Recent Submissions

  • Glenoid Fracture Fixation Using an Acu-Loc Distal Radius Plate

    Ashwood, Neil; Dekker, Andrew (2024-05)
    Displaced fractures of the glenoid require surgical fixation. This poses multiple problems, including a difficult approach and achieving adequate reduction with current implants. We provide a surgical technical tip for fixing scapula neck and glenoid rim fractures with an Acu-Loc distal radius plate (Acumed, Weyhill, UK), illustrated with two recent case reports. Here, we present two cases of a 58-year-old female and a 51-year-old male presenting to a hospital following a fall, both sustaining an isolated right glenoid intra-articular fracture evident on plain radiographs. CT scans revealed a displaced and fragmented glenoid surface. A reverse Judet posterior approach facilitated exposure to enable the reduction of the glenoid, an uncommon approach. Current plate designs provide surgeons with limited options to fix complex fractures of the scapula and were not suitable here. The lateral scapula border and inferior glenoid have a similar anatomical shape to the distal radius. An Acu-Loc locking distal radius plate with a radial styloid plate was trialled and provided a good reduction to the fragmented glenoid. A distal radius plate can be a useful option to consider in complex scapula neck and glenoid rim fractures. A better understanding of glenoid shape will facilitate the further development of orthopaedic implants. Familiarity with various surgical approaches is needed to operate on these complex fractures.
  • Optimal surgical approach for mid-transverse colon cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Ebeidallah, Guirgis
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The incidence of cancer colon has increased dramatically. In addition, the database lacks a review to analyze the outcomes of surgeries for mid-transverse colon cancer with several recent controversial studies. We aimed to compare the outcomes of extended hemicolectomy versus transverse colectomy for mid-transverse colon cancer. METHOD: PubMed, Scopes, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies from inception to 1 December 2022 and a systematic review and meta-analysis were done to detect. RESULTS: According to eligibility criteria, 8 studies (2237 patients) were included in our study. The pooled results of the included studies showed no difference in the 5-year OS, 3-year DFS and 5-year DFS between the two types of surgery (5-year OS, RR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.94-1.39, P = 0.17), (3-year OS, RR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.88-1.06, P = 0.42) and (5-year DFS, RR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.91-1.62, P = 0.20). In addition to that, the recurrence rate and the incidence of complications were similar in the two groups (Recurrence rate, RR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.62-1.89, P = 0.79) and (Complications, RR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.74-1.54, P = 0.72). However, the number of LN harvest and the time of the operation were more in case of extended hemicolectomy. CONCLUSION: Despite harvesting less LN, transverse colectomy has similar oncological outcomes to extended hemicolectomy for mid-transverse colon cancer. In addition to that, there was no significant difference in the incidence of complications between the two surgeries.
  • Appendectomy versus antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis.

    Tierney, Gillian; Tou, Samson; Williams, John P.
    BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common emergency general surgical conditions worldwide. Uncomplicated/simple appendicitis can be treated with appendectomy or antibiotics. Some studies have suggested possible benefits with antibiotics with reduced complications, length of hospital stay, and the number of days off work. However, surgery may improve success of treatment as antibiotic treatment is associated with recurrence and future need for surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated/simple acute appendicitis compared with appendectomy for resolution of symptoms and complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two trial registers (World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov) on 19 July 2022. We also searched for unpublished studies in conference proceedings together with reference checking and citation search. There were no restrictions on date, publication status, or language of publication. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (RCTs) only. We included studies where most participants were adults with uncomplicated/simple appendicitis. Interventions included antibiotics (by any route) compared with appendectomy (open or laparoscopic). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodology expected by Cochrane. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence for each outcome. Primary outcomes included mortality and success of treatment, and secondary outcomes included number of participants requiring appendectomy in the antibiotic group, complications, pain, length of hospital stay, sick leave, malignancy in the antibiotic group, negative appendectomy rate, and quality of life. Success of treatment definitions were heterogeneous although mainly based on resolution of symptoms rather than incorporation of long-term recurrence or need for surgery in the antibiotic group. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 studies in the review covering 1675 participants randomised to antibiotics and 1683 participants randomised to appendectomy. One study was unpublished. All were conducted in secondary care and two studies received pharmaceutical funding. All studies used broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens expected to cover gastrointestinal bacteria. Most studies used predominantly laparoscopic surgery, but some included mainly open procedures. Six studies included adults and children. Almost all studies aimed to exclude participants with complicated appendicitis prior to randomisation, although one study included 12% with perforation. The diagnostic technique was clinical assessment and imaging in most studies. Only one study limited inclusion by sex (male only). Follow-up ranged from hospital admission only to seven years. Certainty of evidence was mainly affected by risk of bias (due to lack of blinding and loss to follow-up) and imprecision. Primary outcomes It is uncertain whether there was any difference in mortality due to the very low-certainty evidence (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 4.95; 1 study, 492 participants). There may be 76 more people per 1000 having unsuccessful treatment in the antibiotic group compared with surgery, which did not reach our predefined level for clinical significance (risk ratio (RR) 0.91, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.96; I2 = 69%; 7 studies, 2471 participants; low-certainty evidence). Secondary outcomes At one year, 30.7% (95% CI 24.0 to 37.8; I2 = 80%; 9 studies, 1396 participants) of participants in the antibiotic group required appendectomy or, alternatively, more than two-thirds of antibiotic-treated participants avoided surgery in the first year, but the evidence is very uncertain. Regarding complications, it is uncertain whether there is any difference in episodes of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea due to very low-certainty evidence (Peto OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.24 to 3.89; 1 study, 1332 participants). There may be a clinically significant reduction in wound infections with antibiotics (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.68; I2 = 16%; 9 studies, 2606 participants; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether antibiotics affect the incidence of intra-abdominal abscess or collection (RR 1.58, 95% CI 0.61 to 4.07; I2 = 19%; 6 studies, 1831 participants), or reoperation (Peto OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.16; 1 study, 492 participants) due to very low-certainty evidence, mainly due to rare events causing imprecision and risk of bias. It is uncertain if antibiotics prolonged length of hospital stay by half a day due to the very low-certainty evidence (MD 0.54, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.01; I2 = 97%; 11 studies, 3192 participants). The incidence of malignancy was 0.3% (95% CI 0 to 1.5; 5 studies, 403 participants) in the antibiotic group although follow-up was variable. Antibiotics probably increased the number of negative appendectomies at surgery (RR 3.16, 95% CI 1.54 to 6.49; I2 = 17%; 5 studies, 707 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics may be associated with higher rates of unsuccessful treatment for 76 per 1000 people, although differences may not be clinically significant. It is uncertain if antibiotics increase length of hospital stay by half a day. Antibiotics may reduce wound infections. A third of the participants initially treated with antibiotics required subsequent appendectomy or two-thirds avoided surgery within one year, but the evidence is very uncertain. There were too few data from the included studies to comment on major complications.
  • Post-prostatectomy incontinence: a guideline of guidelines.

    Pavithran, A
    AIM: To provide a comprehensive review of guidelines from various professional organisations on the work-up and management of post-prostatectomy Incontinence (PPI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The following guidelines were included in this review: European Association of Urology (EAU 2023), American Urological Association/Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction (AUA/SUFU 2019), International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI, 2018), the Canadian Urological Association (CUA, 2012) and the Urological Society of India (USI, 2018). RESULTS: In general, the guidelines concur regarding the significance of conducting a comprehensive history and physical examination for patients with post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI). However, there are variations among the guidelines concerning the recommended additional investigations. In cases of troublesome PPI, male slings are typically recommended for mild to moderate urinary incontinence (UI), while artificial urinary sphincters are preferred for moderate to severe UI, although the precise definition of this severity remains unclear. The guidelines provided by AUA/SUFU and the ICI have offered suggestions for managing complications or persistent/recurrent UI post-surgery, though some differences can be observed within these recommendations as well. CONCLUSION: This is a first of its kind review encompassing Guidelines on PPI spanning over a decade. Although guidelines share overarching principles, nuanced variations persist, posing challenges for clinicians. This compilation consolidates and highlights both the similarities and differences among guidelines, providing a comprehensive overview of PPI diagnosis and management for practitioners. It is our expectation that as more evidence emerges in this and other areas of PPI management, the guidelines will converge and address crucial patient-centric aspects.
  • Classification and stratification in pilonidal sinus disease: findings from the PITSTOP cohort

    Lund, Jonathan
    AIM: Research in pilonidal disease faces several challenges, one of which is consistent and useful disease classification. The International Pilonidal Society (IPS) proposed a four-part classification in 2017. The aim of this work was to assess the validity and reliability of this tool using data from the PITSTOP cohort study. METHOD: Face validity was assessed by mapping the items/domains in the IPS tool against tools identified through a systematic review. Key concepts were defined as those appearing in more than two-thirds of published tools. Concurrent and predictive validity were assessed by comparing key patient-reported outcome measures between groups at baseline and at clinic visit. The outcomes of interest were health utility, Cardiff Wound Impact Questionnaire (CWIQ) and pain score between groups. Significance was set at p = 0.05 a priori. Interrater reliability was assessed using images captured during the PITSTOP cohort. Ninety images were assessed by six raters (two experts, two general surgeons and two trainees), and classified into IPS type. Interrater reliability was assessed using the unweighted kappa and unweighted Gwet's AC1 statistics. RESULTS: For face validity items represented in the IPS were common to other classification systems. Concurrent and predictive validity assessment showed differences in health utility and pain between groups at baseline, and for some treatment groups at follow-up. Assessors agreed the same classification in 38% of participants [chance-corrected kappa 0.52 (95% CI 0.42-0.61), Gwet's AC1 0.63 (95% CI 0.56-0.69)]. CONCLUSION: The IPS classification demonstrates key aspects of reliability and validity that would support its implementation.
  • Does long-term follow-up and monitoring of primary shoulder arthroplasty identify failing implants requiring revision?

    Morris, D.L.J.; Dover, Caroline; Walstow, Katherine; Pitt, Lisa; Morgan, Marie; Espag, Marius; Clark, David; Tambe, Amol
    BACKGROUND: Published scoping review has identified evidence paucity related to long-term follow-up of shoulder arthroplasty. We aim to report effectiveness of elective primary shoulder arthroplasty surveillance in identifying failing implants requiring revision. METHODS: A prospective database recording shoulder arthroplasty and subsequent follow-up surveillance in a shoulder unit was analyzed. Shoulder arthroplasty was performed by 4 fellowship-trained shoulder surgeons for accepted elective indications including the use of anatomic arthroplasty in arthritic shoulders with intact rotator cuff and a reverse prosthesis being used in rotator cuff-deficient shoulders and rotator cuff-competent arthritic shoulders when deemed preferable by the treating surgeon. All shoulder arthroplasty implants used had achieved a minimum 7A Orthopaedic Data Evaluation Panel (ODEP) rating. The included shoulder arthroplasties were performed between May 1, 2004, and December 31, 2021, with minimum 1-year follow-up. Surveillance program involves specialist physiotherapist review at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 15 years postoperatively, including clinical examination, outcome scoring, and radiographs. Patient-initiated review occurred between time points if a patient requested assessment because of symptoms. Outcome measures include ratio of failing implants identified by surveillance and patient-initiated review, with number of surveillance reviews offered and proportion that identified a failing implant requiring revision calculated. RESULTS: A total of 1002 elective primary shoulder arthroplasty with minimum 1-year follow-up were performed (547 reverse total shoulder arthroplasty [rTSA], 234 anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty [aTSA], and 221 hemiarthroplasty [HA]). A total of 238 patients died prior to December 31, 2022, resulting in 4019 surveillance appointments offered. Thirty-eight prostheses required revision ≥1 year postoperatively (6 rTSA, 9 aTSA, and 23 HA), with surveillance identifying requirement in 53% (33% rTSA, 56% aTSA, and 57% HA) and patient-initiated review in 47%. Mean years from implantation to revision was 5.2 (2.7 rTSA, 3.6 aTSA, and 6.6 HA). Revision indications included rotator cuff failure (56% aTSR and 43% HA) and glenoid erosion (57% HA). CONCLUSION: This is the first series reporting effectiveness of shoulder arthroplasty surveillance in identifying implants requiring revision. Surveillance identified more than half of implants requiring revision, although only 0.5% of appointments identified revision requirement. Surveillance enrolment may influence patient-initiated review utilization; therefore, similar studies using only patient-initiated follow-up would help inform recommendations.
  • Emotion Regulation and Psychological Dependence on Pain Medication among Hospital Outpatients with Chronic Spinal Pain: The Influence of Rumination about Pain and Alexithymia.

    Bateman, AH
    Objective: To examine the extent to which pain acceptance, pain catastrophising and alexithymia moderate associations between pain intensity and psychological pain medication dependence. Methods: Participants (106 hospital outpatients with chronic spinal pain) completed the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ) to measure psychological dependence on pain medication, and the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire-8 (CPAQ-8), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), plus the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Results: Multiple linear regression showed that degree of psychological dependence (measured dimensionally across the range of LDQ scores) was associated with TAS subscale difficulty identifying feelings (DIF) (β = 0.249, p = <0.002) and PCS subscale rumination (β = 0.193, p = 0.030), independently of pain intensity and risk behaviors for medication misuse. The effect of pain intensity was moderated by rumination, with pain intensity more strongly associated with dependence when rumination was high (interaction β = 0.192, p = 0.004). Logistic regression showed that the effect of pain intensity on severe dependence (measured categorically as LDQ score ≥ 20) was moderated by alexithymia, so that severe dependence was independently associated with the combination of intense pain and high alexithymia (interaction odds ratio = 7.26, 95% CIs = 1.63-32.42, p = 0.009). Conclusions: Rumination and alexithymia moderated the associations between pain intensity and psychological pain medication dependence, consistent with emotion regulation theory. This raises the possibility that specifically targeting rumination about pain and symptoms of alexithymia could potentially improve the effectiveness of psychological interventions for chronic pain and help people to avoid or reduce their psychological dependence on pain medication.
  • Identifying clusters of objective functional impairment in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal disease using unsupervised learning.

    Klukowska, Anita
    OBJECTIVES: The five-repetition sit-to-stand (5R-STS) test was designed to capture objective functional impairment (OFI), and thus provides an adjunctive dimension in patient assessment. It is conceivable that there are different subsets of patients with OFI and degenerative lumbar disease. We aim to identify clusters of objectively functionally impaired individuals based on 5R-STS and unsupervised machine learning (ML). METHODS: Data from two prospective cohort studies on patients with surgery for degenerative lumbar disease and 5R-STS times of ≥ 10.5 s-indicating presence of OFI. K-means clustering-an unsupervised ML algorithm-was applied to identify clusters of OFI. Cluster hallmarks were then identified using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. RESULTS: We included 173 patients (mean age [standard deviation]: 46.7 [12.7] years, 45% male) and identified three types of OFI. OFI Type 1 (57 pts., 32.9%), Type 2 (81 pts., 46.8%), and Type 3 (35 pts., 20.2%) exhibited mean 5R-STS test times of 14.0 (3.2), 14.5 (3.3), and 27.1 (4.4) seconds, respectively. The grades of OFI according to the validated baseline severity stratification of the 5R-STS increased significantly with each OFI type, as did extreme anxiety and depression symptoms, issues with mobility and daily activities. Types 1 and 2 are characterized by mild to moderate OFI-with female gender, lower body mass index, and less smokers as Type I hallmarks. CONCLUSIONS: Unsupervised learning techniques identified three distinct clusters of patients with OFI that may represent a more holistic clinical classification of patients with OFI than test-time stratifications alone, by accounting for individual patient characteristics.
  • Flexor Injury Rehabilitation Splint Trial (FIRST): protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial comparing three splints for finger flexor tendon repairs

    Bamford, E; Selby, A
    BACKGROUND: Without surgical repair, flexor tendon injuries do not heal and patients' ability to bend fingers and grip objects is impaired. However, flexor tendon repair surgery also requires optimal rehabilitation. There are currently three custom-made splints used in the rehabilitation of zone I/II flexor tendon repairs, each with different assumed harm/benefit profiles: the dorsal forearm and hand-based splint (long), the Manchester short splint (short), and the relative motion flexion splint (mini). There is, however, no robust evidence as to which splint, if any, is most clinical or cost effective. The Flexor Injury Rehabilitation Splint Trial (FIRST) was designed to address this evidence gap. METHODS: FIRST is a parallel group, superiority, analyst-blind, multi-centre, individual participant-randomised controlled trial. Participants will be assigned 1:1:1 to receive either the long, short, or mini splint. We aim to recruit 429 participants undergoing rehabilitation following zone I/II flexor tendon repair surgery. Potential participants will initially be identified prior to surgery, in NHS hand clinics across the UK, and consented and randomised at their splint fitting appointment post-surgery. The primary outcome will be the mean post-randomisation score on the patient-reported wrist and hand evaluation measure (PRWHE), assessed at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks post randomisation. Secondary outcome measures include blinded grip strength and active range of movement (AROM) assessments, adverse events, adherence to the splinting protocol (measured via temperature sensors inserted into the splints), quality of life assessment, and further patient-reported outcomes. An economic evaluation will assess the cost-effectiveness of each splint, and a qualitative sub-study will evaluate participants' preferences for, and experiences of wearing, the splints. Furthermore, a mediation analysis will determine the relationship between patient preferences, splint adherence, and splint effectiveness. DISCUSSION: FIRST will compare the three splints with respect to clinical efficacy, complications, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. FIRST is a pragmatic trial which will recruit from 26 NHS sites to allow findings to be generalisable to current clinical practice in the UK. It will also provide significant insights into patient experiences of splint wear and how adherence to splinting may impact outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: 10236011.
  • Frequency and reporting of complications after Dupuytren's contracture interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Johnson, Nick
    INTRODUCTION: Numerous complications are reported following interventions for Dupuytren's contracture; however, their incidence, management, and outcomes remain poorly reported. The aims of this review were to report the proportions of complications, compare likelihood of complications between interventions, and evaluate reporting of complications, including assessment, grading, management, and subsequent reporting of their impact on patient outcomes. METHODS: Extracted data included patient demographics, intervention details, complications, their management, and final outcomes. Analysis of descriptive data enabled review of complications reporting. Meta-analysis(MA) of non-comparative datasets enabled estimation of proportions of patients experiencing complications. Network meta-analysis(NMA) of comparative studies estimated the relative occurrence of complications between interventions. Risk of bias analysis was performed. RESULTS: 26 studies, comprising 10,831 patients, were included. Interventions included collagenase injection, percutaneous needle fasciotomy(PNF), limited fasciectomy(LF), open fasciotomy(OF), and dermofasciectomy(DF). Overall quality and consistency of outcomes reporting was poor. MA enabled estimates of probabilities for three common complications(infection, nerve injury, complex regional pain syndrome(CRPS)) across all interventions; the reported rates for LF were 4.5% for infection, 3% for nerve injury, and 3.3% for CRPS. As the commonest intervention, LF was used as the reference intervention for comparison of the commonest complications via NMA, including haematoma [OF OR 0.450(0.277, 0.695); PNF OR 0.245(0.114, 0.457)], infection [PNF OR 0.2(0.0287, 0.690); DF OR 2.02(1.02, 3.74)], and neuropraxia [PNF OR 0.0926(0.00553, 0.737)]. We noted that the complication incidence was higher the more invasive the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: There was limited reporting of complication occurrence, management, and outcomes following interventions, contributing to a gap in information for informed patient consent. MA was possible for reporting of proportions for infection, nerve injury, and CRPS across interventions. NMA enabled direct comparison of the six commonest complications between interventions. These findings can guide intervention selection. Improving consistency and quality in complications reporting is essential to aid counselling of patients regarding the true rates and consequences of the risks of interventions. TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.
  • Exploring the utility of bedside tests for predicting cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults.

    Carrick, Laura; Doleman, Brett; Wall, Jillian; Lund, Jonathan; Williams, John
    OBJECTIVES: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) declines with advancing and has also, independent of age, been shown to be predictive of all-cause mortality, morbidity, and poor clinical outcomes. In relation to the older patient, there is a particular wealth of evidence highlighting the relationship between low CRF and poor surgical outcomes. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is accepted as the gold-standard measure of CRF. However, this form of assessment has significant personnel and equipment demands and is not feasible for those with certain age-associated physical limitations, including joint and cardiovascular comorbidities. As such, alternative ways to assess the CRF of older patients are very much needed. METHODS: Sixty-four participants (45% female) with a median age of 74 (65-90) years were recruited to this study via community-based advertisements. All participants completed three tests of physical function: (1) a step-box test; (2) handgrip strength dynamometry; and (3) a CPET on a cycle ergometer; and also had their muscle architecture (vastus lateralis) assessed by B-mode ultrasonography to provide measures of muscle thickness, pennation angle, and fascicle length. Multivariate linear regression was then used to ascertain bedside predictors of CPET parameters from the alternative measures of physical function and demographic (age, gender, body mass index (BMI)) data. RESULTS: There was no significant association between ultrasound-assessed parameters of muscle architecture and measures of CRF. VO2peak was predicted to some extent from fast step time during the step-box test, gender, and BMI, leading to a model that achieved an R 2 of 0.40 (p < 0.001). Further, in aiming to develop a model with minimal assessment demands (i.e., using handgrip dynamometry rather than the step-box test), replacing fast step time with non-dominant HGS led to a model which achieved an R 2 of 0.36 (p < 0.001). Non-dominant handgrip strength combined with the step-box test parameter of fast step time and BMI delivered the most predictive model for VO2peak with an R 2 of 0.45 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that simple-to-ascertain patient characteristics and bedside assessments of physical function are able to predict CPET-derived CRF. Combined with gender and BMI, both handgrip strength and fast step time during a step-box test were predictive for VO2peak. Future work should apply this model to a clinical population to determine its utility in this setting and to explore if simple bedside tests are predictive of important clinical outcomes in older adults (i.e., post-surgical complications).
  • Patient-reported outcomes in inguinal hernia surgery-Results from the GENESIS study: A multinational multicenter study.

    Viswanath, Gokhare; Madhok, Brijesh
    BACKGROUND: Chronic groin pain following inguinal hernia repair can be troublesome. The current literature is limited, especially from Asia and Africa. We aimed to evaluate patient-reported outcomes using the Carolinas Comfort Scale (CCS) following inguinal hernia repair at an international level, especially to include patients from Asia and Africa. METHODS: An international cohort of surgeons was invited to collaborate and collect data of consecutive adult patients who underwent inguinal hernia repair. The data were collected to allow at least 2 years of follow-up. A total score for CCS was calculated and compared for the following groups-patient age <30 years versus (vs.) > 30 years; open versus laparoscopic repair, emergency versus elective surgery, and unilateral versus bilateral hernia repair. The CCS scores between Asia, Africa, and Europe were also compared. RESULTS: The mean total CCS score of patients operated in Asia (n = 891), Europe (n = 853), and Africa (n = 157) were 7.32, 14.6, and 19.79, respectively. The total CCS score was significantly higher following open repair, emergency repair, and unilateral repair, with surgical site infections (SSI) and recurrence. In the subgroup analysis, the patients who underwent elective open repair in Europe had higher CCS scores than those in Asia. CONCLUSION: About 15% of patients had a CCS score of more than 25 after a minimum follow-up of 2 years. The factors that influence CCS scores are indication, approach, complications, and geographic location.
  • Emotion Regulation and Psychological Dependence on Pain Medication among Hospital Outpatients with Chronic Spinal Pain: The Influence of Rumination about Pain and Alexithymia.

    Bateman, AH
    Objective: To examine the extent to which pain acceptance, pain catastrophising and alexithymia moderate associations between pain intensity and psychological pain medication dependence. Methods: Participants (106 hospital outpatients with chronic spinal pain) completed the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ) to measure psychological dependence on pain medication, and the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire-8 (CPAQ-8), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), plus the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Results: Multiple linear regression showed that degree of psychological dependence (measured dimensionally across the range of LDQ scores) was associated with TAS subscale difficulty identifying feelings (DIF) (β = 0.249, p = <0.002) and PCS subscale rumination (β = 0.193, p = 0.030), independently of pain intensity and risk behaviors for medication misuse. The effect of pain intensity was moderated by rumination, with pain intensity more strongly associated with dependence when rumination was high (interaction β = 0.192, p = 0.004). Logistic regression showed that the effect of pain intensity on severe dependence (measured categorically as LDQ score ≥ 20) was moderated by alexithymia, so that severe dependence was independently associated with the combination of intense pain and high alexithymia (interaction odds ratio = 7.26, 95% CIs = 1.63-32.42, p = 0.009). Conclusions: Rumination and alexithymia moderated the associations between pain intensity and psychological pain medication dependence, consistent with emotion regulation theory. This raises the possibility that specifically targeting rumination about pain and symptoms of alexithymia could potentially improve the effectiveness of psychological interventions for chronic pain and help people to avoid or reduce their psychological dependence on pain medication.
  • Trauma outcomes at higher-level trauma centres compared with lower level trauma centres: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Ashwood, Neil
    The introduction of trauma systems has helped reduce mortality in severely injured patients. This fall in mortality, however, appears to be concentrated in higher-level trauma centres (TCs) in comparison to lower-level TCs, but the evidence is inconsistent. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review with the aim of comparing outcomes in lower-level TCs (i.e. level III and IV trauma centres) with higher-level TCs (i.e. level I and II centres). This systematic review was performed in accordance with the guidelines defined in the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement (PRISMA). The review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019111933). Mortality data were combined using the Mantel-Haenszel random-effects method for meta-analysis, using Review Manager (RevMan v5.3.5). We found 28 eligible articles from an initial total of 10,816 identified abstracts. Our meta-analysis revealed no evidence of a difference in mortality risk in severely injured patients between lower-level and higher-level TCs (RR 1.55; 95% CI 0.97 to 2.50; p=0.07), but there was considerable heterogeneity (I2=92%) in the dataset. The risk of death in lower-level TCs in patients with neurological trauma, however, was statistically lower than in higher-level TCs (RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86; I2=78%; p<00001). There was a higher risk of death in patients with neurological trauma managed at higher-level TCs and this is likely to be due to the higher severity of injury (intracranial and extracranial) sustained by patients at higher-level TCs. However, the high level of heterogeneity in the risk estimates of evaluated studies reduces the certainty of our interpretations.
  • To plate, or not to plate? A systematic review of functional outcomes and complications of plate fixation in patellar fractures.

    Ilo, Kevin
    PURPOSE: Poor outcomes and high complication and reoperation rates have been reported with tension-band wiring (TBW) in the management of patellar fractures and particularly the comminuted ones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional outcomes and complication rates of patellar fractures managed with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with a plate. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMCare, CINAHL, AMED and HMIC were searched, and the PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent reviewers extracted the data from the included studies and assessed them for the risk of bias. RESULTS: Plating of patellar fractures is associated with satisfactory range of movement (ROM) and postoperative function and low pain levels. We found a 10.44% complication rate and a low reoperation rate. Reoperations were mainly performed for metalwork removal. CONCLUSION: ORIF with plating of patellar fractures is a safe alternative in the management of patellar fractures and may be associated with a lower complication and reoperation rate compared to TBW. Future randomized prospective studies are needed to validated the results of the present systematic review.
  • Assessing the use of the frequency, etiology, direction, and severity classification system for shoulder instability in physical therapy research - A scoping review.

    Bateman, Marcus
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the implementation of the Frequency, Etiology, Direction, and Severity (FEDS) classification for shoulder instability by the physical therapy scientific community since its publication in 2011. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on January 10, 2024 in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, and SciELO databases, as well as Google Scholar. Studies investigating physical therapy interventions in people with shoulder instability, and reporting selection criteria for shoulder instability were considered eligible. A narrative synthesis was conducted. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were included. None reported using the FEDS classification as eligibility criteria for shoulder instability. Only 42% of the studies provided data of all four criteria of the FEDS classification. The most reported criterion was direction (92%), followed by etiology (85%), severity (65%), and frequency (58%). The most common reported descriptor for profiling shoulder instability was "dislocation" (83.3%), followed by "first-time" (66.7%), "anterior" (62.5%), and "traumatic" (59.1%). Regarding other instability classifications, only one study (4%) used the Thomas & Matsen classification, and two (8%) the Stanmore classification. CONCLUSIONS: The FEDS classification system has not been embraced enough by the physical therapy scientific community since its publication in 2011.
  • An Update Summary on the Learning Sciences Within an Ophthalmic Context.

    Khanna, Aishwarya
    Clinical reasoning, specifically diagnostic decision-making, has been a subject of fragmented literature since the 1970s, marked by diverse theories and conflicting perspectives. This article reviews the latest evidence in medical education, drawing from scientific literature, to offer ophthalmologists insights into optimal strategies for personal learning and the education of others. It explores the historical development of clinical reasoning theories, emphasising the challenges in understanding how doctors formulate diagnoses. The importance of clinical reasoning is underscored by its role in making accurate diagnoses and preventing diagnostic errors. The article delves into the dual process theory, distinguishing between type 1 and type 2 thinking and their implications for clinical decision-making. Cognitive load theory is introduced as a crucial aspect, highlighting the limited capacity of working memory and its impact on the diagnostic process. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is explored as a framework for optimal learning environments, emphasising the importance of scaffolding and deliberate practice in skill development. The article discusses semantic competence, mental representation, and the interplay of different memory stores-semantic, episodic, and procedural-in enhancing diagnostic proficiency. Self-regulated learning (SRL) is introduced as a student-centric approach, emphasising goal setting, metacognition, and continuous improvement. Practical advice is provided for minimising cognitive errors in clinical reasoning, applying dual process theory, and considering cognitive load theory in teaching. The relevance of deliberate practice in ophthalmology, especially in a rapidly evolving field, is emphasised for continuous learning and staying updated with advancements. The article concludes by highlighting the importance of clinical supervisors in recognising and supporting trainees' self-regulated learning and understanding the principles of various teaching and learning theories. Ultimately, a profound comprehension of the science behind clinical reasoning is deemed fundamental for ophthalmologists to deliver high-quality, evidence-based care and foster critical thinking skills in the dynamic landscape of ophthalmology.
  • Artificial Intelligence ChatGPT’s Perspective on Implementation of Augmented Intelligence within Orthopaedic Practice—A Comparative Narrative Synthesis?

    Ashwood, Neil; Dekker, Andrew
    ChatGPT has obvious benefits in the way it can interrogate vast amounts of reference information and utilise metadata generation to answer questions posed to it and is freely available having been developed through human feedback. Already there are ethical and practical implications on its impact on learning and research. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been seen as a way of improving healthcare provision by delivering more robust outcomes but measuring these and implementing AI within this setting is at present limited and disjointed. Methods: ChatGPT was interrogated to see what it felt were the barriers to its implementation within healthcare and in particular ortho paedic practice. The evidence for this determination was then examined for validity and applicability for a practical roll out at a Trust, Regional or Na tional level. Results: AI can synthesise a vast amount of information to help it answer specific questions. The context and structure of any question will de termine the usefulness of the answer which can then be used to develop prac tical solutions based on experience and resource limitations. Conclusions: AI has a role in service development and can quickly focus a working group to areas to consider when practically implementing change
  • The incidence and severity of diabetic hand infection presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Morris, H; Gillott, E.; Bainbridge, Chris; Johnson, Nick
    Diabetic hand infections are difficult to treat and can present with high morbidity. We set out to identify any changes in presentation and disease severity during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 61 pre-COVID and 32 during COVID patients with diabetes with a hand infection requiring intravenous antibiotics were included in the study. The pandemic caused a decrease in the number and proportion of presentations. Hospital admissions reduced as service provision was amended to enable increased outpatient treatment. However, there was a significant increase in surgical management (25 vs. 21, p = 0.02), total complications (5 vs. 8, p < 0.05) and incidence of amputations (2 vs. 4, p = 0.09). Mean haemoglobin A1C was also higher (48 mmol/L vs. 40 mmol/L, p < 0.05). While fewer patients attended the service during the pandemic, we witnessed an increased severity of hand infections in those we treated. There is a role for daily outpatient administration of intravenous antibiotics in selected patients to reduce the number of hospital admissions.
  • Systematic review of nerves at risk at the wrist in common surgical approaches to the forearm: Anatomical variations and surgical implications

    Ashwood, Neil
    Three commonly used approaches to the forearm in orthopedic surgery are Henry's, Thompson's, and the ulnar approach, each of which has the potential to cause injury to nerves around the wrist. Preserving these nerves is important to prevent complications such as neuroma formation and motor and sensory changes to the hand. We conducted a review of the literature to assess the nerves at risk and whether ‘safe zones’ exist to avoid these nerves. An independent reviewer conducted searches in Embase and MEDLINE of the literature from 2010 to 2020. A total of 68 papers were identified, with 18 articles being included in the review. Multiple nerves were identified as being at risk for each of the approaches described. In the anterior approach, the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBMN) is most at risk of injury. An incision immediately radial to the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) or directly over the FCR is most likely to avoid injury to both superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and PCBMN. With Thompson's approach, the safest zone for an incision is directly over or slightly radial to Lister's tubercle to avoid injury to SBRN and lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. For the ulnar approach, a safe zone was shown to be on the ulnar side of the wrist around the ulnar styloid (US) when the forearm was in supination or a neutral position to avoid injury to the dorsal branch of the ulna nerve (DBUN). Care must be taken around the US due to the density of nerves and the proximity of the last motor branch of the posterior interosseous nerve to the ulnar head. This review highlighted the proximity of nerves to the three most common surgical incisions used to access the forearm. In addition, anatomical variations may exist, and each of the nerves identified as being at risk has multiple branches. Both factors increase the potential of intraoperative damage if the anatomy is not properly understood. The surgeon must adhere carefully to the established approaches to the wrist and distal forearm to minimize damage to nerves and optimize surgical outcomes for the patient.

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