• H1-antihistamines for chronic spontaneous urticaria: an abridged Cochrane Systematic Review.

      Sharma, Maulina (2015-10)
      BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria is characterized by recurrent itchy wheals. First-line management is with H1-antihistamines. OBJECTIVE: We sought to conduct a Cochrane Review of H1-antihistamines in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria. METHODS: A systematic search of major databases for randomized controlled trials was conducted. RESULTS: We included 73 studies with 9759 participants; 34 studies provided outcome data for 23 comparisons. Compared with placebo, cetirizine 10 mg daily in the short and intermediate term (RR 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51-4.91) led to complete suppression of urticaria. Levocetirizine 20 mg daily was effective for short-term use (RR 20.87; 95% CI 1.37-317.60) as was 5 mg for intermediate-term use (RR 52.88; 95% CI 3.31-843.81). Desloratadine 20 mg was effective for the short term (RR 15.97; 95% CI 1.04-245.04) as was 5 mg in the intermediate term (RR 37.00; 95% CI 2.31-593.70). There was no evidence to suggest difference in adverse event rates between treatments. LIMITATIONS: Some methodological limitations were observed. Few studies for each comparison reported outcome data that could be incorporated in meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: At standard doses, several antihistamines are effective and safe in complete suppression of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Research on long-term treatment using standardized outcome measures and quality of life scores is needed.
    • Hailey-Hailey Disease With Coexistent Herpes Virus Infection: Insights Into the Diagnostic Conundrum of Herpetic/Pseudoherpetic Features in Cutaneous Acantholytic Disorders.

      Panthagani, Anusha (2018-10)
      The specific histopathologic diagnosis of a primary acantholytic disorder takes into account the distribution and extent of acantholysis, presence or absence of dyskeratosis, nature of the dermal inflammatory cell infiltrate, and immunofluorescence findings. Herpes virus infection is a common cause of secondary acantholysis where distinctive viral cytopathic changes aid in making it a clear-cut diagnosis in majority of cases. We present a case of coexistence of Hailey-Hailey disease and herpes simplex virus infection to compare and contrast their histopathologic features. This is imperative because acantholytic cells from primary acantholytic disorders may occasionally show cytological features traditionally associated with herpes virus infection (pseudoherpetic changes). The objective of this article is to create a greater awareness of pseudoherpetic changes and also to explore the clinical significance of coexistence of a primary acantholytic disorder and herpes virus infection, as in this case.
    • Health-related utility values of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and its predictors.

      Regan, Marian (2014-07)
      OBJECTIVES: EuroQoL-5 dimension (EQ-5D) is a standardised preference-based tool for measurement of health-related quality of life and EQ-5D utility values can be converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to aid cost-utility analysis. This study aimed to evaluate the EQ-5D utility values of 639 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) in the UK. METHODS: Prospective data collected using a standardised pro forma were compared with UK normative data. Relationships between utility values and the clinical and laboratory features of PSS were explored. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with PSS reporting any problem in mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression were 42.2%, 16.7%, 56.6%, 80.6% and 49.4%, respectively, compared with 5.4%, 1.6%, 7.9%, 30.2% and 15.7% for the UK general population. The median EQ-5D utility value was 0.691 (IQR 0.587-0.796, range -0.239 to 1.000) with a bimodal distribution. Bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between EQ-5D utility values and many clinical features of PSS, but most strongly with pain, depression and fatigue (R values>0.5). After adjusting for age and sex differences, multiple regression analysis identified pain and depression as the two most important predictors of EQ-5D utility values, accounting for 48% of the variability. Anxiety, fatigue and body mass index were other statistically significant predictors, but they accounted for <5% in variability. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the EQ-5D utility values of patients with PSS. These patients have significantly impaired utility values compared with the UK general population. EQ-5D utility values are significantly related to pain and depression scores in PSS.
    • Healthcare reconsultation in working-age adults following hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia.

      Bewick, Tom (2018-02)
      Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with prolonged symptom persistence during recovery. However, the effect of the residual symptom load on healthcare utilisation is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify healthcare reconsultation within 28 days of hospital discharge for an index episode of CAP, and explore reasons for these reconsultations. Adults of working age admitted to any of four hospitals in the UK, with a primary diagnosis of CAP, were prospectively studied. Of 108 patients, 71 (65.7%) reconsulted healthcare services within 28 days of discharge; of these, 90.1% consulted their GP. Men were less likely to reconsult than women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.91, p=0.032). Persistence of respiratory symptoms accounted for the majority of these reconsultations. Healthcare utilisation is high in working-age adults after an episode of hospitalised CAP and, in most cases, is due to failure to resolve index symptoms.
    • High magnesium dialysate does not improve intradialytic hemodynamics or abrogate myocardial stunning.

      Jefferies, Helen (2020-08)
      BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) induces myocardial stunning and is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Intradialytic hypotension is a modifiable determinant of myocardial stunning. Magnesium (Mg) is reported to be valuable in maintaining intradialytic blood pressure, which potentially would protect against demand myocardial ischemia. This study aimed to compare high vs. low dialysate Mg effects on intradialytic hemodynamics and HD-induced myocardial stunning. METHODS: Twenty stable prevalent HD patients entered a randomized cross-over trial of low (0.5 mmol/L) vs. high (1.0 mmol/L) dialysate Mg. Patients were studied after 2 weeks of standard HD with each Mg concentration. Serial echocardiography assessed myocardial stunning, measured by left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMAs). Continuous intradialytic hemodynamics were measured noninvasively using thoracic bioimpedance. FINDINGS: Median predialysis serum Mg was higher with high dialysate Mg (1.45[1.29-1.55] vs. 1.03[0.98-1.1] mmol/L, P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in maximum intradialytic reduction in systolic BP. There was no significant difference in stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac output. Overall ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) (as a sensitive marker of contractile function) was higher before dialysis in high Mg group, but there was no difference in GLS at peak stress. However, we showed a significant correlation between Mg changes and GLS changes, r = -0.47, P = 0.02. There was no difference in mean number of peak stress RWMAs per patient (4.0 ± 2.2 vs. 4.3 ± 2.9, P = 0.5). Ultrafiltration volume, a critical determinant of stunning, was not different between high and low dialysate Mg studies (1.35[0-3.3] vs. 1.5[0-2.8], P = 0.49). DISCUSSION: Manipulation of magnesium by altering dialysate magnesium concentration does not influence intradialytic hemodynamic response or HD-induced myocardial stunning in the short term. However, decreasing Mg changes appears to decrease GLS changes.
    • High Riding Prostate: Epidemiology of Genitourinary Injury in Motorcyclists from a UK Register of over 12,000 Victims

      Moss, BF (2020-06)
      Background: The mechanism of motorcycle accidents (high speeds, pelvis behind fuel tank) may predispose to genitourinary injury (GUI) but the epidemiology is poorly understood. Previous studies have assessed GUI patterns in cyclists, and road traffic accident victims in general, but no study has analyzed GUI patterns in a large cohort of motorcyclists. Objectives: We aimed to better understand patterns of urological injuries among motorcyclists admitted to hospital. We aimed to determine any relationship between pelvic fracture and GUI patterns or severity. Methods: The Trauma Audit Research Network was reviewed to identify motorcyclists admitted between January 2012 and December 2016 (n = 12,374). Cases were divided into riders (n = 11,926) and pillion passengers (n = 448), and the data analyzed to identify urological injuries and their associations. The associations between pelvic fracture and other injury types were tested for significance by one- and two-way χ2. Results: GUI was identified in 6%. Renal trauma was the most common GUI among riders (4%) and pillions (2%). There was no statistically significant relationship between grade of renal trauma and presence of pelvic fracture. Urethral injury occurred in 0.2% of riders and passengers, and bladder injury in 0.4% of riders and 0.7% of pillions. Urethral and bladder injuries were positively associated with pelvic fracture, which was present in 81 and 92%, respectively. Tes¬ticular trauma occurred in 0.4% of riders and 0.7% of pillions. Body armor was recorded in 3% of casualties with urological trauma, and 3% overall. Conclusions: A significant propor¬tion of motorcyclists brought to accident and emergency department have GUI, most commonly renal trauma. Pelvic fracture is more common in pillion passengers than riders, and associated with urethral and bladder injuries, but it does not predict severity of renal trauma. External genital inju¬ries are rare, but we recommend examination in the tertiary survey, as consequences of missed injury are severe. Further research is needed to explore protective effects of motorcyclist clothing
    • High sodium intake is associated with important risk factors in a large cohort of chronic kidney disease patients.

      McIntyre, Natasha; McIntyre, Christopher; Taal, Maarten (2015-07)
      BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: An increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is observed in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) even in early stages. Dietary sodium intake has been associated with important CVD and CKD progression risk factors such as hypertension and proteinuria in this population. We aimed to investigate the relationship between sodium intake and CVD or CKD progression risk factors in a large cohort of patients with CKD stage 3 recruited from primary care. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 1733 patients with previous estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-59 ml/min/1.73m(2), with a mean age 72.9±9.0 years, were recruited from 32 general practices in primary care in England. Medical history was obtained and participants underwent clinical assessment, urine and serum biochemistry testing. Sodium intake was estimated from three early-morning urine specimens using an equation validated for this study population. RESULTS: Sixty percent of participants who had estimated sodium intake above recommendation (>100 mmol/day or 6 g salt/day) also had higher diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, high-sensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid and used a greater number of anti-hypertensive drugs. In multivariable regression analysis, excessive sodium intake was an independent predictor of MAP (B=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-2.72; P=0.008) and albuminuria (B=1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.79; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: High sodium intake was associated with CVD and CKD progression risk factors in patients with predominantly early stages of CKD followed up in primary care. This suggests that dietary sodium intake could afffect CVD risk even in early or mild CKD. Intervention studies are warranted to investigate the potential benefit of dietary advice to reduce sodium intake in this population.
    • HLA-DQA1-HLA-DRB1 variants confer susceptibility to pancreatitis induced by thiopurine immunosuppressants.

      Cole, Andrew (2014-10)
      Pancreatitis occurs in approximately 4% of patients treated with the thiopurines azathioprine or mercaptopurine. Its development is unpredictable and almost always leads to drug withdrawal. We identified patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who had developed pancreatitis within 3 months of starting these drugs from 168 sites around the world. After detailed case adjudication, we performed a genome-wide association study on 172 cases and 2,035 controls with IBD. We identified strong evidence of association within the class II HLA region, with the most significant association identified at rs2647087 (odds ratio 2.59, 95% confidence interval 2.07-3.26, P = 2 × 10(-16)). We replicated these findings in an independent set of 78 cases and 472 controls with IBD matched for drug exposure. Fine mapping of the HLA region identified association with the HLA-DQA1*02:01-HLA-DRB1*07:01 haplotype. Patients heterozygous at rs2647087 have a 9% risk of developing pancreatitis after administration of a thiopurine, whereas homozygotes have a 17% risk.
    • How do specialist trainee doctors acquire skills to practice patient-centred care? A qualitative exploration.

      Hui, Michelle (2018-10)
      OBJECTIVES: The importance of patient-centred care (PCC) has been increasingly recognised. However, there is limited work exploring what doctors actually understand by PCC, and how they perceive they acquire PCC skills in the workplace. The objectives of our study were to explore (1) what UK doctors, in specialist training, perceive to be the essential components of PCC, (2) if/how they acquire these skills, (3) any facilitators/barriers for engaging in PCC and (4) views on their PCC training. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth individual semi-structured interviews with UK specialist trainees. Interview transcripts were thematically analysed. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one specialist trainee doctors, with at least 4 years postgraduate experience, were interviewed. Participants worked in various medical specialities within the Medical Directorate of an acute hospital in the East Midlands of England. RESULTS: Interview data were transcribed verbatim and categorised into three main themes. The first theme was 'Understanding PCC' where the doctors gave varied perspectives on what they understood by PCC. Although many were able to highlight key components of PCC, there were also some accounts which demonstrated a lack of understanding. The second theme was 'Learning PCC skills: A work in progress'. Learning to be patient-centred was perceived to be an ongoing process. Within this, trainee doctors reported 'on-the-job' learning as the main means of acquiring PCC skills, but they also saw a place for formal training (eg, educational sessions focussing on PCC, role play). 'Delivering PCC: Beyond the physician' referred to the many influences the doctors reported in learning and delivering PCC including patients, the organisation and colleagues. Observing consultants taking a patient-centred approach was cited as an important learning tool. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may assist clinical educators in understanding how trainee doctors perceive PCC, and the factors that influence their learning, thereby helping them shape PCC skills training.
    • Hybrid Closed-loop therapy: Where are we in 2021?

      Wilmot, Emma (2020-12)
      Hybrid closed-loop systems are characterised by the coexistence of algorithm driven automated insulin delivery combined with manual mealtime boluses. Used correctly, these insulin delivery systems offer better glucose control and reduced risk of hypoglycemia and represent the most advanced form of insulin delivery available for people with type 1 diabetes. This paper aims to compare the currently available commercial hybrid closed-loop systems in the UK: Medtronic 670G/780G, Tandem t:slim X2 Control IQ and CamAPS FX systems. Medtronic 670G/780G systems use Guardian 3 sensor (7 day use, two to four calibrations / day) while Tandem and CamAPS systems use the calibration free Dexcom G6 sensor (10 days). CamAPS system is available as an android app while other two systems have the algorithm embedded in the insulin pump. During pivotal studies, depending on the study population and baseline HbA1c, these systems achive % time spent in the target range 3.9 to 10 mmol/l (70 to 180mg/dl) from 65% to 76% with low burden of hypoglycemia. All three systems allow for a higher glucose target for announced exercise while the Tandem system offers an additional night time tighter target. The CamAPS system offers fully customisable glucose targets and is the only system licenced for use during pregnancy. Additional education is required for both users and healthcare professionals to harness the best performance from these systems as well as trouble shoot when 'auto-mode'exists occur. We provide consensus recommendations to develop pragmatic pathways to guide patients, clinicians and commissioners in making informed decisions on the appropriate use of the diabetes technology.
    • Identifying dimensions of fatigue in haemodialysis important to patients,caregivers, and health professionals: an international survey.

      Fluck, Richard (2019-07)
      BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome measures of fatigue used in research in haemodialysis vary widely in the dimensions assessed; and the importance of these dimensions to patients and health professionals is unknown. This study aimed to identify the most important dimensions of fatigue to assess in patients on haemodialysis participating in trials. METHODS: In an international survey, patients/caregivers and health professionals rated the absolute and relative importance of content and measurement dimensions to include in a core outcome measure of fatigue. A 9-point Likert scale (7-9 indicating critical importance) was used to assess absolute importance and best-worst scale (BWS) was used to assess importance of each dimension compared to others RESULTS: In total, 169 patients/caregivers and 336 health professionals from 60 countries completed the survey. Both groups (patients/caregivers and health professionals) rated life participation (7.55), tiredness (7.40), level of energy (7.37), ability to think clearly (7.15), post-dialysis fatigue (7.13), motivation (7.03) and ability to concentrate (7.03) as critically important (mean Likert score greater than 7) content dimensions to include in a core outcome measure. Compared to patients and caregivers, health professionals rated post-dialysis fatigue, memory and verbal abilities more highly. Based on the relative importance scores, life participation was ranked most highly above all content dimensions. Severity was rated and ranked the most important measurement dimension by all stakeholders. CONCLUSION: A core outcome measure of fatigue should assess impact of fatigue on life participation, tiredness and level of energy, using a severity scale. A consistent and valid measurement of fatigue will improve the value of trials in supporting decision-making based on this important outcome.
    • Imaging the kidney using magnetic resonance techniques: structure to function

      Selby, Nicholas; Mahmoud, Hudu (2016-09)
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MRI can noninvasively assess the structure and function of the kidney in a single MRI scan session. This review summarizes recent advancements in functional renal MRI techniques, with a particular focus on clinical applications. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of MRI techniques now provide measures of relevance to the pathophysiology of kidney disease. Diffusion-weighted imaging, used in chronic kidney disease and renal transplantation, shows promise as a measure of renal fibrosis. Longitudinal relaxation time (T1) mapping has been utilized in cardiac MRI to measure fibrosis and oedema; recent work shows its potential in the kidney. Blood oxygen-level-dependent MRI to measure renal oxygenation has been extensively studied, but a number of other factors affect results making it hard to draw definite conclusions as to its utility as an independent measure. Phase contrast and arterial spin labelling can measure renal artery blood flow and renal perfusion without exogenous contrast, as opposed to dynamic contrast-enhanced studies. In general, current data on clinical use of functional renal MRI are restricted to cross-sectional studies. SUMMARY: Renal MRI has seen significant recent advances. Current evidence demonstrates its potential, and next steps include wider evaluation of its clinical application.
    • Imaging the kidney using magnetic resonance techniques: structure to function.

      Selby, Nicholas (2016-11)
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MRI can noninvasively assess the structure and function of the kidney in a single MRI scan session. This review summarizes recent advancements in functional renal MRI techniques, with a particular focus on clinical applications. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of MRI techniques now provide measures of relevance to the pathophysiology of kidney disease. Diffusion-weighted imaging, used in chronic kidney disease and renal transplantation, shows promise as a measure of renal fibrosis. Longitudinal relaxation time (T1) mapping has been utilized in cardiac MRI to measure fibrosis and oedema; recent work shows its potential in the kidney. Blood oxygen-level-dependent MRI to measure renal oxygenation has been extensively studied, but a number of other factors affect results making it hard to draw definite conclusions as to its utility as an independent measure. Phase contrast and arterial spin labelling can measure renal artery blood flow and renal perfusion without exogenous contrast, as opposed to dynamic contrast-enhanced studies. In general, current data on clinical use of functional renal MRI are restricted to cross-sectional studies. SUMMARY: Renal MRI has seen significant recent advances. Current evidence demonstrates its potential, and next steps include wider evaluation of its clinical application.
    • The impact of acute beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) ingestion on glucose and insulin kinetics in young and older men

      Herrod, Philip; Phillips, Hannah; Ranat, Reesha; Hardy, EJO (2020-10)
      Insulin resistance (IR) is a key feature in the development of numerous metabolic diseases. The cornerstone for treatment for IR remains diet and exercise, however these have poor rates of adherence. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a nutraceutical with contentious effects on IR in animal models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of acute HMB on IR in humans during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Young and older male volunteers underwent two 75 g OGTT with or without 3 g HMB. In young men, HMB significantly reduced the insulin area-under-the-curve (AUC), with no difference in glucose AUC, resulting in a numerical increase in the Cederholm index of insulin sensitivity. In older men, HMB had no effect on insulin or glucose responses. In conclusion, acute HMB may improve IR following a glucose load in young men; however, this does not appear to be sustained into older age.
    • Impact of Compliance with a Care Bundle on Acute Kidney Injury Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study.

      Kolhe, Nitin; Staples, David; Reilly, Timothy; Merrison, Daniel; McIntyre, Christopher; Fluck, Richard; Selby, Nicholas; Taal, Maarten (2015-07)
      BACKGROUND: A recent report has highlighted suboptimal standards of care for acute kidney injury (AKI) patients in England. The objective of this study was to ascertain if improvement in basic standard of care by implementing a care bundle (CB) with interruptive alert improved outcomes in patients with AKI. METHODS: An AKI CB linked to electronic recognition of AKI, coupled with an interruptive alert, was introduced to improve basic care delivered to patients with AKI. Outcomes were compared in patients who had the CB completed within 24 hours (early CB group) versus those who didn't have the CB completed or had it completed after 24 hours. RESULTS: In the 11-month period, 2297 patients had 2500 AKI episodes, with 1209 and 1291 episodes occurring before and after implementation of the AKI CB with interruptive alert, respectively. The CB was completed within 24 hours in 306 (12.2%) of AKI episodes. In-hospital case-fatality was significantly lower in the early CB group (18% versus 23.1%, p 0.046). Progression to higher AKI stages was lower in the early CB group (3.9% vs. 8.1%, p 0.01). In multivariate analysis, patients in the early CB group had lower odds of death at discharge (0.641; 95% CI 0.46, 0.891), 30 days (0.707; 95% CI 0.527, 0.950), 60 days (0.704; 95% CI 0.526, 0.941) and after a median of 134 days (0.771; 95% CI 0.62, 0.958). CONCLUSIONS: Compliance with AKI CB was associated with a decrease in case-fatality and reduced progression to higher AKI stage. Further interventions are required to improve utilization of the CB.
    • Impact of Dietetic Intervention on Skin Autofluorescence and Nutritional Status in Persons Receiving Dialysis: A Proof of Principle Study

      Willingham, Fiona; Selby, Nicholas; Taal, Maarten (2020-02)
      OBJECTIVE: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that result from oxidative stress and food consumption. It has been reported that markers of malnutrition are more important determinants of increased skin autofluorescence (SAF), a measure of AGE accumulation and risk factor for mortality, than high dietary AGE intake in a hemodialysis (HD) population, suggesting that correcting malnutrition may decrease SAF. DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated this hypothesis in a single-center, nonrandomized proof-of-principle study. We enrolled 27 patients on HD and one on peritoneal dialysis with malnutrition who received individualized nutritional advice and support over 6 months. SAF was measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Dietary intake and nutritional status were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results were compared with a control group of malnourished patients on dialysis (n = 41 HD and 8 peritoneal dialysis) from a previous observational study. RESULTS: The intervention group showed a significant increase in dietary intake, including AGEs, Subjective Global Assessment score, and serum albumin, while SAF levels remained stable for over 6 months (3.8 ± 0.7 arbitrary units [AU] vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 AU; P = .3). Conversely, in the control group, SAF increased significantly during the observation period (3.5 ± 0.9 AU vs. 3.8 ± 1.2 AU; P = .03) during which there was no improvement in nutritional intake and other markers of nutrition, although dietary AGE intake and Subjective Global Assessment score did increase. CONCLUSION: Dietetic support was associated with stable SAF levels in this proof-of-principal study despite an increase in dietary AGE intake, suggesting that interventions to improve nutrition may be important in preventing the rise in SAF observed in malnourished dialysis populations. Further long-term studies are needed to test this hypothesis and evaluate the impact on survival.
    • Impact of gut hormone FGF-19 on type-2 diabetes and mitochondrial recovery in a prospective study of obese diabetic women undergoing bariatric surgery

      Piya, Milan (2017-02)
      BACKGROUND: The ileal-derived hormone, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), may promote weight loss and facilitate type-2 diabetes mellitus remission in bariatric surgical patients. We investigated the effect of different bariatric procedures on circulating FGF-19 levels and the resulting impact on mitochondrial health in white adipose tissue (AT). METHODS: Obese and type-2 diabetic women (n = 39, BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) undergoing either biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP), or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) participated in this ethics approved study. Anthropometry, biochemical, clinical data, serum, and AT biopsies were collected before and 6 months after surgery. Mitochondrial gene expression in adipose biopsies and serum FGF-19 levels were then assessed. RESULTS: All surgeries led to metabolic improvements with BPD producing the greatest benefits on weight loss (↓30%), HbA1c (↓28%), and cholesterol (↓25%) reduction, whilst LGCP resulted in similar HbA1c improvements (adjusted for BMI). Circulating FGF-19 increased in both BPD and LGCP (χ(2)(2) = 8.088; P = 0.018), whilst, in LAGB, FGF-19 serum levels decreased (P = 0.028). Interestingly, circulating FGF-19 was inversely correlated with mitochondrial number in AT across all surgeries (n = 39). In contrast to LGCP and LAGB, mitochondrial number in BPD patients corresponded directly with changes in 12 of 14 mitochondrial genes assayed (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum FGF-19 levels post-surgery were associated with improved mitochondrial health in AT and overall diabetic remission. Changes in circulating FGF-19 levels were surgery-specific, with BPD producing the best metabolic outcomes among the study procedures (BPD > LGCP > LAGB), and highlighting mitochondria in AT as a potential target of FGF-19 during diabetes remission.