul; Speake, WJ (2010)
      Primary small intestinal liposarcomas originating in the small bowel are uncommon with a generally poor prognosis due to the advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. We describe a case of primary small bowel dedifferentiated liposarcoma presenting as a solid mass in the right iliac fossa. The current case is unusual as the tumour seemingly originated from the bowel and the well-differentiated component was seen extensively infiltrating the bowel wall including the small bowel submucosa.
    • Role of routine oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy before cholecystectomy.

      Rashid, Farhan; Waraich, Naseem; Ahmed, Javed; Iftikhar, Syed (2010)
      INTRODUCTION: A proportion of patients do not get symptomatic relief after cholecystectomy because there is an overlap in the symptomology of biliary and gasroduodenal pathologies. In our unit all the patients are offered gastroscopy prior to Cholecystectomy. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of gastroscopy in all patients with upper abdominal pain irrespective of ultrasound findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out, between Jan 2001-Oct 2003. All the patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy by a single surgeon were studied. Group 1 (n = 61) were not endoscoped before the operation (Jan 2001-May 2002). Group 2 (n = 60) had routine endoscopy carried out before surgery (June 2002-October 2003). The results were entered in a database and analyzed. RESULTS: Total of 240 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were carried out. Female to male ratio was 4:1. In Group 1, the recurrence or persistence of symptoms was 20/61 (32.78%) patients who were not scoped. In Group 2, all patients were scoped with positive findings in 35% of the patients. All were treated for the pathology and only 2(3.3%) had recurrence or persistence of symptoms. CONCLUSION: The routine use of gastroscopy before laparoscopic cholecystectomy helps to reduce persistence of symptoms and is recommended.
    • Tissue-advanced glycation end product concentration in dialysis patients.

      McIntyre, Natasha; Chesterton, Lindsay; John, Stephen; Jefferies, Helen; Burton, James; Taal, Maarten; Fluck, Richard; McIntyre, Christopher (2010-01)
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tissue-advanced glycation end products (AGE) are a measure of cumulative metabolic stress. Assessment of tissue AGE by skin autofluoresence (AF) correlates well with cardiovascular outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study aimed to measure and compare tissue AGE levels in HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and to evaluate the impact of systemic PD glucose exposure. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Tissue AGE were measured in 115 established dialysis patients (62 HD and 53 PD) using a cutaneous AF device (AGE Reader; DiagnOptics). Values were compared with an age-matched non-chronic kidney disease database. Review of all previous PD solution delivery/prescription data determined PD glucose exposure. RESULTS: PD patients were similar in age to HD patients but had a shorter dialysis vintage. There were no differences in ischemic heart disease or smoking history, statin or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) use, lipids, biochemistry, or prevalence of diabetes. More than 90% of both groups had met current dialysis adequacy targets. Skin AF values in PD and HD patients were similar and strongly correlated with historical PD glucose exposure. Skin AF correlated with age in both groups but with dialysis vintage only in PD patients CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative metabolic stress and transient hyperglycemia results in grossly elevated levels of tissue AGE in dialysis patients. In PD patients, this high level of AGE deposition is associated with historical glucose exposure. This observation provides a previously unappreciated potential link between PD exposure to glucose and systemic cardiovascular disease.
    • Anti-TNF-alpha agents are less effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in current smokers.

      Gadsby, Kate; Deighton, Chris; Butt, Sayqa (2010-01)
      OBJECTIVES: To assess if smoking status at the time of commencing an anti-TNF-alpha agent for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reduces the likelihood of achieving at least a moderate response on the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria at 3-month assessment. METHODS: All patients with RA treated with their first anti-TNF-alpha agent at the Department of Rheumatology, Derby Hospital NHS Trust between April 2001 and October 2008 were included in this retrospective case control study. Information about age, gender, disease duration, body mass index, smoking status (current smoker, ex-smoker, and nonsmoker), comorbidities, oral prednisolone use, and 28 joint 4 variables disease activity score (DAS28) at the time of commencing an anti-TNF-alpha agent was recorded. Details of rheumatoid factor (RF) and past and present disease modifying antirheumatic drugs were recorded. A case control study was carried out to examine possible baseline predictors of treatment effects at the 3-month assessment. RESULTS: Results were available for 395 patients at 3-month assessment. According to the EULAR response criteria 42 patients failed to show at least a moderate response. After adjusting for confounders using multivariate analysis, current smoking at the time of commencing an anti-TNF-alpha agent reduced the chance of achieving at least a moderate response on the EULAR response criteria when compared with nonsmokers (aOR [95% CI] 0.20 [0.05-0.83], P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: RA patients who smoke are less likely to respond to an anti-TNF-alpha agent.
    • Troublesome belching with fetor odour.

      Rashid, Farhan; Singh, Rajeev; Cole, Andrew; Iftikhar, Syed (2010-03)
    • Delayed presentation of small bowel injury during suprapubic catheterisation.

      Leeder, Paul; Jackson, Benjamin; Williams, J. Huw (2010-04)
      We present a case of small intestine injury resulting from suprapubic catheter insertion. This case is of particular interest for three reasons. Firstly, the presentation of the injury was delayed by three months, until the time of the first catheter exchange. Secondly, the injury was managed conservatively, without surgical exploration. Finally, the injury occurred using a newer, Seldinger-type suprapubic catheter insertion kit.
    • An unusual cause of a mediastinal mass.

      Mohammed, Abdul; Rea, Rustram (2010-08)
      Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a disorder resulting in hypercalcaemia due to autonomous over secretion of parathyroid hormone. Mediastinal parathyroid adenoma is a rare disorder which can present with a widened mediastinum on a plain film. Its always important to check calcium level in patients who present with a mediastinal mass to rule out PHPT. Recognition of this disorder is crucial to prevent long-term sequelae. The authors report an interesting case and discuss further about it, which would be of help both to a specialist and a general physician.
    • Rheumatoid cachexia and cardiovascular disease.

      Summers, Greg (2010-08)
      Both cachexia and cardiovascular disease are strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and linked to the chronic inflammatory process. Typically, rheumatoid cachexia occurs in individuals with normal or increased BMI (reduced muscle mass and increased fat mass). Classic cachexia (reduced muscle mass and reduced fat mass) is rare in RA but is associated with high inflammatory activity and aggressive joint destruction in patients with a poor cardiovascular prognosis. Conversely, obesity is linked to hypertension and dyslipidemia but, paradoxically, lower RA disease activity and less cardiovascular disease-related mortality. Rheumatoid cachexia might represent the 'worst of both worlds' with respect to cardiovascular outcome, but until diagnostic criteria for this condition are agreed upon, its effect on cardiovascular disease risk remains controversial.
    • The management of gastric polyps.

      Goddard, Andrew (2010-09)
      BACKGROUND: Gastric polyps are important as some have malignant potential. If such polyps are left untreated, gastric cancer may result. The malignant potential depends on the histological type of the polyp. The literature base is relatively weak and any recommendations made must be viewed in light of this. DEFINITION: Gastric polyps are sessile or pedunculated lesions that originate in the gastric epithelium or submucosa and protrude into the stomach lumen. MALIGNANT POTENTIAL: Depending on histological type, some gastric polyps (adenomas and hyperplastic polyps) have malignant potential and are precursors of early gastric cancer. They may also indicate an increased risk of intestinal or extra-intestinal malignancy.
    • Breathlessness in advanced disease. 1: Definitions, epidemiology and pathophysiology.

      Barnes, D (2010-11)
      This first in a two part unit on breathlessness in advanced disease defines the condition and discusses the epidemiology. It gives an overview of the complex pathophysiology that contributes to breathlessness.
    • Breathlessness in advanced disease. 2: Patient assessment and management.

      Barnes, D (2010-11)
      This second of a two part unit on breathlessness addresses patient assessment and management, including common treatments. Interventions that can be taught to, and used independently by, patients and carers are explored.
    • An unusual cause of a sellar mass.

      Mohammed, Abdul; Amin, Peshraw (2010-12)
      A 57-year-old man presented with features suggestive of a non-functioning pituitary tumour. He underwent trans-sphenoidal resection of the tumour which was found to be a chordoma and not a pituitary adenoma. This case demonstrates that a chordoma may directly involve the sellar region and mimic a pituitary adenoma. We also discuss the aetiology, areas of involvement, management and prognosis of this unusual tumour.
    • Carbohydrate counting and insulin dose adjustment: group education for people with type 2 diabetes.

      Shorrock, I (2011)
      A group education programme at the Royal Derby Hospital for type 2 diabetes patients. The impact of the programme, which provided information on carbohydrate and insulin, on patients' weight, HbA1c levels, and insulin dosage is described.
    • Peritoneal dialysis is not associated with myocardial stunning.

      Selby, Nicholas; McIntyre, Christopher (2011-01)
      BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic changes during hemodialysis can precipitate subclinical myocardial ischemia, which over time contributes to the development of cardiac failure and is associated with a poor prognosis. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is also associated with acute changes in systemic hemodynamics and a similarly high incidence of cardiovascular disease; we therefore sought to examine whether the hemodynamic effects of a PD exchange would be sufficient to induce subclinical myocardial ischemia. METHODS: 10 patients on PD entered a prospective observational study to determine whether left ventricular (LV) regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMAs) developed following a dialysate exchange. Serial echocardiography with quantitative analysis was used to assess ejection fraction and regional systolic LV function (shortening fraction). Blood pressure (BP) and hemodynamic variables were measured using continuous pulse wave analysis. RESULTS: We observed a very low frequency of RWMA development (5/100 regions). Only 1 patient had more than 1 RWMA and 6 patients were entirely unaffected. Overall mean shortening fraction increased when comparing pre and post values for both 2-chamber (from 3.06% ± 1.5% to 4.26% ± 1.3%, p = 0.001) and 4-chamber (from 3.00% ± 0.7% to 3.67% ± 0.9%, p = 0.021) analyses. Mean arterial pressure fell by a small degree during drainage of dialysate, with a larger rise in BP observed during instillation. These changes were driven by changes in peripheral resistance that fell during drainage and rose during instillation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to hemodialysis, the acute effects of PD do not result in subclinical myocardial ischemia.