Recent Submissions

  • Benzodiazepines for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation

    Sampson, Stephanie (2017)
    Background: Acute psychotic illness, especially when associated with agitated or violent behaviour, can require urgent pharmacological tranquillisation or sedation. In several countries, clinicians often use benzodiazepines (either alone or in combination with antipsychotics) for this outcome. Objective(s): To examine whether benzodiazepines, alone or in combination with other pharmacological agents, is an effective treatment for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation when compared with placebo, other pharmacological agents (alone or in combination) or non-pharmacological approaches. Search Method(s): We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register (January 2012, 20 August 2015 and 3 August 2016), inspected reference lists of included and excluded studies, and contacted authors of relevant studies. Selection Criteria: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing benzodiazepines alone or in combination with any antipsychotics, versus antipsychotics alone or in combination with any other antipsychotics, benzodiazepines or antihistamines, for people who were aggressive or agitated due to psychosis. Data Collection and Analysis: We reliably selected studies, quality assessed them and extracted data. For binary outcomes, we calculated standard estimates of risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a fixed-effect model. For continuous outcomes, we calculated the mean difference (MD) between groups. If there was heterogeneity, this was explored using a random-effects model. We assessed risk of bias and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. Main Result(s): Twenty trials including 695 participants are now included in the review. The trials compared benzodiazepines or benzodiazepines plus an antipsychotic with placebo, antipsychotics, antihistamines, or a combination of these. The quality of evidence for the main outcomes was low or very low due to very small sample size of included studies and serious risk of bias (randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding were not well conducted in the included trials, 30% of trials (six out of 20) were supported by pharmaceutical institutes). There was no clear effect for most outcomes. Benzodiazepines versus placebo. One trial compared benzodiazepines with placebo. There was no difference in the number of participants sedated at 24 hours (very low quality evidence). However, for the outcome of global state, clearly more people receiving placebo showed no improvement in the medium term (one to 48 hours) (n = 102, 1 RCT, RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.97, very low quality evidence). Benzodiazepines versus antipsychotics. When compared with haloperidol, there was no observed effect for benzodiazepines for sedation by 16 hours (n = 434, 8 RCTs, RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.54, low quality evidence). There was no difference in the number of participants who had not improved in the medium term (n = 188, 5 RCTs, RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.11, low quality evidence). However, one small study found fewer participants improved when receiving benzodiazepines compared with olanzapine (n = 150, 1 RCT, RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.18, very low quality evidence). People receiving benzodiazepines were less likely to experience extrapyramidal effects in the medium term compared to people receiving haloperidol (n = 233, 6 RCTs, RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.41, low quality evidence). Benzodiazepines versus combined antipsychotics/antihistamines. When benzodiazepine was compared with combined antipsychotics/antihistamines (haloperidol plus promethazine), there was a higher risk of no improvement in people receiving benzodiazepines in the medium term (n = 200, 1 RCT, RR 2.17, 95% CI 1.16 to 4.05, low quality evidence). However, for sedation, the results were controversial between two groups: lorazepam may lead to lower risk of sedation than combined antipsychotics/antihistamines (n = 200, 1 RCT, RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.98, low quality evidence); while, midazolam may lead to higher risk of sedation than combined antipsychotics/antihistamines (n = 200, 1 RCT, RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.23, low quality evidence). Other combinations. Data comparing benzodiazepines plus antipsychotics versus benzodiazepines alone did not yield any results with clear differences; all were very low quality evidence. When comparing combined benzodiazepines/antipsychotics (all studies compared haloperidol) with the same antipsychotics alone (haloperidol), there was no difference between groups in improvement in the medium term (n = 185, 4 RCTs, RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.46, low quality evidence), but sedation was more likely in people who received the combination therapy (n = 172, 3 RCTs, RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.67,very low quality evidence). Only one study compared combined benzodiazepine/antipsychotics with antipsychotics; however, this study did not report our primary outcomes. One small study compared combined benzodiazepines/antipsychotics with combined antihistamines/antipsychotics. Results showed a higher risk of no clinical improvement (n = 60, 1 RCT, RR 25.00, 95% CI 1.55 to 403.99, very low quality evidence) and sedation status (n = 60, 1 RCT, RR 12.00, 95% CI 1.66 to 86.59, very low quality evidence) in the combined benzodiazepines/antipsychotics group. Authors' conclusions: The evidence from RCTs for the use of benzodiazepines alone is not good. There were relatively few good data. Most trials were too small to highlight differences in either positive or negative effects. Adding a benzodiazepine to other drugs does not seem to confer clear advantage and has potential for adding unnecessary adverse effects. Sole use of older antipsychotics unaccompanied by anticholinergic drugs seems difficult to justify. Much more high-quality research is still needed in this area
  • Improving the lives of people with dementia through technology: interdisciplinary network for dementia utilising current technology

    Orrell, Martin; McDermott, Orii (2022)
    This book explores the practical application of recent improvements in technology for people living with dementia and highlights the positive outcomes on care, quality of life, and services on patients through exploration of 15 research projects to redefine the future of dementia care. Using research compiled in collaboration with leading universities and organisations across Europe, this book demonstrates how INDUCT’s (Interdisciplinary Network for Dementia Utilising Current Technology's) findings resulted in implications for practical cognitive and social factors to improve the usability of technology, evaluating the effectiveness of specific contemporary technology, and tracing facilitators and barriers for implementation of technology in dementia care. Featuring a unique training programme along with a wide range of patient-public involvement, this state-of-the-art volume will be essential reading for researchers, academics and scholars in the fields of dementia and mental health research, gerontology, psychology and nursing.
  • Developing an mHealth intervention to reduce COVID-19-associated psychological distress among health care workers in Nigeria: Protocol for a design and feasibility study

    Seun-Fadipe, Champion T. (2022)
    BACKGROUND: Globally, COVID-19-related psychological distress is seriously eroding health care workers' mental health and well-being, especially in low-income countries like Nigeria. The use of mobile health (mHealth) interventions is now increasingly recognized as an innovative approach that may improve mental health and well-being. This project aims to develop an mHealth psychological intervention (mPsyI) to reduce COVID-19-related psychological distress among health care workers in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to present a study protocol to determine the level of COVID-19-related psychological distress among health care workers in Nigeria; explore health care workers' experience of COVID-19-related psychological distress; develop and pilot test mPsyI to reduce this distress; and assess the feasibility of this intervention (such as usability, engagement, and satisfaction). METHODS: A mixed (quantitative and qualitative) methods approach is used in which health care workers will be recruited from 2 tertiary health care facilities in southwest Nigeria. The study is divided into 4 phases based on the study objectives. Phase 1 involves a quantitative survey to assess the type and levels of psychosocial distress. Phase 2 collects qualitative data on psychosocial distress among health care workers. Phase 3 involves development of the mHealth-based psychological intervention, and phase 4 is a mixed methods study to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. RESULTS: This study was funded in November 2020 by the Global Effort on COVID-19 Health Research, and collection of preliminary baseline data started in July 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report the development of an mHealth-based intervention to reduce COVID-19-related psychological distress among health care workers in Nigeria. Using a mixed methods design in this study can potentially facilitate the adaptation of an evidence-based treatment method that is culturally sensitive and cost-effective for the management of COVID-19-related psychological distress among health care workers in Nigeria.
  • Agoraphobic avoidance in patients with psychosis: Severity and response to automated VR therapy in a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled clinical trial

    O'Regan, Eileen (2022)
    Background: The social withdrawal of many patients with psychosis can be conceptualised as agoraphobic avoidance due to a range of long-standing fears. We hypothesised that greater severity of agoraphobic avoidance is associated with higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and lower levels of quality of life. We also hypothesised that patients with severe agoraphobic avoidance would experience a range of benefits from an automated virtual reality (VR) therapy that allows them to practise everyday anxiety-provoking situations in simulated environments. Method(s): 345 patients with psychosis in a randomised controlled trial were categorised into average, moderate, high, and severe avoidance groups using the Oxford Agoraphobic Avoidance Scale. Associations of agoraphobia severity with symptom and functioning variables, and response over six months to brief automated VR therapy (gameChange), were tested. Result(s): Greater severity of agoraphobic avoidance was associated with higher levels of persecutory ideation, auditory hallucinations, depression, hopelessness, and threat cognitions, and lower levels of meaningful activity, quality of life, and perceptions of recovery. Patients with severe agoraphobia showed the greatest benefits with gameChange VR therapy, with significant improvements at end of treatment in agoraphobic avoidance, agoraphobic distress, ideas of reference, persecutory ideation, paranoia worries, recovering quality of life, and perceived recovery, but no significant improvements in depression, suicidal ideation, or health-related quality of life. Conclusion(s): Patients with psychosis with severe agoraphobic avoidance, such as being unable to leave the home, have high clinical need. Automated VR therapy can deliver clinical improvement in agoraphobia for these patients, leading to a number of wider benefits.
  • Developing an automated assessment of in-session patient activation for psychological therapy: Codevelopment approach

    Malins, Samuel; Manolescu, Cosmin; Higton, Fred; Waldram, David (2022)
    ACKGROUND: Patient activation is defined as a patient's confidence and perceived ability to manage their own health. Patient activation has been a consistent predictor of long-term health and care costs, particularly for people with multiple long-term health conditions. However, there is currently no means of measuring patient activation from what is said in health care consultations. This may be particularly important for psychological therapy because most current methods for evaluating therapy content cannot be used routinely due to time and cost restraints. Natural language processing (NLP) has been used increasingly to classify and evaluate the contents of psychological therapy. This aims to make the routine, systematic evaluation of psychological therapy contents more accessible in terms of time and cost restraints. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to algorithmic trust and interpretability, with few studies in the field involving end users or stakeholders in algorithm development. OBJECTIVE: This study applied a responsible design to use NLP in the development of an artificial intelligence model to automate the ratings assigned by a psychological therapy process measure: the consultation interactions coding scheme (CICS). The CICS assesses the level of patient activation observable from turn-by-turn psychological therapy interactions. METHODS: With consent, 128 sessions of remotely delivered cognitive behavioral therapy from 53 participants experiencing multiple physical and mental health problems were anonymously transcribed and rated by trained human CICS coders. Using participatory methodology, a multidisciplinary team proposed candidate language features that they thought would discriminate between high and low patient activation. The team included service-user researchers, psychological therapists, applied linguists, digital research experts, artificial intelligence ethics researchers, and NLP researchers. Identified language features were extracted from the transcripts alongside demographic features, and machine learning was applied using k-nearest neighbors and bagged trees algorithms to assess whether in-session patient activation and interaction types could be accurately classified. RESULTS: The k-nearest neighbors classifier obtained 73% accuracy (82% precision and 80% recall) in a test data set. The bagged trees classifier obtained 81% accuracy for test data (87% precision and 75% recall) in differentiating between interactions rated high in patient activation and those rated low or neutral. CONCLUSIONS: Coproduced language features identified through a multidisciplinary collaboration can be used to discriminate among psychological therapy session contents based on patient activation among patients experiencing multiple long-term physical and mental health conditions.
  • A positron mission tomography study of dopamine transporter density in patients with bipolar disorder with current mania and those with recently remitted mania

    Liddle, Peter F. (2022)
    IMPORTANCE: Although dopamine is implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), the precise alterations in the dopaminergic system remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess dopamine transporter (DAT) density in the striatum in patients with BD with current and recently remitted mania in comparison to healthy control individuals and its correlation with severity of manic symptoms. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care referral center for mood disorders in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, recruited 26 patients with BD (9 with current mania; 17 with recently remitted mania) and 21 matched healthy control individuals. DAT density was measured using positron emission tomography with [11C]d-threo-methylphenidate (MP). The differences between the groups in nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) for DAT was assessed using statistical parametric mapping. The study was conducted from November 2001 to February 2007 and the data were analyzed from November 2020 to December 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: DAT density as indexed by BPND for MP across groups; manic symptom severity as measured with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and correlated with BPND values in patients with BD. RESULTS: Of 47 total participants (mean [SD] age, 37.8 [14.4] years), 27 (57.4%) were female; 26 individuals had BD (9 with current mania and 17 with recently remitted mania) and there were 21 healthy control individuals. MP BPND was significantly lower in patients with BD in the right putamen and nucleus accumbens (mean reduction [MR] = 22%; cluster level familywise error [FWE]-corrected P < .001) as well as left putamen and caudate (MR = 24%; cluster level FWE-corrected P < .001). The reduction in BPND was more extensive and pronounced in patients with current mania, while patients with recently remitted mania had lower BPND in the left striatum but not the right. There was a significant negative correlation between YMRS scores and MP BPND in the right striatum in patients with current mania (ρ = -0.93; 95% CI, -0.99 to -0.69; P < .001) and those with recently remitted mania (ρ = 0.64; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.23; P = .005) but not in the left striatum in either group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings indicate that mania was associated with reduced DAT density and remitted mania was associated with DAT levels that approximated those present in individuals without BD. These results have potential implications for drug development for mania.
  • Patriarchal upbringing in the 21st century: The impact emotional abuse related to parental styles has on the genesis of gender inequality and the development of unresolved trauma in children

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    Background: Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) (physical, sexual, and psychological/emotional) is a type of structural discrimination that violates the basic human rights of females on a global scale. Cultural norms that glorify male dominance, power imbalances, and abuse of authority are the most encountered reasons for VAWG. Emotional abuse, which can start in childhood, is widely recognised as the most prevalent form of VAWG. However, although victims of emotional abuse usually suffer terribly, perpetrators often evade accountability. Emotional abuse is underestimated in part because it is normalized by victims who are mostly women and girls. The normalization of VAWG is contributing to the propagation and perpetuation of biased perceptions of sexism. The intergenerational transmission of parenting styles - which is an important contributory factor for child development - often includes gender-stereotyping norms, or patriarchy. Hitherto, limited focus has been directed towards the consequences that emotional abuse related to patriarchal upbringing has on children. Aim - to investigate if emotional abuse related to patriarchal upbringing influences the perception of sexism and gender stereotyping across genders, and the development of unresolved trauma in children. Method(s): Participants were recruited via social media platforms to complete online questionnaires assessing parental emotional abuse, control, trauma, misogyny, and perceptions of sexism. Parametric analyses were conducted on the 188 participants (158 women and 30 men) recruited. Trauma and perceptions of sexism were statistically analysed using correlation and multiple linear regression. Result(s): Our findings show that parental emotional abuse and control in females predicted for unresolved traumatic experiences (16.6%). Misogynistic culture and male gender predicted for hostile sexism (9.9%), whereas emotional abuse predicted for benevolent sexism (40%). Conclusion(s): Emotional abuse related to patriarchal upbringing contributes to the genesis of gender inequality and unresolved trauma in children. Given that parental styles are transmitted from one generation to the next, to reduce sexism and improve mental health outcomes, the patriarchal parental cycle must be broken.
  • "Self" and "other": A conceptual bridge linking normal with pathological personality

    Howard, Richard C. (2022)
    The goal of this paper is to try and close the gap between the ways in which pathological and normal personality, including their development, are conceptualized. To this end, attention is drawn to parallels that exist between the ways self-function is conceptualized in contemporary personality psychology and in recent iterations of the major psychiatric nosologies, particularly ICD-11. Conceptualizations in both normal and abnormal personality see a fundamental dichotomy between self as identity and self as socially interdependent (vs autonomous). Evidence is reviewed supporting a basic dichotomy between two categories of personality pathology that can be subsumed under the labels "Acting Out" and "Anxious-Inhibited." It is suggested that fundamental to the personality pathology subsumed under "Acting Out" is a deficient interdependent self, while a defective self-identity is proposed to underlie the personality pathology subsumed under "Anxious-Inhibited."
  • Positive psychology and attitudes to ageing in people aged 50 and over in the United Kingdom

    Orrell, Martin; Jones, Katy A. (2022)
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether attitudes to ageing were associated with attitudes to positive psychology constructs.Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of 572 UK adults aged 50+ (mean age 64.6 years, SD = 8.4, 73.8% female) assessed attitudes to ageing using the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) in relation to measures of positive psychology including (1) belief in a just world-Just World Scale (JWS-Self and JWS-Other), (2) sense of coherence-Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and (3) positive well-being-Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization, and Pleasure Scale (CASP-19). Other factors included difficulties with hearing and eyesight, relative and carer status and demographics.Results: People with hearing and eyesight difficulties had lower CASP-19 and SOC scores, and more negative attitudes to ageing compared to people without sensory problems. Hierarchical regression analyses showed all three positive psychology scales predicted more positive attitudes to ageing. Being a carer for a person with dementia was associated with more negative attitudes to ageing.Conclusion: Whereas health and sensory problems relate to more negative attitudes to ageing, this study highlights the importance of positive psychological factors which could inform approaches seeking to promote well-being and health in older people.
  • Mental health of Indonesian university students: U.K. comparison and relationship between mental health shame and self-compassion

    Kotera, Yasuhiro (2022)
    While the Indonesian higher education has been growing rapidly, poor student mental health including a high level of mental health shame is a cause for concern in Indonesia. This study aimed to evaluate their mental health, shame, and self-compassion. One hundred fifty six participants completed self-report measures regarding mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and stress), mental health shame (negative attitudes, and external, internal, and reflected shame), and self-compassion. Data were first compared with 145 U.K. students, then correlation and regression analyses were performed. Indonesian students showed higher levels of mental health problems, family-related mental health shame, and self-compassion than U.K. students. Each type of mental health problem and mental health shame were positively associated with each other. Self-compassion was negatively associated with mental health problems, but not with mental health shame. Self-compassion was consistently the strongest predictor of mental health problems. Among the mental health shame types, only family external shame predicted the level of depression. Self-compassion training and mental health education for their family are recommended to protect the mental health of university students in Indonesia. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: journal abstract)
  • Pioneering an innovative intervention to reduce mental health related stigma in muslim communities: A protocol

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    Despite the prevalence of mental health related stigma in Muslim communities, there are only a limited number of intervention studies reported in the literature. Digital interventions (i.e., YouTube clips, videos) are relatively cheap, highly accessible and easily disseminated and are increasingly being used to improve mental health literacy and reduce mental health related stigma. However, as far as the authors are aware, there are no stigma reduction programmes targeting Muslim communities that leverage digital interventions reported in the literature. This paper outlines a protocol for a digital intervention to challenge mental health related stigma in Muslim communities. The proposed intervention will be a 5 to 10-minute YouTube clip/video the active ingredients of which will be: [1] an interview with a Muslim expert by lived/living experience, [2] an Imam (Muslim faith leader) and [3] a psychiatrist. We will recruit members of Muslim communities living in Muslim minority countries in the Global North (United Kingdom, Unites States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) to participate in the study (inclusion criteria: adults aged 18 years and over, Muslim background). The study will be comprised of two groups: an active group that will be exposed to the Muslim faith appropriate digital intervention and a control group that will be exposed to a digital intervention that is not Muslim faith appropriate. We will administer validated psychometric stigma scales on participants in both groups before and after exposure to the interventions. We hypothesize that viewing an anti-stigma clip/video that is Islamic faith appropriate will be associated with greater reductions in mental health related stigma in members of Muslim communities compared to viewing an anti-stigma clip/video that is not Islamic faith appropriate.
  • Emotional abuse in women and girls mediated by patriarchal upbringing and its impact on sexism and mental health: A narrative review

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    Sexism is a type of structural discrimination that can manifest as the subjugation of woman in familial and social roles. Gender-based violence often occurs in societies where patriarchal norms exist. Violence against women and girls (VAWG) includes physical, sexual and psychological/emotional abuse directed towards females. Emotional violence against women and girls is usually underestimated, if not overlooked. Patriarchal upbringing can predominantly result in the emotional abuse of female children. This narrative review will discuss the impact emotional abuse in women and girls mediated by patriarchal upbringing has on sexism and mental health. This paper will also explore how gendered upbringing can contribute to the normalization of VAWG and the victim-blaming of females.
  • Innovative interventions to reduce the stigma attached to intellectual disabilities: A narrative review

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    The stigma attached to intellectual disabilities (ID) can have profoundly adverse effects on the lives of people who suffer from these conditions. Stigma is also a major barrier to accessing specialist services and consequently many people with ID continue to suffer in silence. A confidential inquiry into the premature deaths of people with ID in England and Wales revealed the median age at death of individuals with this condition was 13 years (for males) to 20 years (for females) younger than the median age at death of the general population. It has been posited that stigma is a factor that contributes to the mortality gap between those with ID and those who don't have this condition. The COVID-19 pandemic has created new challenges for people with ID and has further fortified the barriers to specialist services. To reduce stigma, improve the quality of healthcare that is provided to people with this condition and to break down the barriers to specialist services, we must pioneer innovative interventions that leverage the power of technology and 'virtual' contact with people who live with these conditions.
  • 'Paris Thin': The mental health of models

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    Surprising it may seem, the mental health issues remains largely overlooked in the highly competitive and unforgiving industry of modelling and fashion. A substantial number of models experience mental health issues due to the nature of their occupation, however, most avoid speaking out due to fear of stigma and losing out on future work. Moreover, problematic eating behaviours in attempts to improve body image can have profoundly adverse effects on mental and physical health, even leading to death in extreme cases, yet these behaviours are being reinforced and rewarded with success and career progression. Indeed, the term 'Paris Thin' was used in relation to the deaths of models from starvation who were in pursuit of 'the perfect body' whilst working in France, the epicentre of the fashion world. Although improvements have been made over the past decade, conversations surrounding common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety remain minimal at best and discussions about other serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder are virtually absent. Campaigns that amplify the voices of models living with a mental health condition must therefore be supported to reduce mental health related stigma in the industry and encourage those who are suffering and struggling to seek professional help. Research in this area is urgently needed to yield new insights that will help to improve the mental health of models.<
  • Design decisions and data completeness for experience sampling methods used in psychosis: systematic review

    Deakin, Emilia; Ng, Fiona; Young, Emma; Thorpe, Naomi; Craven, Michael P.; Slade, Mike (2022)
    Background: The experience sampling method (ESM) is an intensive longitudinal research method. Participants complete questionnaires at multiple times about their current or very recent state. The design of ESM studies is complex. People with psychosis have been shown to be less adherent to ESM study protocols than the general population. It is not known how to design studies that increase adherence to study protocols. A lack of typology makes it is hard for researchers to decide how to collect data in a way that allows for methodological rigour, quality of reporting, and the ability to synthesise findings. The aims of this systematic review were to characterise the design choices made in ESM studies monitoring the daily lives of people with psychosis, and to synthesise evidence relating the data completeness to different design choices. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of published literature on studies using ESM with people with psychosis. Studies were included if they used digital technology for data collection and reported the completeness of the data set. The constant comparative method was used to identify design decisions, using inductive identification of design decisions with simultaneous comparison of design decisions observed. Weighted regression was used to identify design decisions that predicted data completeness. The review was pre-registered (PROSPERO CRD42019125545). Results: 38 studies were included. A typology of design choices used in ESM studies was developed, which comprised three superordinate categories of design choice: Study context, ESM approach and ESM implementation. Design decisions that predict data completeness include type of ESM protocol used, length of time participants are enrolled in the study, and if there is contact with the research team during data collection. Conclusions: This review identified a range of design decisions used in studies using ESM in the context of psychosis. Design decisions that influence data completeness were identified. Findings will help the design and reporting of future ESM studies. Results are presented with the focus on psychosis, but the findings can be applied across different mental health populations.
  • Positive psychology and attitudes to ageing in people aged 50 and over in the United Kingdom

    Orrell, Martin; Jones, Katy A. (2022)
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether attitudes to ageing were associated with attitudes to positive psychology constructs.Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of 572 UK adults aged 50+ (mean age 64.6 years, SD = 8.4, 73.8% female) assessed attitudes to ageing using the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) in relation to measures of positive psychology including (1) belief in a just world-Just World Scale (JWS-Self and JWS-Other), (2) sense of coherence-Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and (3) positive well-being-Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization, and Pleasure Scale (CASP-19). Other factors included difficulties with hearing and eyesight, relative and carer status and demographics.Results: People with hearing and eyesight difficulties had lower CASP-19 and SOC scores, and more negative attitudes to ageing compared to people without sensory problems. Hierarchical regression analyses showed all three positive psychology scales predicted more positive attitudes to ageing. Being a carer for a person with dementia was associated with more negative attitudes to ageing.Conclusion: Whereas health and sensory problems relate to more negative attitudes to ageing, this study highlights the importance of positive psychological factors which could inform approaches seeking to promote well-being and health in older people.
  • Recovery Colleges Characterisation and Testing in England (RECOLLECT): rationale and protocol

    Repper, Julie; Brewin, John; Meddings, Sarah; McPhilbin, Merly; Yeo, Caroline; Slade, Mike (2022)
    Recovery Colleges are a relatively recent initiative within mental health services. The first opened in 2009 in London and since then numbers have grown. They are based on principles of personal recovery in mental health, co-production between people with lived experience of mental health problems and professionals, and adult learning. Student eligibility criteria vary, but all serve people who use mental health services, with empirical evidence of benefit. Previously we developed a Recovery College fidelity measure and a preliminary change model identifying the mechanisms of action and outcomes for this group, which we refer to as service user students. The Recovery Colleges Characterisation and Testing (RECOLLECT) study is a five-year (2020–2025) programme of research in England. The aim of RECOLLECT is to determine Recovery Colleges’ effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and identify organisational influences on fidelity and improvements in mental health outcomes. 
  • A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of community and population interventions to reduce the modifiable risk factors for dementia

    Brain, Jacob; Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2022)
    Population-based health and lifestyle interventions, which change societal conditions such that everyone across a given community is more likely to live more healthily, have been under-researched within the context of dementia prevention and risk reduction. This systematic review finds such interventions highly cost-effective, and often also cost-saving, in both high- as well as low- and middle-income settings. The strongest evidence base was for interventions that changed the physical environment to decrease physical inactivity or obesity, financial interventions that improved access to or resources for education, and mass media programmes that changed the social environment around smoking.
  • Recovery Colleges Characterisation and Testing in England (RECOLLECT): rationale and protocol

    Repper, Julie; Brewin, John; Sara, Meddings; McPhilbin, Merly; Yeo, Caroline; Slade, Mike (2022)
    Recovery Colleges are a relatively recent initiative within mental health services. The first opened in 2009 in London and since then numbers have grown. They are based on principles of personal recovery in mental health, co-production between people with lived experience of mental health problems and professionals, and adult learning. Student eligibility criteria vary, but all serve people who use mental health services, with empirical evidence of benefit. Previously we developed a Recovery College fidelity measure and a preliminary change model identifying the mechanisms of action and outcomes for this group, which we refer to as service user students. The Recovery Colleges Characterisation and Testing (RECOLLECT) study is a five-year (2020–2025) programme of research in England. The aim of RECOLLECT is to determine Recovery Colleges’ effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and identify organisational influences on fidelity and improvements in mental health outcomes. 
  • Practitioners’ views on enabling people with dementia to remain in their homes during and after crisis

    Coleston-Shields, Donna M.; Stanyon, Miriam R.; Yates, Jennifer A.; Streater, Amy; Orrell, Martin (2022)
    One way of supporting people living with dementia is assisting them to live in their homes (as opposed to being admitted to hospital or other facility) and providing them with a specialist service that responds to crises. This makes it important to understand how best to organize such crisis response services. This study examines practitioners’ actions to reduce inpatient admissions among this population. Through interviews with healthcare practitioners, we find that practitioners negotiate a complex intersection between (1) what constitutes a crisis in relation to the patient and/or the carer, (2) the demands of building a working relationship with both the patient and their family carers, and (3) ensuring effective communications with social services responsible for long-term community support. Findings suggest that policies aimed at reducing admissions should be based on a model of care that more closely maps practitioners’ relational and bio-medical work in these services.

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