Recent Submissions

  • Develop, implement and evaluate technology for social health in dementia: Lessons in best practice from the European DISTINCT network

    De Mendonca Lima, Carlos Augusto; Gerritzen, Esther; Garcia, Lesley (2023)
    Objective: DISTINCT is a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network. Supported by the INTERDEM network and European Association of Geriatric Psychiatry, DISTINCT aimed to establish a multi-disciplinary, multi-professional and intersectorial European research framework, for assistive technologies to support social health in dementia. In this symposium, we present research associated with the maturity lifecycle (development to evaluation) of four technologies: the ROADMAP online self-management intervention; online peer support for people with young onset dementia; online acceptance and commitment therapy for caregivers (ACT); and the FindMyApps tablet-based intervention for people with dementia and their caregiver. Method(s): In 2019, 15 ESRs were recruited to 13 research organizations across 8 European countries. Research projects were launched in collaboration with people living with dementia and caregivers, and industry partners. Projects were adapted to meet challenges and opportunities due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The projects presented in this symposium employed a variety of research paradigms (user-centred design, feasibility and implementation studies, randomized controlled trials). Key insights from each project were combined into best practice guidance for developers, researchers, healthcare professionals and people living with dementia, covering the full innovation lifecycle. Result(s): All DISTINCT research projects are now in the final stages, having so far resulted in more than 35 peer reviewed publications and many contributions to international conferences. Insights were incorporated into the Best Practice Guidance for Human Interaction with Technology in Dementia, published in December 2022, which will be updated by the end of 2023 with further insights from completed projects. Key findings presented in this symposium concern: development of ROAD MAP online; best practices for, and barriers to, online peer support; acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of online ACT; effectiveness and cost effectiveness of FindMyApps. Conclusion(s): There is growing evidence that assistive technologies are feasible and effective for supporting social health of people with dementia and caregivers. People living with dementia, formal and informal caregivers, policymakers, designers, and researchers can refer to the DISTINCT Best Practice Guidance to inform their approach to assistive technology. Future research can build on these results, to further understand and improve usability, (cost-)effectiveness, and implementation of assistive technology in dementia.
  • User experience and analytics inform the development of an innovative telehealth curriculum: ROAD MAP (Recovery- Oriented Approach to Dementia through Meaningful Activity Participation)

    Garcia, Lesley; Orrell, Martin (2023)
    Objective: To user-test a recovery-oriented, clinician-facilitated, web-based, self-management intervention accessible via mobile device: ROAD MAP. The initial programme theory underlying this research is that supporting the experiences of CHIME (connectedness, hope and optimism, identity, meaning in life and empowerment), in persons living with dementia (PLWD) will have health-promoting benefits for the PLWD. Method(s): The intervention will be delivered to 20 dyads of community-dwelling PLWDs and their carers via a five-week, online, recovery-based curriculum. Five convenience-sampled occupational therapists (OT) will be trained online in a 10- hour training programme to deliver the intervention. All data collection instruments are informed by realist evaluation (RE) methodology and enquire into initial programme theories (IPTs) used to develop the curriculum and the ROAD MAP digital tool. Data collection, between January and March 2023, will occur during both the OT training and the five-week pilot study. The OT facilitators will provide qualitative feedback on the ROAD MAP technology. Data will be collected via pre-post self-completion forms, semi-structured interviews, a focus group, and weekly guided reflective journal. PLWD's self-reported, user experience will be live polled within the weekly one-hour long sessions of the pilot. Their digital usage analytics will be generated by the MyGuide platform on which the ROAD MAP intervention is built. These data will be manually screened for IPT relevance and used to test emerging programme theories. Result(s): All data will be collected by end of March 2023 and analysed by end of May 2023. NVivo will be used to generate refined programme theories according to RE methodology. This will provide evidence of plausible, causal context-mechanism-outcome configurations which may optimize the refined version of the ROAD MAP digital intervention, curriculum and facilitator training methods. Conclusion(s): This study will increase knowledge of a methodology for developing useable and acceptable recoveryoriented telehealth tools for PLWD. This intervention could directly enhance the education of health care professionals and improve the equitable delivery of dementia services.
  • Implementation of the World Health Organization's QualityRights initiative in Ghana: An overview

    Orrell, Martin (2024)
    BACKGROUND: Globally, human rights violations experienced by persons with psychosocial, intellectual or cognitive disabilities continue to be a concern. The World Health Organization's (WHO) QualityRights initiative presents practical remedies to address these abuses. This paper presents an overview of the implementation of the initiative in Ghana. AIMS: The main objective of the QualityRights initiative in Ghana was to train and change attitudes among a wide range of stakeholders to promote recovery and respect for human rights for people with psychosocial, intellectual and cognitive disabilities. METHOD: Reports of in-person and online training, minutes of meetings and correspondence among stakeholders of the QualityRights initiative in Ghana, including activities of international collaborators, were analysed to shed light on the implementation of the project in Ghana. RESULTS: In-person and online e-training on mental health were conducted. At the time of writing, 40 443 people had registered for the training, 25 416 had started the training and 20 865 people had completed the training and obtained a certificate. The team conducted 27 in-person training sessions with 910 people. The successful implementation of the project is underpinned by a committed partnership among stakeholders, strong leadership from the coordinating agency, the acceptance of the initiative and the outcome. A few challenges, both in implementation and acceptance, are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure of the WHO QualityRights initiative to a substantial number of key stakeholders involved in mental healthcare in Ghana is critical to reducing human rights abuses for people with psychosocial, intellectual and cognitive disabilities.
  • Common pitfalls, and how to avoid them, in child and adolescent psychopharmacology: Part II

    Hollis, Chris P.; Kilgariff, Joseph (2024)
    As Faculty of the British Association for Psychopharmacology course on child and adolescent psychopharmacology, we present here what we deem are the most common pitfalls, and how to avoid them, in child and adolescent psychopharmacology. In this paper, we specifically addressed common pitfalls in the pharmacological treatment of autism and intellectual disability, eating disorders, neuropsychiatric correlates of epilepsy, and psychosis. Pitfalls in relation to the treatment of other disorders are addressed in a separate paper (Part I).
  • The 2022 symposium on dementia and brain aging in low- and middle-income countries: Highlights on research, diagnosis, care, and impact

    Orrell, Martin (2024)
    Two of every three persons living with dementia reside in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The projected increase in global dementia rates is expected to affect LMICs disproportionately. However, the majority of global dementia care costs occur in high-income countries (HICs), with dementia research predominantly focusing on HICs. This imbalance necessitates LMIC-focused research to ensure that characterization of dementia accurately reflects the involvement and specificities of diverse populations. Development of effective preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches for dementia in LMICs requires targeted, personalized, and harmonized efforts. Our article represents timely discussions at the 2022 Symposium on Dementia and Brain Aging in LMICs that identified the foremost opportunities to advance dementia research, differential diagnosis, use of neuropsychometric tools, awareness, and treatment options. We highlight key topics discussed at the meeting and provide future recommendations to foster a more equitable landscape for dementia prevention, diagnosis, care, policy, and management in LMICs. HIGHLIGHTS: Two-thirds of persons with dementia live in LMICs, yet research and costs are skewed toward HICs. LMICs expect dementia prevalence to more than double, accompanied by socioeconomic disparities. The 2022 Symposium on Dementia in LMICs addressed advances in research, diagnosis, prevention, and policy. The Nairobi Declaration urges global action to enhance dementia outcomes in LMICs.
  • Evaluation of selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors and anti-androgens to manage sexual compulsivity in individuals serving a custodial sentence for a sexual offence

    Adarsh, Kaul (2024)
    The UK prison system offers a medical treatment pathway for people suffering from problematic sexual arousal (PSA) who have committed a sexual offence(s). The two main medications are Anti-androgens (AAs) and Selective-Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). Currently, evidence of the effectiveness of SSRIs is not sufficiently robust for them to be licensed in the UK for that purpose. Instead, SSRIs are prescribed 'off-label', and physicians must adhere to additional obligations in prescribing them. Yet SSRIs have fewer side effects than AAs and may be a better treatment option for many patients. The present study examined the effectiveness of AAs and SSRIs in incarcerated individuals with PSA (n = 77); the unmedicated comparison group (n = 58) resided at the same prison which houses people convicted of a sexual offence. Both medicated groups demonstrated reduced levels of PSA 3 months post-baseline; the comparison group did not. The findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of SSRIs in reducing PSA. The authors argue a randomised control trial is required to underpin the use of SSRIs in treating PSA and (potentially) its subsequent licensing. The latter would enable wider prescription in prison and community and make a substantive contribution to the prevention of sexual abuse. Copyright © 2024 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Internet-delivered exposure and response prevention for pediatric tourette syndrome: 12-month follow-up of a randomized clinical trial

    Hall, Charlotte L.; Hollis, Chris P. (2024)
    IMPORTANCE: Behavior therapy is a recommended intervention for Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CTD), but availability is limited and long-term effects are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of therapist-supported, internet-delivered exposure and response prevention (ERP) vs psychoeducation for youths with TS or CTD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This 12-month controlled follow-up of a parallel group, superiority randomized clinical trial was conducted at a research clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, with nationwide recruitment. In total, 221 participants aged 9 to 17 years with TS or CTD were enrolled between April 26, 2019, and April 9, 2021, of whom 208 (94%) provided 12-month follow-up data. Final follow-up data were collected on June 29, 2022. Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation throughout the study. INTERVENTIONS: A total of 111 participants were originally randomly allocated to 10 weeks of therapist-supported, internet-delivered ERP and 110 participants to therapist-supported, internet-delivered psychoeducation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was within-group change in tic severity, measured by the Total Tic Severity Score of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS-TTSS), from the 3-month follow-up to the 12-month follow-up. Treatment response was defined as 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale. Analyses were intention-to-treat and followed the plan prespecified in the published study protocol. A health economic evaluation was performed from 3 perspectives: health care organization (including direct costs for treatment provided in the study), health care sector (additionally including health care resource use outside of the study), and societal (additionally including costs beyond health care [eg, parent's absenteeism from work]). RESULTS: In total, 221 participants were recruited (mean [SD] age, 12.1 [2.3] years; 152 [69%] male). According to the YGTSS-TTSS, there were no statistically significant changes in tic severity from the 3-month to the 12-month follow-up in either group (ERP coefficient, -0.52 [95% CI, -1.26 to 0.21]; P = .16; psychoeducation coefficient, 0.00 [95% CI, -0.78 to 0.78]; P > .99). A secondary analysis including all assessment points (baseline to 12-month follow-up) showed no statistically significant between-group difference in tic severity from baseline to the 12-month follow-up (coefficient, -0.38 [95% CI, -1.11 to 0.35]; P = .30). Treatment response rates were similar in both groups (55% in ERP and 50% in psychoeducation; odds ratio, 1.25 [95% CI, 0.73-2.16]; P = .42) at the 12-month follow-up. The health economic evaluation showed that, from a health care sector perspective, ERP produced more quality-adjusted life years (0.01 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.03]) and lower costs (adjusted mean difference -$84.48 [95% CI, -$440.20 to $977.60]) than psychoeducation at the 12-month follow-up. From the health care organization and societal perspectives, ERP produced more quality-adjusted life years at higher costs, with 65% to 78% probability of ERP being cost-effective compared with psychoeducation when using a willingness-to-pay threshold of US $79 000. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There were no statistically significant changes in tic severity from the 3-month through to the 12-month follow-up in either group. The ERP intervention was not superior to psychoeducation at any time point. While ERP was not superior to psychoeducation alone in reducing tic severity at the end of the follow-up period, ERP is recommended for clinical implementation due to its likely cost-effectiveness and support from previous literature.
  • Implementation of peer support for people with severe mental health conditions in high-, middle- and low-income-countries: A theory of change approach

    Charles, Ashleigh; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Slade, Mike (2024)
    BACKGROUND: Stakeholder engagement is essential to the design, implementation and evaluation of complex mental health interventions like peer support. Theory of Change (ToC) is commonly used in global health research to help structure and promote stakeholder engagement throughout the project cycle. Stakeholder insights are especially important in the context of a multi-site trial, in which an intervention may need to be adapted for implementation across very different settings while maintaining fidelity to a core model. This paper describes the development of a ToC for a peer support intervention to be delivered to people with severe mental health conditions in five countries as part of the UPSIDES trial. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four stakeholders from diverse backgrounds participated in a total of 17 workshops carried out at six UPSIDES implementing sites across high-, middle- and low-income settings (one site each in India, Israel, Uganda and Tanzania; two sites in Germany). The initial ToC maps created by stakeholders at each site were integrated into a cross-site ToC map, which was then revised to incorporate additional insights from the academic literature and updated iteratively through multiple rounds of feedback provided by the implementers. RESULTS: The final ToC map divides the implementation of the UPSIDES peer support intervention into three main stages: preparation, implementation, and sustainability. The map also identifies three levels of actors involved in peer support: individuals (service users and peer support workers), organisations (and their staff members), and the public. In the UPSIDES trial, the ToC map proved especially helpful in characterising and distinguishing between (a) common features of peer support, (b) shared approaches to implementation and (c) informing adaptations to peer support or implementation to account for contextual differences. CONCLUSIONS: UPSIDES is the first project to develop a multi-national ToC for a mental health peer support intervention. Stakeholder engagement in the ToC process helped to improve the cultural and contextual appropriateness of a complex intervention and ensure equivalence across sites for the purposes of a multi-site trial. It may serve as a blueprint for implementing similar interventions with a focus on recovery and social inclusion among people with mental ill-health across diverse settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN26008944 (Registration Date: 30/10/2019).
  • Transition support for patients admitted to intensive treatment for anorexia nervosa: Qualitative study of patient and carer experiences of a hybrid online guided self-help intervention (ECHOMANTRA)

    Arcelus, Jon (2024)
    BACKGROUND: Adults with anorexia nervosa experience high levels of relapse following in-patient treatment. ECHOMANTRA is a novel online aftercare intervention for patients and carers, which provides psychoeducation and support to augment usual care. AIMS: To explore patient and carer experiences of receiving the ECHOMANTRA intervention. METHOD: This is part of the process evaluation of the ECHOMANTRA intervention as delivered in the TRIANGLE trial (ISRCTN: 14644379). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 participants randomised to the ECHOMANTRA (ten patients and ten carers). Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interview transcripts. RESULTS: Five major themes were identified: (1) Mixed experience of the intervention; (2) tailoring the intervention to the stage of recovery; (3) involvement of carers; (4) acceptability of remote support; and (5) impact of self-monitoring and accountability. CONCLUSIONS: Participants were mostly positive about the support offered. The challenges of using remote and group support were counterbalanced with ease of access to information when needed. Components of the ECHOMANTRA intervention have the potential to improve care for people with eating disorders.
  • The implementation of recommender systems for mental health recovery narratives: Evaluation of use and performance

    Slade, Emily; Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan; Ng, Fiona; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Llewellyn-Beardsley, Joy; Slade, Mike (2024)
    BACKGROUND: Recommender systems help narrow down a large range of items to a smaller, personalized set. NarraGive is a first-in-field hybrid recommender system for mental health recovery narratives, recommending narratives based on their content and narrator characteristics (using content-based filtering) and on narratives beneficially impacting other similar users (using collaborative filtering). NarraGive is integrated into the Narrative Experiences Online (NEON) intervention, a web application providing access to the NEON Collection of recovery narratives. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the 3 recommender system algorithms used in NarraGive to inform future interventions using recommender systems for lived experience narratives. METHODS: Using a recently published framework for evaluating recommender systems to structure the analysis, we compared the content-based filtering algorithm and collaborative filtering algorithms by evaluating the accuracy (how close the predicted ratings are to the true ratings), precision (the proportion of the recommended narratives that are relevant), diversity (how diverse the recommended narratives are), coverage (the proportion of all available narratives that can be recommended), and unfairness (whether the algorithms produce less accurate predictions for disadvantaged participants) across gender and ethnicity. We used data from all participants in 2 parallel-group, waitlist control clinical trials of the NEON intervention (NEON trial: N=739; NEON for other [eg, nonpsychosis] mental health problems [NEON-O] trial: N=1023). Both trials included people with self-reported mental health problems who had and had not used statutory mental health services. In addition, NEON trial participants had experienced self-reported psychosis in the previous 5 years. Our evaluation used a database of Likert-scale narrative ratings provided by trial participants in response to validated narrative feedback questions. RESULTS: Participants from the NEON and NEON-O trials provided 2288 and 1896 narrative ratings, respectively. Each rated narrative had a median of 3 ratings and 2 ratings, respectively. For the NEON trial, the content-based filtering algorithm performed better for coverage; the collaborative filtering algorithms performed better for accuracy, diversity, and unfairness across both gender and ethnicity; and neither algorithm performed better for precision. For the NEON-O trial, the content-based filtering algorithm did not perform better on any metric; the collaborative filtering algorithms performed better on accuracy and unfairness across both gender and ethnicity; and neither algorithm performed better for precision, diversity, or coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical population may be associated with recommender system performance. Recommender systems are susceptible to a wide range of undesirable biases. Approaches to mitigating these include providing enough initial data for the recommender system (to prevent overfitting), ensuring that items can be accessed outside the recommender system (to prevent a feedback loop between accessed items and recommended items), and encouraging participants to provide feedback on every narrative they interact with (to prevent participants from only providing feedback when they have strong opinions).
  • Editorial: Prolonged grief disorder: Vulnerability and resilience

    Katshu, Mohammad Z. (2024)
    No abstract available
  • Tracking subjects' strategies in behavioural choice experiments at trial resolution

    Sami, Musa (2024)
    Investigating how, when, and what subjects learn during decision-making tasks requires tracking their choice strategies on a trial-by-trial basis. Here we present a simple but effective probabilistic approach to tracking choice strategies at trial resolution using Bayesian evidence accumulation. We show this approach identifies both successful learning and the exploratory strategies used in decision tasks performed by humans, non-human primates, rats, and synthetic agents. Both when subjects learn and when rules change the exploratory strategies of win-stay and lose-shift, often considered complementary, are consistently used independently. Indeed, we find the use of lose-shift is strong evidence that subjects have latently learnt the salient features of a new rewarded rule. Our approach can be extended to any discrete choice strategy, and its low computational cost is ideally suited for real-time analysis and closed-loop control.
  • Using a Novel Gameplay Intervention to Target Intrusive Memories After Work-Related Trauma: Iterative Qualitative Analysis of Intensive Care Unit Staff Experiences

    Brown, Susan S.; Morriss, Richard K. (2024)
    BACKGROUND: Many intensive care unit (ICU) staff experience intrusive memories following work-related traumatic events, which can lead to long-term mental health outcomes and impact work functioning. There is a need for interventions that target intrusive memories in this population; however, factors such as mental health stigma and difficulty in fitting interventions into busy schedules can pose barriers. The Brief Gameplay Intervention For National Health Service Intensive Care Unit Staff Affected By COVID-19 Trauma (GAINS) study tested a brief, digital imagery-competing task intervention (including computer gameplay) with the aim of reducing the recurrence of intrusive memories, which holds promise for overcoming some of these barriers. OBJECTIVE: This substudy aims to explore barriers and facilitators to the uptake and practical use of the intervention by ICU staff, along with its acceptability, and iteratively explore the impact of intervention optimizations to further refine the intervention. METHODS: The GAINS study is a randomized controlled trial comparing access to a brief digital imagery-competing task intervention for 4 weeks with usual care followed by delayed access to the intervention. The participants were ICU staff who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and experienced intrusive memories. All participants were sent a questionnaire at 4 weeks to gather data about intervention acceptability. Nested within the randomized controlled trial, a subset of 16 participants was interviewed, and data were analyzed using thematic analysis drawing from a framework approach. RESULTS: Both quantitative and qualitative data indicated high acceptability of the intervention. Intervention use data show that, on average, staff were able to target approximately 73% (3.64/4.88) of their intrusive memories and engaged with the Tetris component for the full 20 minutes per session. Overall, on the acceptability questionnaire, staff found the intervention easy to use, helpful, and highly acceptable. The interviews generated four themes: approach to the intervention, positives of the intervention, negatives of the intervention, and improvements and optimizations. Findings highlighted barriers that ICU staff experienced: stigma, feeling weak for seeking help, not wanting colleagues to know they were struggling, and skepticism. However, they provided suggestions on how barriers could be overcome and discussed the advantages of the intervention when compared with other treatments. Although participants described many positive aspects of the intervention, such as being easy to use, enjoyable, and leading to a reduction in the frequency or intensity of intrusive memories, they also raised practical issues for implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention has the potential to overcome stigma and reduce the frequency of intrusive memories after traumatic events among ICU staff. Further refinement is needed to improve the adoption and reach of this intervention. A limitation is that we could not interview the National Health Service staff who were unable or unwilling to take part in the trial.
  • Using electronic health records to facilitate precision psychiatry

    Whiting, Daniel (2024)
    The use of clinical prediction models to produce individualised risk estimates can facilitate the implementation of precision psychiatry. As a source of data from large, clinically representative patient samples, electronic health records (EHRs) provide a platform to develop and validate clinical prediction models, as well as potentially implementing them in routine clinical care. The present review describes promising use cases for the application of precision psychiatry to EHR data and considers their performance in terms of discrimination (ability to separate individuals with and without the outcome) and calibration (extent to which predicted risk estimates correspond to observed outcomes), as well as their potential clinical utility (weighing benefits and costs associated with the model compared to different approaches across different assumptions of the number-needed-to-test). We review four externally validated clinical prediction models designed to predict, respectively: psychosis onset, psychotic relapse, cardiometabolic morbidity, and suicide risk. We then discuss the prospects for clinically implementing these models, and the potential added value of integrating data from evidence syntheses, standardised psychometric assessments, and biological data into EHRs. Clinical prediction models can utilise routinely collected EHR data in an innovative way, representing a unique opportunity to inform real-world clinical decision making. Combining data from other sources (e.g. meta-analyses) or enhancing EHR data with information from research studies (clinical and biomarker data) may enhance our abilities to improve performance of clinical prediction models.
  • Precision computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) for adolescents with depression: A pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial protocol for SPARX-UK

    Khan, Kareem; Hall, Charlotte L.; Babbage, Camilla M.; Dodzo, Stuart; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris P. (2024)
    BACKGROUND: A serious game called SPARX (Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts), originally developed in New Zealand and incorporating cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles, has been shown to help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescents with mild to moderate depression in studies undertaken in Australasia. However, SPARX has never been trialled in the United Kingdom (UK), and there have been issues relating to low engagement when it has been used in a real-world context. AIMS: To conduct the first pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) in England to explore the use of SPARX in different settings. The trial will explore whether SPARX supported by an e-coach (assistant psychologists) improves adherence and engagement compared with self-directed (i.e. self-help) use. The trial results will be used to inform the optimal mode of delivery (SPARX supported vs. SPARX self-directed), to calculate an appropriate sample size for a full RCT, and to decide which setting is most suitable. METHODS: Following consultation with young people to ensure study suitability/appropriateness, a total of 120 adolescents (11-19 years) will be recruited for this three-arm study. Adolescents recruited for the study across England will be randomised to receive either SPARX with human support (from an e-coach), self-directed SPARX, or a waitlist control group. Assessments will be conducted online at baseline, week 4, and 8-10-week post-randomisation. The assessments will include measures which capture demographic, depression (Patient Health Questionnaire modified for adolescents [PHQ-A]) and anxiety (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale [RCADS]) symptomatology, and health-related quality-of-life data (EQ-5D-Y and proxy version). Analyses will be primarily descriptive. Qualitative interviews will be undertaken with a proportion of the participants and clinical staff as part of a process evaluation, and the qualitative data gathered will be thematically analysed. Finally, feasibility data will be collected on recruitment details, overall study uptake and engagement with SPARX, participant retention, and youth-reported acceptability of the intervention. DISCUSSION: The findings will inform the design of a future definitive RCT of SPARX in the UK. If the subsequent definitive RCT demonstrates that SPARX is effective, then an online serious game utilising CBT principles ultimately has the potential to improve the provision of care within the UK's health services if delivered en masse. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: ISRCTN15124804. Registered on 16 January 2023, .
  • Delirium is more common and associated with worse outcomes in Parkinson's disease compared to older adult controls: Results of two prospective longitudinal cohort studies

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2024)
    BACKGROUND: Inpatient prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) delirium varies widely across the literature. Delirium in general older populations is associated with adverse outcomes, such as increased mortality, dementia, and institutionalisation. However, to date there are no comprehensive prospective studies in PD delirium. This study aimed to determine delirium prevalence in hospitalised PD participants and the association with adverse outcomes, compared to a control group of older adults without PD. METHODS: Participants were hospitalised inpatients from the 'Defining Delirium and its Impact in Parkinson's Disease' and the 'Delirium and Cognitive Impact in Dementia' studies comprising 121 PD participants and 199 older adult controls. Delirium was diagnosed prospectively using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition criteria. Outcomes were determined by medical note reviews and/or home visits 12 months post hospital discharge. RESULTS: Delirium was identified in 66.9% of PD participants compared to 38.7% of controls (p < 0.001). In PD participants only, delirium was associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality (HR = 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-8.6), p = 0.014) and institutionalisation (OR = 10.7 (95% CI = 2.1-54.6), p = 0.004) 12 months post-discharge, compared to older adult controls. However, delirium was associated with an increased risk of developing dementia 12 months post-discharge in both PD participants (OR = 6.1 (95% CI = 1.3-29.5), p = 0.024) and in controls (OR = 13.4 (95% CI = 2.5-72.6), p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Delirium is common in hospitalised PD patients, affecting two thirds of patients, and is associated with increased mortality, institutionalisation, and dementia. Further research is essential to understand how to accurately identify, prevent and manage delirium in people with PD who are in hospital.
  • Common pitfalls, and how to avoid them, in child and adolescent psychopharmacology: Part I

    Hollis, Chris P.; Kilgariff, Joseph (2024)
    As Faculty of the British Association for Psychopharmacology course on child and adolescent psychopharmacology, we present here what we deem are the most common pitfalls, and how to avoid them, in child and adolescent psychopharmacology. In this paper, we specifically addressed common pitfalls in the pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders, and tic disorder. Pitfalls in the treatment of other disorders are addressed in a separate paper (part II).
  • EmpRess: An eHealth implementation readiness checklist for dementia developed through an interview study of stakeholder needs

    Craven, Michael P.; Orrell, Martin (2024)
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to create a tool to assess eHealth interventions for dementia by adapting an existing implementation readiness (ImpRess) checklist that assessed manualised interventions. METHODS: In Part 1, online semi-structured interviews with individual stakeholders (N = 9) with expertise in eHealth and dementia were conducted (response rate 83%). The Nonadoption, Abandonment, and challenges to the Scale-Up, Spread, and Sustainability of Health and care technologies (NASSS) framework was applied, both to guide the construction of the interview guide, as well as to use its subdomains as codes in the deductive qualitative thematic analysis. Respondents were industry professionals (n = 3), researchers (n = 3), policy officers (n = 2), and a clinician (n = 1). In Part 2, the items of the original ImpRess checklist were supplemented by items that covered determinants discussed in the interviews, that were not included in the original checklist. RESULTS: The main findings from the interviews included: Participants' preference for a non-dementia-specific, more general approach to the checklist; the importance of searching for shared values with implementers; and the need for more systematic monitoring of implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The EmpRess checklist applies an inclusive design approach. The checklist will help evaluate the implementation determinants of eHealth interventions for dementia and provide up-to-date information on what is, and is not, working in eHealth for dementia care.
  • Risk and protective factors for self-harm thoughts and behaviours in transgender and gender diverse people: A systematic review

    Arcelus, Jon (2024)
    BACKGROUND: Self-harm (any self-injury or -poisoning regardless of intent) is highly prevalent in transgender and gender diverse (TGD) populations. It is strongly associated with various adverse health and wellbeing outcomes, including suicide. Despite increased risk, TGD individuals' unique self-harm pathways are not well understood. Following PRISMA guidelines we conducted the first systematic review of risk and protective factors for self-harm in TGD people to identify targets for prevention and intervention. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, Scopus, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) published from database inception to November 2023 for primary and secondary studies of risk and/or protective factors for self-harm thoughts and behaviours in TGD people. Data was extracted and study quality assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scales. FINDINGS: Overall, 78 studies published between 2007 and 2023 from 16 countries (N = 322,144) were eligible for inclusion. Narrative analysis identified six key risk factors for self-harm in TGD people (aged 7-98years) were identified. These are younger age, being assigned female at birth, illicit drug and alcohol use, sexual and physical assault, gender minority stressors (especially discrimination and victimisation), and depression or depressive symptomology. Three important protective factors were identified: social support, connectedness, and school safety. Other possible unique TGD protective factors against self-harm included: chosen name use, gender-identity concordant documentation, and protective state policies. Some evidence of publication bias regarding sample size, non-responders, and confounding variables was identified. INTERPRETATION: This systematic review indicates TGD people may experience a unique self-harm pathway. Importantly, the risk and protective factors we identified provide meaningful targets for intervention. TGD youth and those assigned female at birth are at increased risk. Encouraging TGD people to utilise and foster existing support networks, family/parent and peer support groups, and creating safe, supportive school environments may be critical for self-harm and suicide prevention strategies. Efforts to reduce drug and alcohol use and experiences of gender-based victimisation and discrimination are recommended to reduce self-harm in this high-risk group. Addressing depressive symptoms may reduce gender dysphoria and self-harm. The new evidence presented in this systematic review also indicates TGD people may experience unique pathways to self-harm related to the lack of social acceptance of their gender identity. However, robust longitudinal research which examines gender-specific factors is now necessary to establish this pathway.

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