Recent Submissions

  • Posterolateral Corner Reconstruction of the Knee Using Gracilis Autograft and Biceps Femoris.

    Stragier, B; Geutjens, G
    We introduce our technique for posterolateral corner reconstruction, which is based on the principle described in Arciero's technique for anatomic reconstruction of lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and popliteofibular ligament (PFL) to gain static stability in varus strain and external rotation. This technique uses a doubled gracilis autograft to reconstruct the PFL and a split biceps tendon transfer to reconstruct the LCL. Using this technique an anatomical LCL and PFL reconstruction can be performed in combination with anterior cruciate ligament or posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction without contralateral graft harvest or allograft. The technique also enables an isolated reconstruction of LCL or PFL when required and can be performed to augment an acute repair.
  • How Do Orthopaedic Patients Prefer to Be Contacted During a Pandemic?

    Fellows, David; Hind, Jamie; Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Amara, Veda; Ashwood, Neil
    Introduction: Communication with patients is a vital part of the surgical pathway, and when done effectively, it can greatly improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction and reduce canceled appointments. Different forms of communication work well for different patient demographics, and it is important to optimize communication techniques. We designed a study to review the communication preferences of orthopedic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by asking patients who were due to undergo orthopedic procedures to answer a questionnaire on their communication preferences, the reminder notice period for appointments, and safety and satisfaction ratings during the COVID-19 pandemic.Results:Communication method preferences are influenced by patient factors such as gender and age. Phone calls were the most popular communication method throughout all patient groups, with 61% selecting it as their preference. Younger patients preferred multiple communication methods of phone calls, texts, and emails, whereas the older group had a stronger preference for letters. Letters were more popular among females (28% compared to 10% of males), whereas males had a stronger preference for other communication methods. The majority of patients said they would not have liked a letter prior to their clinic appointment (65%). Of those who indicated a preferred notice period, 73% would have liked five days or less notice prior to their clinic appointment, while 65% would have liked 10-14 days notice prior to their surgery. The average safety rating was 55%. The overall satisfaction rating with the communication process was 71.7%. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed patient feelings towards healthcare and, as a result, changed the way healthcare is delivered. Communication method preferences among trauma and orthopedic patients vary and depend on factors such as gender and age. If healthcare departments can optimize their communication processes, they will improve their patient outcomes and enhance their resources.
  • Intraoperative robotic-assisted low anterior rectal resection performance assessment using procedure-specific binary metrics and a global rating scale.

    Tou, Samson
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the use of binary metric-based (proficiency-based progression; PBP) performance assessments and global evaluative assessment of robotic skills (GEARS) of a robotic-assisted low anterior rectal resection (RA-LAR) procedure. METHOD: A prospective study of video analysis of RA-LAR procedures was carried out using the PBP metrics with binary parameters previously developed, and GEARS. Recordings were collected from five novice surgeons (≤30 RA-LAR previously performed) and seven experienced surgeons (>30 RA-LAR previously performed). Two consultant colorectal surgeons were trained to be assessors in the use of PBP binary parameters to evaluate the procedure phases, surgical steps, errors, and critical errors in male and female patients and GEARS scores. Novice and experienced surgeons were categorized and assessed using PBP metrics and GEARS; mean scores obtained were compared for statistical purpose. Also, the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of these assessment tools was evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty unedited recordings of RA-LAR procedures were blindly assessed. Overall, using PBP metric-based assessment, a subgroup of experienced surgeons made more errors (20 versus 16, P = 0.158) and critical errors (9.2 versus 7.8, P = 0.417) than the novice group, although not significantly. However, during the critical phase of RA-LAR, experienced surgeons made significantly fewer errors than the novice group (95% CI of the difference, Lower = 0.104 - Upper = 5.155, df = 11.9, t = 2.23, p = 0.042), and a similar pattern was observed for critical errors. The PBP metric and GEARS assessment tools distinguished between the objectively assessed performance of experienced and novice colorectal surgeons performing RA-LAR (total error scores with PBP metrics, P = 0.019-0.008; GEARS scores, P = 0.029-0.025). GEARS demonstrated poor IRR (mean IRR 0.49) and weaker discrimination between groups (15-41 per cent difference). PBP binary metrics demonstrated good IRR (mean 0.94) and robust discrimination particularly for total error scores (58-64 per cent). CONCLUSIONS: PBP binary metrics seem to be useful for metric-based training for surgeons learning RA-LAR procedures.
  • Nonfreezing Cold Injury and Cold Intolerance in Paddlesport.

    Oakley, Ben; Johnson, Nicholas; Bainbridge, Chris
    INTRODUCTION: Nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) occurs when tissues are subjected to prolonged cooling that causes tissue damage, but not freezing. Long-term effects include cold intolerance, with allodynia, pain, or numbness of the affected limb. Those who participate in outdoor paddlesports are at particular risk. METHODS: This is an epidemiological study that aimed to determine the risk factors for paddlesport athletes developing NFCI and chronic cold intolerance in their hands. Secondary outcomes were to correlate cumulative cold exposure with the development of cold intolerance and to identify risk factors for developing NFCI or cold intolerance. Six hundred nine athletes responded to a survey distributed by their national governing body obtaining demographic and activity details, symptoms of NFCI, and a cold intolerance severity score (CISS). RESULTS: Twenty-three percent reported symptoms consistent with acute NFCI. The median CISS was 31 y (interquartile range 25-43 y), and 15% had a pathological CISS defined as >50. Females and individuals with Raynaud's phenomenon or migraines had a significantly higher CISS (P<0.05). Regression analysis found that females, smokers, and those with Raynaud's phenomenon or a previous nerve injury had a significantly higher risk of developing pathological cold intolerance (CISS >50). There was no correlation between cumulative cold exposure and CISS. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of paddlesport athletes undertaking activity in cold conditions have a pathological CISS or episodes consistent with NFCI. Cumulative cold exposure was not associated with a pathologically high CISS. The risk factors were female sex, smokers, and those suffering from either Raynaud's phenomenon or nerve injury.
  • Curcumin Enhances Fed-State Muscle Microvascular Perfusion but Not Leg Glucose Uptake in Older Adults.

    Sian, Tanvir; Lund, Jonathan; Williams, John P
    Therapeutic interventions aimed at enhancing blood flow may combat the postprandial vascular and metabolic dysfunction that manifests with chronological ageing. We compared the effects of acute curcumin (1000 mg) coupled with an oral nutritional supplement (ONS, 7.5 g protein, 24 g carbohydrate and 6 g fat) versus a placebo and ONS (control) on cerebral and leg macrovascular blood flow, leg muscle microvascular blood flow, brachial artery endothelial function, and leg insulin and glucose responses in healthy older adults (n = 12, 50% male, 73 ± 1 year). Curcumin enhanced m. tibialis anterior microvascular blood volume (MBV) at 180 and 240 min following the ONS (baseline: 1.0 vs. 180 min: 1.08 ± 0.02, p = 0.01 vs. 240 min: 1.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.01), and MBV was significantly higher compared with the control at both time points (p < 0.05). MBV increased from baseline in the m. vastus lateralis at 240 min after the ONS in both groups (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences between groups. Following the ONS, leg blood flow and leg vascular conductance increased, and leg vascular resistance decreased similarly in both conditions (p < 0.05). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and middle cerebral artery blood flow were unchanged in both conditions (p > 0.05). Similarly, the curcumin and control groups demonstrated comparable increases in glucose uptake and insulin in response to the ONS. Thus, acute curcumin supplementation enhanced ONS-induced increases in m. tibialis anterior MBV without potentiating m. vastus lateralis MBV, muscle glucose uptake, or systemic endothelial or macrovascular function in healthy older adults.
  • The false dichotomy of surgical futility in the emergency laparotomy setting: scoping review.

    Tierney, Gillian
    BACKGROUND: Futile is defined as 'the fact of having no effect or of achieving nothing'. Futility in medicine has been defined through seven guiding principles, which in the context of emergency surgery, have been relatively unexplored. This scoping review aimed to identify key concepts around surgical futility as it relates to emergency laparotomy. METHODS: Using the Arksey and O'Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted. A search of the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, and Embase was performed up until 1 November 2021 to identify literature relevant to the topic of futility in emergency laparotomy. RESULTS: Three cohort studies were included in the analysis. A total of 105 157 patients were included, with 1114 patients reported as futile. All studies were recent (2019 to 2020) and focused on the principle of quantitative futility (assessment of the probability of death after surgery) within a timeline after surgery: two defining futility as death within 48 hours of surgery and one as death within 72 hours. In all cases this was derived from a survival histogram. Predictors of defined futile procedures included age, level of independence prior to admission, surgical pathology, serum creatinine, arterial lactate, and pH. CONCLUSION: There remains a paucity of research defining, exploring, and analysing futile surgery in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. With limited published work focusing on quantitative futility and the binary outcome of death, research is urgently needed to explore all principles of futility, including the wishes of patients and their families.
  • A comparative analysis of multidimensional computerized adaptive testing for the DASH and QuickDASH scores in Dupuytren's disease.

    Russell, Peter
    The QuickDASH is a short-form version of the DASH questionnaire, the most widely used patient-reported outcome measure in hand surgery. Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) can produce shorter and more precise testing than static short forms, like QuickDASH. We used DASH responses from 507 patients with Dupuytren's disease to develop a MCAT. The algorithm was evaluated in a Monte Carlo simulation, where the standard error of measurement (SEm) of scores obtained from the 11-item QuickDASH was compared with scores obtained from an MCAT that could administer up to 11 items from the full 30-item DASH. The MCAT asked a mean of 8.51 items (SD 2.93) and 265/1000 simulated respondents needed to complete ≤five items. Median SEms were better for DASH MCAT: 0.299 (hand function) and 0.256 (sensory symptoms) versus 0.320 and 0.290, respectively, for QuickDASH. Our study showed that the DASH MCAT can produce more precise DASH measurement than the QuickDASH, from fewer items.
  • Epiploic Appendagitis in an Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Husain, Najam; Bhatia, Vilomi; Rahman, Muhammed
    Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is a rare and frequently overlooked cause of abdominal pain. EA within the sigmoid colon in a right-sided inguinal hernia is a rare entity with only a few cases reported. In this article, we present a case of an 80-year-old male with a palpable mass within an incarcerated right inguinal hernia. The patient underwent urgent surgical intervention due to incarceration and the operative findings were of a large indirect inguinoscrotal hernia containing sigmoid colon, with an inflamed epiploic appendage. The colon was reduced into the abdominal cavity and standard tension-free Lichtenstein repair was performed. EA should be a consideration in patients with an acute abdomen as well as those with a painful groin lump. CT is diagnostic; however, emergency surgery should not be delayed for a scan if the hernia is irreducible and tender.
  • Effect of institution volume on mortality and outcomes in osteoporotic hip fracture care

    Johnson, NA (2022-01)
    Hospitals that treat more patients with osteoporotic hip fractures do not generally have better care outcomes than those that treat fewer hip fracture patients. Institutions that do look after more such patients tend, however, to more consistently perform relevant health assessments. INTRODUCTION: An inveterate link has been found between institution case volume and a wide range of clinical outcomes; for a host of medical and surgical conditions. Hip fracture patients, notwithstanding the significance of this injury, have largely been overlooked with regard to this important evaluation. METHODS: We used the UK National Hip Fracture database to determine the effect of institution hip fracture case volume on hip fracture healthcare outcomes in 2019. Using logistic regression for each healthcare outcome, we compared the best performing 50 units with the poorest performing 50 institutions to determine if the unit volume was associated with performance in each particular outcome. RESULTS: There were 175 institutions with included 67,673 patients involved. The number of hip fractures between units ranged from 86 to 952. Larger units tendered to perform health assessments more consistently and mobilise patients more expeditiously post-operatively. However, patients treated at large institutions did not have any shorter lengths of stay. With regard to most other outcomes there was no association between the unit number of cases and performance; notably mortality, compliance with best practice tariff, time to surgery, the proportion of eligible patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, length of stay delirium risk and pressure sore risk. CONCLUSIONS: There is no relationship between unit volume and the majority of health care outcomes. It would seem that larger institutions tend to perform better at parameters that are dependent upon personnel numbers. However, where the outcome is contingent, even partially, on physical infrastructure capacity, there was no difference between larger and smaller units.
  • Management of Retraction Pockets: historic and novel approaches.

    Spinos, Dimitrios; Mallick, Sameer; Judd, Owen
  • Cervical arthroplasty in a professional kick-boxing fighter, 7 years follow-up.

    Klezl, Zdenek
    Spinal surgery in professional athletes is a topic of much discussion. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the standard procedure used by surgeons, and other techniques used to treat athletes includes foraminotomies, laminoplasties and total disc replacement. Total disc replacement is an unusual technique used to treat athletes in general and is becoming a more important issue in full contact sports. This case report illustrates a 34 years old professional fighter that suffered a cervical injury that evolved with cervical axial pain and irradiated pain and numbness. She was submitted to total disc replacement (TDR) at the C5-6 level, returning to competitive sports after and with a seven-year follow-up. To the date she remains symptom free and besides having an anterior foramen, the spine was able to keep movement at that level. TDR may be a safe and trustworthy technique when treating elite athletes.
  • Myositis, Osteomyelitis and a Parasymphyseal Stress Fracture in a Paediatric Patient

    Hind, Jamie; Ashwood, Neil (Cureus, 2021)
    Abstract The limping child and painful hip are common presentations in many paediatric emergency units. Typically caused by mild self-limiting events, less commonly, they may be implicated in one of a group of inflammatory myopathies, or myositis. Diagnosis of this condition can be extremely difficult, and is aided by thorough clinical assessment, radiological imaging, and extensive blood serum testing. Myositis with associated osteomyelitis and a pathological fracture is an incredibly rare finding, described in this case report in a seven-year-old child.
  • Limb length inequality (LLI) is a frequent and recurring issue after total hip arthroplasty (THA). It is often a source of patient dissatisfaction and litigation. This study reviewed the incidence of LLI in a UK District General Hospital in light of published evidence and identified the preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for LLI.

    Abouelela, Amr; Mubark, Islam; Mohamed, Nagy; Jayakumar, Nithish; Ashwood, Neil; Bindi, Frank (2021)
    Abstract: Methods This was a retrospective study involving 380 consecutive unilateral primary total hip replacements over a period of 12 months. Patient demographics, clinical, radiological, and operative details were collected from the National Joint Registry (NJR) database and hospital records. The limb length was measured radiologically [OrthoView WorkstationTM (Materialise UK, Southampton, UK)], pre- and postoperatively, by two authors. They assessed the vertical distance between the intra-acetabular teardrop line and the medial apex of the lesser trochanters. After excluding complex primary, revision cases, tilted X-rays, and hip replacement for trauma patients, 338 cases were included in the final analysis. ResultsThe mean postoperative LLI was 2.7 mm with a standard deviation (SD) of 6.56 mm. Only 5.3% of patients had LLI >15 mm. None of the studied variables showed a statistically significant correlation with LLI. Even with the apparent difference in the mean LLI between templating and not templating before surgery (2.19 vs. 3.53), the p-value was 0.06, which was below the level of statistical significance. There was a weakly positive Pearson correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of lengthening of the limb. Conclusion The cause of LLI after THA is multifactorial. No single factor can be singled out as the most significant contributor to this complication.
  • Green Tea Extract Concurrent with an Oral Nutritional Supplement Acutely Enhances Muscle Microvascular Blood Flow without Altering Leg Glucose Uptake in Healthy Older Adults.

    Lund, Jonathan; Williams, John P (2021)
    Postprandial macro- and microvascular blood flow and metabolic dysfunction manifest with advancing age, so vascular transmuting interventions are desirable. In this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, we investigated the impact of the acute administration of green tea extract (GTE; containing ~500 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate) versus placebo (CON), alongside an oral nutritional supplement (ONS), on muscle macro- and microvascular, cerebral macrovascular (via ultrasound) and leg glucose/insulin metabolic responses (via arterialised/venous blood samples) in twelve healthy older adults (42% male, 74 ± 1 y). GTE increased m. vastus lateralis microvascular blood volume (MBV) at 180 and 240 min after ONS (baseline: 1.0 vs. 180 min: 1.11 ± 0.02 vs. 240 min: 1.08 ± 0.04, both p < 0.005), with MBV significantly higher than CON at 180 min (p < 0.05). Neither the ONS nor the GTE impacted m. tibialis anterior perfusion (p > 0.05). Leg blood flow and vascular conductance increased, and vascular resistance decreased similarly in both conditions (p < 0.05). Small non-significant increases in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation were observed in the GTE only and middle cerebral artery blood flow did not change in response to GTE or CON (p > 0.05). Glucose uptake increased with the GTE only (0 min: 0.03 ± 0.01 vs. 35 min: 0.11 ± 0.02 mmol/min/leg, p = 0.007); however, glucose area under the curve and insulin kinetics were similar between conditions (p > 0.05). Acute GTE supplementation enhances MBV beyond the effects of an oral mixed meal, but this improved perfusion does not translate to increased leg muscle glucose uptake in healthy older adults.
  • Two-Stage Primary Arthroplasty in the Infected Native Knee: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.

    Mishra, Arya; Singh, Harvinder; Cockshott, S; Tambe, Amol (2021)
    INTRODUCTION: The knee is the commonest native joint to develop an infection. A two-stage primary knee replacement, with an interim stage of debridement and cement spacer application, modelled after two-stage revision for periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) has been reported for the management of chronic infections. AIMS: To systematically review the literature to find the infection-free survival and outcomes of this operation and explore its indications. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were followed for this review. A systematic search of 4 online databases was conducted on 9/8/2020. After reviewing 226 abstracts and applying our selection criteria, 10 papers were selected for full-text review, and 9 included in the final synthesis. RESULTS: On pooled analysis, an infection-free survival of 95.6% (CI 94.7-96.4) was found at 2 years in 139 knees, which was unchanged over the remainder of the follow-up (Mean 3.9 years). The complication rate after final implantation was 6% in those that did not develop reinfection. The mean pooled Knee Society Score (KSS) and KSS Function score among 70 patients (4 papers) was 83.4 (80.1-89.0) and 76.8 (71.5-78.0), respectively. The mean range of motion among 82 patients (6 papers) was more than 100°. CONCLUSIONS: Two-stage primary knee replacement is a safe, effective and reliable procedure with good results in the short to medium term. Further studies are required to lay down precise indications and cost-effectiveness of this procedure, in comparison to other strategies for chronic infection. All joint registries should develop methods to identify patients undergoing two-stage procedures, to understand their long-term survival and outcomes.
  • SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased risk of idiopathic acute pancreatitis but not pancreatic exocrine insufficiency or diabetes: long-term results of the COVIDPAN study.

    Awan, Altaf (BMJ, 2021)
    SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased risk of idiopathic acute pancreatitis but not pancreatic exocrine insufficiency or diabetes: long-term results of the COVIDPAN study.
  • Postoperative arginine-enriched immune modulating nutrition: Long-term survival results from a randomised clinical trial in patients with oesophagogastric and pancreaticobiliary cancer.

    Iftikhar, Syed (Elsevier, 2021)
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immune modulating nutrition (IMN) has been shown to reduce postoperative infectious complications and length of stay in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Two studies of IMN in patients undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer also suggested that this treatment might improve long-term survival and progression-free survival. In the present study, we analysed follow-up data from our previous randomised controlled trial of IMN, in patients undergoing surgery for oesophagogastric and pancreaticobiliary cancer, in order to evaluate the long-term impact on survival of postoperative IMN versus an isocaloric, isonitrogenous control feed. METHODS: This study included patients undergoing surgery for cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus and stomach, who had been randomised in a double-blind manner to receive postoperative jejunostomy feeding with IMN (Stresson, Nutricia Ltd.) or an isonitrogenous, isocaloric feed (Nutrison High Protein, Nutricia) for 10-15 days. The primary outcome was long-term overall survival. RESULTS: There was complete follow-up for all 108 patients, with 54 patients randomised to each group. There were no statistically significant differences between groups by demographics [(age, p = 0.63), sex (p = 0.49) or site of cancer (p = 0.25)]. 30-day mortality was 11.1% in both groups. Mortality in the intervention group was 13%, 31.5%, 70.4%, 85.2%, 88.9%, and 96.3% at 90 days, and 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years respectively. Corresponding mortality in the control group was 14.8%, 35.2%, 68.6%, 79.6%, 85.2% and 98.1% (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). CONCLUSION: Early postoperative feeding with arginine-enriched IMN had no impact on long-term survival in patients undergoing surgery for oesophagogastric and pancreaticobiliary cancer.
  • Safe Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Madhok, Brijesh (2021)
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has had an enormous impact on all aspects of healthcare, but its effect on patients needing surgery and surgeons has been disproportionate. In this review, we aim to understand the impact of the pandemic on surgical patients and teams. We compiled the emerging data on pre-operative screening methods, vaccinations, safe-surgery pathways and surgical techniques and make recommendations for evidence-based safe-surgical pathways. We also present surgical outcomes for emergency, oncological and benign surgery in the context of the pandemic. Finally, we attempt to address the impact of the pandemic on patients, staff and surgical training and provide perspectives for the future. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgical teams have developed consensus guidelines and established research priorities and safety precautions for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence supports that surgery in patients with a peri-operative SARS-CoV-2 infection carries substantial risks, but risk mitigation strategies are effective at reducing harm to staff and patients. Surgery has increased risk for patients and staff, but this can be mitigated effectively, especially for elective surgery. Elective surgery can be safely performed during the COVID-19 pandemic employing the strategies discussed in this review.

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