• The management and diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury: a case study.

      Torr, Leah; Mortimore, Gerri
      Rhabdomyolysis is characterised by a rapid dissolution of damaged or injured skeletal muscle that can be the result of a multitude of mechanisms. It can range in severity from mild to severe, leading to multi-organ failure and death. Rhabdomyolysis causes muscular cellular breakdown, which can cause fatal electrolyte imbalances and metabolic acidosis, as myoglobin, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and other electrolytes move into the circulation; acute kidney injury can follow as a severe complication. This article reflects on the case of a person who was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury after a fall at home. Understanding the underpinning mechanism of rhabdomyolysis and the associated severity of symptoms may improve early diagnosis and treatment initiation.
    • Management of adults with diabetes on the haemodialysis unit: summary of guidance from the Joint British Diabetes Societies and the Renal Association

      Game, Frances (2018-08)
      Diabetic nephropathy remains the principal cause of end-stage renal failure in the UK and its prevalence is set to increase. People with diabetes and end-stage renal failure on maintenance haemodialysis are highly vulnerable, with complex comorbidities, and are at high risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, the leading cause of mortality in this population. The management of people with diabetes receiving maintenance haemodialysis is shared between diabetes and renal specialist teams and the primary care team, with input from additional healthcare professionals providing foot care, dietary support and other aspects of multidisciplinary care. In this setting, one specialty may assume that key aspects of care are being provided elsewhere, which can lead to important components of care being overlooked. People with diabetes and end-stage renal failure require improved delivery of care to overcome organizational difficulties and barriers to communication between healthcare teams. No comprehensive guidance on the management of this population has previously been produced. These national guidelines, the first in this area, bring together in one document the disparate needs of people with diabetes on maintenance haemodialysis. The guidelines are based on the best available evidence, or on expert opinion where there is no clear evidence to inform practice. We aim to provide clear advice to clinicians caring for this vulnerable population and to encourage and improve education for clinicians and people with diabetes to promote empowerment and self-management.
    • Management of adults with diabetes on the haemodialysis unit: summary of guidance from the Joint British Diabetes Societies and the Renal Association.

      Game, Frances (2018-08)
      Diabetic nephropathy remains the principal cause of end-stage renal failure in the UK and its prevalence is set to increase. People with diabetes and end-stage renal failure on maintenance haemodialysis are highly vulnerable, with complex comorbidities, and are at high risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, the leading cause of mortality in this population. The management of people with diabetes receiving maintenance haemodialysis is shared between diabetes and renal specialist teams and the primary care team, with input from additional healthcare professionals providing foot care, dietary support and other aspects of multidisciplinary care. In this setting, one specialty may assume that key aspects of care are being provided elsewhere, which can lead to important components of care being overlooked. People with diabetes and end-stage renal failure require improved delivery of care to overcome organizational difficulties and barriers to communication between healthcare teams. No comprehensive guidance on the management of this population has previously been produced. These national guidelines, the first in this area, bring together in one document the disparate needs of people with diabetes on maintenance haemodialysis. The guidelines are based on the best available evidence, or on expert opinion where there is no clear evidence to inform practice. We aim to provide clear advice to clinicians caring for this vulnerable population and to encourage and improve education for clinicians and people with diabetes to promote empowerment and self-management.
    • Management of Inpatient macroscopic haematuria: a typical urology emergency with a high mortality.

      Pavithran, A
      OBJECTIVE: To review the in-patient (IP) management patterns and 30-day outcomes of patients admitted with macroscopic haematuria (MH) over a 1-year-period in a single-institution, aiming to clarify management for such cases in the future. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study was conducted on all patients admitted with MH in a single-institution over 1-year, excluding patients not requiring an overnight stay. A case note review was performed for patient demographics, MH investigations, and management. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients were admitted with MH over a span of 1-year. 89% (107/120) were males, with an average age of 78 years (36-97 years), an average ASA of 3, mean length-of-stay (LOS) was 5 days (1-31days) and 68% (82/120) had pre-existing urological conditions. 62% (74/120) required bladder irrigation for a mean duration of 3 days (1-16days). 10% (12/120) required an emergency rigid cystoscopy and washout to manage the bleeding, of which 4% (5/12) had malignancy noted. Over 8% (10/120) patients discharged had unplanned readmissions within 30 days. The 1-year mortality for this cohort was 23% (28/120) of which 21% (6/28) died within 30 days from discharge. CONCLUSION: IP MH affects a vulnerable patient cohort. There is no specific pathway guiding the inpatient management of MH; therefore, research is required to produce standardized pathways for managing MH, considering the high-risk patient cohort, the prolonged LOS, and high one-year mortality rate.
    • Management of the temporomandibular joint in inflammatory arthritis: Involvement of surgical procedures.

      O'Connor, Rory (2017-06)
      Many conditions may affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), but its incidence in individual joint diseases is low. However, inflammatory arthropathies, particularly rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, appear to have a propensity for affecting the joint. Symptoms include pain, restriction in mouth opening, locking, and noises, which together can lead to significant impairment. Jaw rest, a soft diet, a bite splint, and medical therapy, including disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and simple analgesia, are the bedrock of initial treatment and will improve most symptoms in most patients. Symptom deterioration does not necessarily follow disease progression, but when it does, TMJ arthroscopy and arthrocentesis can help modulate pain, increase mouth opening, and relieve locking. These minimally invasive procedures have few complications and can be repeated. Operations to repair or remove a damaged intra-articular disc or to refine joint anatomy are used in select cases. Total TMJ replacement is reserved for patients where joint collapse or fusion has occurred or in whom other treatments have failed to provide adequate symptomatic control. It yields excellent outcomes and is approved by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE), UK. Knowledge of the assessment and treatment of the TMJ, which differs from other joints affected by inflammatory arthritis due to its unique anatomy and function, is not widespread outside of the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this article is to highlight the peculiarities of TMJ disease secondary to rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis and how to best manage these ailments, which should help guide when referral to a specialist TMJ surgeon is appropriate.
    • Managing patients with delusional infestations in an integrated Psychodermatology clinic is much more cost effective than a general dermatology or primary care setting

      Mohandas, Padma (2016-09)
      Delusional Infestation (DI) is a condition whereby patients hold a fixed, false belief of being infested with living organisms (1) . Patients classically present with excoriated skin at various stages of the healing process, together with evidence of their infestation (the specimen sign(2) ) such as skin debris, insects or insect parts.. Patients also complain of a variety of cutaneous symptoms such as crawling, itching, burning and soreness. DI may occur as a primary disorder or as a consequence of medical illness(3) . A significant proportion of patients also have other associated dermato-psychological problems such as body dysmorphophobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and nodular prurigo. Sufferers often experience significant morbidity and reduction in quality of life.
    • Mapping the undergraduate dermatology curriculum: a useful tool towards implementation of national recommendations.

      Sharma, Maulina; Scorer, M (2020-04)
      BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of skin complaints in primary care and secondary care, dermatology undergraduate (UG) education remains inconsistent across medical schools. The British Association of Dermatologists (BAD) published a revised national UG curriculum in 2016 to guide UK medical schools on the minimum competencies required in dermatology. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the alignment of the BAD UG curriculum with the dermatology curriculum of the University of Nottingham School of Medicine. METHODS: A curriculum mapping study was undertaken with the development of an electronic searchable database tool to map key areas. RESULTS: Of the 70 intended learning outcomes (ILOs) for dermatology in the medical school, 55 (79%) were mapped to the BAD curriculum, while 14 (20%) required modifications to align them with the BAD ILOs. Two BAD ILOs were unspecified in the current curriculum, and one was deemed redundant. CONCLUSION: Curriculum mapping is a useful tool to standardize local dermatology ILOs to national recommendations and provides transparency to stakeholders for implementation of the dermatology curriculum.
    • Mentorship in Dermatology-A Beginner's Guide

      Narang, I
      Mentoring albeit is a recently described and popular phenomenon in medicine, is not a new one. All medical specialties have a complex, intertwined relationship between their physicians and trainees who are in different stages of their careers. How a specialty evolves depends on the thread woven by these relationships. This article outlines the concept of mentorship and introduces its various aspects in dermatology. This article attempts to answer what, why, how, when, and where related to mentoring in dermatology, including e-mentorship. The article also includes personal reflections of the authors who are involved in this process
    • Mesalazine induced myopericarditis in a patient with ulcerative colitis.

      Asadi, Jalal; Bhandari, Sanjay; Ahmed, Nauman (2017-11)
      A 25-year-old male with a background of ulcerative colitis presented with a two-week history of central chest pain. His ECG on presentation showed global T wave inversion with a peak troponin I of 165 ng/ml. Clinical diagnosis of myopericarditis/myocarditis was made. Echocardiography and cardiac MR confirmed the diagnosis. On detailed assessment of his medication history, mesalazine was suspected as an aetiological factor, with discontinuation resulting in an improvement in symptoms, inflammatory markers and cardiac enzymes. This is a unique case of mesalazine induced myopericarditis on a background of inflammatory bowel disease
    • Mid-Term Remission of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After Laparoscopic Roux En-Y Gastric Bypass

      Al-Khyatt, Waleed; Leeder, Paul; Awan, Altaf; Awad, Sherif; Ahmed, Javed; Idris, Iskandar (2016-06)
      BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is an established therapeutic modality for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there is paucity of data on the outcomes of LRYGB on T2DM beyond 2 years. This study aimed to examine the medium-term effects of LRYGB on T2DM and determine the predictors of T2DM resolution. METHODS: Prospective data were collected for all consecutive LRYGB performed from September 2009 to November 2010. The American Diabetes Association guidelines were used to define complete (CR) or partial (PR) remission of diabetes. Diabetes status was considered improved when there was >50 % reduction in the dose of medications or when glycaemic control was achieved after stopping insulin. The effects of baseline characteristics, diabetes data and weight loss data at 4 years on T2DM remission were studied. RESULTS: Forty-six patients with T2DM underwent LRYGB with mean ± SD age and body mass index (BMI) of 48.6 ± 9.6 years and 50.4 ± 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. Median (IQR, interquartile range) duration of T2DM preoperatively was 60 (36-126) months. Median (IQR) follow-up was 52 (50-57) months. T2DM remission was achieved in 64 % of patients (44 % CR, 20 % PR), and a further 28 % of patients had improvement in their diabetes status. Multivariate analyses demonstrated significant excess weight loss (EWL) [P = 0.008] and lower BMI [P = 0.04] at 4 years to be the only independent predictors of T2DM medium-term outcomes. CONCLUSION: The medium-term effects of LRYGB on T2DM remission/improvement were maintained in 92 % of patients. EWL and lower BMI at 4 years were independent predictors of T2DM remission.
    • Morgellons disease: experiences of an integrated multidisciplinary dermatology team to achieve positive outcomes.

      Mohandas, Padma; Bewley, Anthony; Taylor, Ruth (2018-03)
      BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a reported increase in affliction of the skin with small fibres or other particles. The condition has been referred to as Morgellons disease. Patients present with stinging, burning or crawling sensations of the skin, with perceived extrusion of inanimate material alongside fatigue and other systemic symptoms. Sufferers often experience significant morbidity and reduction in quality of life. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the various clinical presentations, management strategies and outcomes employed to treat this condition in our patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case notes review of 35 patients referred to our multidisciplinary psycho-dermatology clinic at the Royal London Hospital between January 2004 and January 2017. RESULTS: The majority of patients were women (25) 71.4%, with a mean age of 54.6 years (26-80 years). Most (26) 74.2% were living alone. The average duration of illness prior to presentation was 3.8 years (4 months-20 years). Many patients had perceived precipitating factors (54.2%) and often self-diagnosed (28.5%). Psychiatric co-morbidities included 42.8% with depressive symptoms and 25.7% with anxiety. Substance misuse was elicited in five patients (14%). Management of patients included both the treatment of skin disease and psychosocial co-morbidities. Out of the 35 patients who attended (14) 40% cleared or showed significant improvement. Sixteen (45.7%) patients were stable and under review. One patient declined treatment and three did not attend review. One patient died from disease unrelated to her skin condition. CONCLUSIONS: Morgellons disease is a condition, which is widely discussed on the internet and patients often self-diagnose. The course of the disease can be chronic and debilitating. For a positive outcome, it is important that a strong physican-patient relationship is cultivated. As demonstrated in this case series, managing patients holistically in an integrated multidisciplinary dermatology setting helps achieve positive outcomes.
    • Morgellons Disease; experiences of an integrated multidisciplinary dermatology team to achieve positive outcomes.

      Mohandas, Padma (2017-06)
      BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a reported increase in affliction of the skin with small fibres or other particles. The condition has been referred to as Morgellons disease. Patients present with stinging, burning or crawling sensations of the skin, with perceived extrusion of inanimate material alongside fatigue and other systemic symptoms. Sufferers often experience significant morbidity and reduction in quality of life. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the various clinical presentations, management strategies and outcomes employed to treat this condition in our patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case notes review of 35 patients referred to our multidisciplinary psycho-dermatology clinic at the Royal London Hospital between January 2004 and January 2017. RESULTS: The majority of patients were women (25) 71.4%, with a mean age of 54.6 years (26-80 years). Most (26) 74.2% were living alone. The average duration of illness prior to presentation was 3.8 years (4 months-20 years). Many patients had perceived precipitating factors (54.2%) and often self-diagnosed (28.5%). Psychiatric co-morbidities included 42.8% with depressive symptoms and 25.7% with anxiety. Substance misuse was elicited in five patients (14%). Management of patients included both the treatment of skin disease and psychosocial co-morbidities. Out of the 35 patients who attended (14) 40% cleared or showed significant improvement. Sixteen (45.7%) patients were stable and under review. One patient declined treatment and three did not attend review. One patient died from disease unrelated to her skin condition. CONCLUSIONS: Morgellons disease is a condition which is widely discussed on the internet and patients often self-diagnose. The course of the disease can be chronic and debilitating. For a positive outcome, it is important that a strong physican-patient relationship is cultivated. As demonstrated in this case series, managing patients holistically in an integrated multidisciplinary dermatology setting helps achieve positive outcomes.
    • Mortality in coeliac disease: a population-based cohort study from a single centre in Southern Derbyshire, UK.

      Holmes, Geoffrey (2018-04)
      Objective: With the advent of screening tests, it was hypothesised that milder cases of coeliac disease coming to diagnosis might have reduced risk of mortality. An earlier publication did not support this view. We have re-examined this issue employing a larger number of patients followed for a further 8 years. Design: Patients with coeliac disease from Southern Derbyshire, UK, were followed prospectively from 1978 to 2014 and included those diagnosed by biopsy and serology. Causes of death were ascertained. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated for all deaths, cardiovascular disease, malignancy, accidents and suicides, respiratory and digestive disease. Ratios were calculated for individual causes. Analysis centred on the postdiagnosis period that included follow-up time beginning 2 years from the date of coeliac disease diagnosis to avoid ascertainment bias. Patients were stratified according to date of diagnosis to reflect increasing use of serological methods. Results: All-cause mortality increase was 57%. Mortality in the serology era declined overall. Mortality from cardiovascular disease, specifically, decreased significantly over time. Death from respiratory disease significantly increased in the postdiagnosis period. The standardised mortality ratio for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 6.32, for pneumonia 2.58, for oesophageal cancer 2.80 and for liver disease 3.10. Survival in those who died after diagnosis increased by three times over the past three decades. Conclusions: Serological testing has impacted on the risk of mortality in coeliac disease. There is an opportunity to improve survival by implementing vaccination programmes for pneumonia and more prompt, aggressive treatments for liver disease.
    • Multimorbidity in people with chronic kidney disease: implications for outcomes and treatment.

      Taal, Maarten; Fraser, SD (2016-08)
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With ageing populations, the prevalence of multimorbidity is increasing. This review discusses recent developments in the understanding of multimorbidity in the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It explores the associated treatment burden and the implications for key outcomes and patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Comorbidity and polypharmacy are common in CKD, even at early stages, and are associated with significant treatment burden. Both 'concordant' and 'discordant' comorbidities have a negative impact on mortality, cardiovascular disease, hospitalisation and length of stay. In addition, quality of life is influenced by many factors beyond CKD, including comorbidities and certain medications. Several factors may reduce treatment burden for people with CKD, though research on this is at an early stage. Although patient activation is desirable to support self-management amongst people with multimorbidity, there are significant challenges that impact patient capacity amongst elderly populations with complex needs.
    • Multiparametric Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Validation, Interventions, and Alterations in Chronic Kidney Disease.

      Mahmoud, Hudu; Taal, Maarten; Selby, Nicholas (2017-09)
      Background: This paper outlines a multiparametric renal MRI acquisition and analysis protocol to allow non-invasive assessment of hemodynamics (renal artery blood flow and perfusion), oxygenation (BOLD T2(*)), and microstructure (diffusion, T1 mapping). Methods: We use our multiparametric renal MRI protocol to provide (1) a comprehensive set of MRI parameters [renal artery and vein blood flow, perfusion, T1, T2(*), diffusion (ADC, D, D(*), fp), and total kidney volume] in a large cohort of healthy participants (127 participants with mean age of 41 ± 19 years) and show the MR field strength (1.5 T vs. 3 T) dependence of T1 and T2(*) relaxation times; (2) the repeatability of multiparametric MRI measures in 11 healthy participants; (3) changes in MRI measures in response to hypercapnic and hyperoxic modulations in six healthy participants; and (4) pilot data showing the application of the multiparametric protocol in 11 patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Results: Baseline measures were in-line with literature values, and as expected, T1-values were longer at 3 T compared with 1.5 T, with increased T1 corticomedullary differentiation at 3 T. Conversely, T2(*) was longer at 1.5 T. Inter-scan coefficients of variation (CoVs) of T1 mapping and ADC were very good at <2.9%. Intra class correlations (ICCs) were high for cortex perfusion (0.801), cortex and medulla T1 (0.848 and 0.997 using SE-EPI), and renal artery flow (0.844). In response to hypercapnia, a decrease in cortex T2(*) was observed, whilst no significant effect of hyperoxia on T2(*) was found. In CKD patients, renal artery and vein blood flow, and renal perfusion was lower than for healthy participants. Renal cortex and medulla T1 was significantly higher in CKD patients compared to healthy participants, with corticomedullary T1 differentiation reduced in CKD patients compared to healthy participants. No significant difference was found in renal T2(*). Conclusions: Multiparametric MRI is a powerful technique for the assessment of changes in structure, hemodynamics, and oxygenation in a single scan session. This protocol provides the potential to assess the pathophysiological mechanisms in various etiologies of renal disease, and to assess the efficacy of drug treatments.
    • Multiple left atrial masses in a patient with breast cancer.

      Chatterjee, Debjit (2017-08)
      This is a rare case with dramatic image of multiple clot formation in the left atrium in a patient with mitral stenosis when anticoagulation was stopped for a few days before cancer surgery.
    • A narrative systematic review of randomised controlled trials that compare cannulation techniques for haemodialysis

      Fielding, Catherine; Hadfield, Amanda; White, Kelly; Waters, Dan; James, Cathryn; Fluck, Richard; Selby, Nicholas (2021-01)
      Background: Cannulation of arteriovenous access for haemodialysis affects longevity of the access, associates with complications and affects patients’ experiences of haemodialysis. Buttonhole and rope ladder techniques were developed to reduce complications. However, studies that compare these two techniques report disparate results. This systematic review performs an in-depth exploration of RCTs, with a specific focus on cannulation as a complex intervention. Methods: A PICO question and protocol was developed as per PRISMA-P guidance and registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018094656 https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=112895). The systematic review included any RCT performed on adult patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing cannulation of arteriovenous fistulae or grafts for in-centre haemodialysis, as performed by healthcare staff. Assessment of quality of RCTs and data extraction were performed by two co-authors independently. Data were extracted on the study design, intervention and comparator and outcomes, including patency, infection and patients’ experiences. Results: The literature search identified 241 records. Ten records met inclusion criteria, which described five different RCTs that compared buttonhole to either rope ladder or usual practice. Results were disparate, with patency and infection results varying. Pain Visual Analogue scores were the only measure used to capture patients’ experiences and results were inconclusive. All RCTs had differences and limitations in study design that could explain the disparity in results. Conclusion: Current evidence does not allow definitive conclusions as to whether buttonhole or rope ladder needling technique is superior. Future RCTs should describe interventions and comparators with adequate detail, embed process evaluation, use standardised outcome measures and build on feasibility studies to produce definitive results.