Recent Submissions

  • Scoping review: Evidence for long-term follow-up and monitoring in shoulder and elbow arthroplasty

    Tambe, Amol
    AIMS: Long-term follow-up and monitoring of asymptomatic shoulder and elbow arthroplasty remains contentious, with a wide spectrum of non-evidence-based mechanisms used. This scoping review aims to outline related evidence, thereby informing research requirements. METHODS: Studies relevant to shoulder and elbow arthroplasty follow-up, surveillance and time-related failure were included. The review included randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and economic studies indexed in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CDSR and Cochrane CENTRAL since 1 January 2012. In addition, all registry studies, follow-up studies, cohort studies and case reports indexed in MEDLINE since 1 January 2020 were included. The screening was undertaken by two reviewers. Key characteristics of each study were described, alongside a narrative review. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were included. We were unable to identify evidence that long-term follow-up and monitoring of asymptomatic shoulder and elbow arthroplasty identifies failure or leads to a revision that is of reduced patient morbidity and cost. In addition, no evidence was apparent to inform whether patients will self-present with a failing implant. Several surveillance mechanisms were identified. CONCLUSION: This scoping review highlights the paucity of evidence related to long-term follow-up and monitoring of shoulder and elbow arthroplasty, and the need for high-quality data to inform the development of evidence-based care pathways.
  • Physiotherapist-led exercise versus usual care (waiting-list) control for patients awaiting rotator cuff repair surgery: A pilot randomised controlled trial (POWER).

    Beckhelling, Jacqueline; Davis, Daniel; Pitt, Lisa
    BACKGROUND: Once a decision to undergo rotator cuff repair surgery is made, patients are placed on the waiting list. It can take weeks or months to receive surgery. There has been a call to move from waiting lists to 'preparation' lists to better prepare patients for surgery and to ensure it remains an appropriate treatment option for them. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, as measured by recruitment rates, treatment fidelity and follow-up rates, of a future multi-centre randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of undertaking a physiotherapist-led exercise programme while waiting for surgery versus usual care (waiting-list control). DESIGN: Two-arm, multi-centre pilot randomised controlled trial with feasibility objectives in six NHS hospitals in England. METHOD: Adults (n = 76) awaiting rotator cuff repair surgery were recruited and randomly allocated to a programme of physiotherapist-led exercise (n = 38) or usual care control (n = 38). RESULTS: Of 302 eligible patients, 76 (25%) were randomised. Of 38 participants randomised to physiotherapist-led exercise, 28 (74%) received the exercise programme as intended. 51/76 (67%) Shoulder Pain and Disability Index questionnaires were returned at 6-months. Of 76 participants, 32 had not received surgery after 6-months (42%). Of those 32, 20 were allocated to physiotherapist-led exercise; 12 to usual care control. CONCLUSIONS: A future multi-centre randomised controlled trial is feasible but would require planning for variable recruitment rates between sites, measures to improve treatment fidelity and opportunity for surgical exit, and optimisation of follow-up. A fully powered, randomised controlled trial is now needed to robustly inform clinical decision-making.
  • The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland guideline on the management of anal fissure.

    Lund, Jonathan
    AIM: The management of anal fissure: ACPGBI position statement was written 15 years ago. [KLR Cross et al., Colorectal Dis, 2008]. Our aim was to update the guideline and provide recommendations on the most effective treatment for patients with anal fissures utilising a multidisciplinary, rigorous guideline methodology. METHODS: The development process consisted of six phases. In phase 1 we defined the scope of the guideline. The patient population included patients with acute and chronic anal fissure. The target group was all practitioners (primary and secondary care) treating patients with fissures and, in addition, healthcare workers and patients who desired information regarding fissure management. In phase 2 we formed a guideline development group (GDG) including a methodologist. In phase 3 review questions were formulated, using a reversed PICO process, starting with possible recommendations based on the GDG's knowledge. In phase 4 a comprehensive literature search focused on existing systematic reviews addressing each review question, supplemented by more recent studies if appropriate. In phase 5 data were extracted from the included papers and checked by the GDG. If indicated, meta-analysis of systematic review data was updated by the GDG. During phase 6 the GDG members decided what recommendations could be made based on the evidence in the literature and strength of the recommendation was assessed using 'grade'. RESULTS: This guideline is divided into two sections: Primary care which includes (i) diagnosis; (ii) basic treatment; (iii) topical treatment; and secondary care which includes (iv) botulinum toxin therapy; (v) surgical intervention and (vi) special situations (including pregnancy and breast-feeding patients, children, receptive anal intercourse and low-pressure fissures). A total of 23 recommendations were formulated. A new term clinically healed was described by the GDG. CONCLUSION: This guideline provides an up-to-date evidence-based summary of the current knowledge of the management of anal fissure and may serve as a useful guide for clinicians as well as a potential reference for patients.
  • A call for clarity: a scoping review of predictors of poor outcome after emergency abdominal surgery for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Bunce, J
    AIM: The medical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly progressing; however, many patients with the disease still require surgery. Often this is done as an emergency. Initiatives such as the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit have shown how evidence-based emergency surgery improves outcomes for the patient. The aim of this scoping review is to describe the current evidence base on risk stratification in emergency abdominal surgery for IBD. METHODS: A literature search, abstract and full paper screening resulted in 17 articles representing 63 472 patients from seven countries. RESULTS: It is likely that age, the American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, comorbidity and organ dysfunction play a similar role in risk stratification in IBD patients as in other emergency abdominal surgery cohorts. However, the reporting of what is considered an IBD emergency is variable. Six studies include clear definitions of emergency in our study. The range of what is considered an emergency is within 12 h of admission to any time within an unplanned admission. CONCLUSION: To have data driven, evidence-based emergency surgical practice in IBD we need consistency of reporting, including the definitions of emergency and urgency. Core descriptor sets in IBD would be valuable.
  • Comparison between intra-articular injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, PRP and placebo for thumb base osteoarthritis: A frequentist network meta-analysis.

    Johnson, Nick
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current evidence for the use of intra-articular injections for thumb base osteoarthritis (TBOA) is equivocal. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma. METHODS: A Frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted comparing outcomes at short (≤3 months) and medium-term (>3-12 months) time points. RESULTS: Data from 7 RCTs and 1 non-RCT (446 patients) were collected, consisting of corticosteroids (n = 7), hyaluronic acid (n = 7), platelet-rich plasma (n = 2) and placebo (n = 2). At the short-term time point, no intra-articular injection demonstrated superiority over placebo at reducing pain. At the medium-term time point, superiority of platelet-rich plasma at reducing pain over placebo and corticosteroids was seen following sensitivity analysis (RCTs only) (SMD -1.48 95 % CI -2.71; -0.25). No injection proved superior at improving function at short or medium-term time points. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, despite the promising result for platelet-rich plasma, the evidence quality was limited to two studies only justifying the need for further and larger methodologically robust trials investigating corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma vs each other and placebo.
  • Outcomes of Concurrent Hiatus Hernia Repair with Different Bariatric Surgery Procedures: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Idris, Iskandar
    BACKGROUND: Hiatus hernia (HH) is prevalent among patients with obesity. Concurrent repair is often performed during metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS), but a consensus on the safety and effectiveness of concurrent HH repair (HHR) and MBS remains unclear. We performed a systematic review of the safety and effectiveness of concurrent HHR and MBS through the measurement of multiple postoperative outcomes. METHOD: Seventeen studies relating to concurrent MBS and HHR were identified. MBS procedures included laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), and adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Studies with pre- and postoperative measurements and outcomes were extracted. RESULTS: For LSG, 9 of 11 studies concluded concurrent procedures to be safe and effective with no increase in mortality. Reoperation and readmission rates however were increased with HHR, whilst GORD rates were seen to improve, therefore providing a solution to the predominant issue with LSG. For LRYGB, in all 5 studies, concurrent procedures were concluded to be safe and effective, with no increase in mortality, length of stay, readmission and reoperation rates. Higher complication rates were observed compared to LSG with HHR. Among LAGB studies, all 4 studies were concluded to be safe and effective with no adverse outcomes on mortality and length of stay. GORD rates were seen to decrease, and reoperation rates from pouch dilatation and gastric prolapse were observed to significantly decrease. CONCLUSION: Concurrent HHR with MBS appears to be safe and effective. Assessment of MBS warrants the consideration of concurrent HHR depending on specific patient case and the surgeon's preference.
  • Malnutrition Following One-Anastomosis Gastric Bypass: a Systematic Review.

    Potluri, Sudha
    Severe malnutrition following one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) remains a concern. Fifty studies involving 49,991 patients were included in this review. In-hospital treatment for severe malnutrition was needed for 0.9% (n = 446) of patients. Biliopancreatic limb (BPL) length was 150 cm in five (1.1%) patients, > 150 cm in 151 (33.9%), and not reported in 290 (65%) patients. OAGB was revised to normal anatomy in 126 (28.2%), sleeve gastrectomy in 46 (10.3%), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in 41 (9.2%), and shortening of BPL length in 17 (3.8%) patients. One hundred fifty-one (33.8%) patients responded to treatment; ten (2.2%) did not respond and was not reported in 285 (63.9%) patients. Eight (0.02%) deaths were reported. Standardisation of the OAGB technique along with robust prospective data collection is required to understand this serious problem.
  • A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Do We Still Need Microscope Surgery in Hepatic Artery Anastomosis to Decrease the Incidence of Complications in Living Donor Liver Transplantation?

    Ebeidallah, Guirgis
    Hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) is the most serious vascular complication after liver transplantation (LT). Moreover, in comparison to deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT), hepatic artery (HA) anastomosis is more challenging in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with a lot of controversial topics about the use of microscopic surgery. We aimed to compare the use of microscopic and loupe surgery in HA anastomosis in adult and pediatric LDLT to decrease the incidence of vascular complications. We searched PubMed, Scopes, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for eligible studies from inception to April 2023 and a systematic review and a meta-analysis were done. According to our eligibility criteria, 10 studies with a total of 1939 patients were included. In comparison to microscopic surgery, loupe anastomosis has a similar incidence of HAT (thrombosis, risk ratio (RR) = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.26-3.48, P = 0.95). In addition to that, no significant difference was detected between the two types in terms of stenosis, decreased blood flow and hospital stay (decreased blood flow, RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.01-86.65, P = 0.88), (stenosis, RR = 1.81, 95% CI = 0.19-17.21, P = 0.60), (hospital stay, mean deviation (MD) = 1.16, 95% CI = -3.79-6.11, P = 0.65). However, the anastomotic time was longer in the case of microscopic surgery (anastomotic time, MD = 24.09, 95% CI = 7.79-40.39, P = 0.004). With an equal incidence of complications and longer anastomotic time, there is no added benefit of the routine use of microscopic surgery in HA anastomosis in LDLT.
  • The Pathogenesis of Chiari Malformation and Syringomyelia: A Case Report and Systematic Review of Current Theories

    Ashwood, Neil
    We report a case of a 42-year-old female presenting with left axillary pain radiating down the arm and weakness in the ipsilateral hand. Specialist examinations of neurological and musculoskeletal systems were insignificant. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole spine and brain revealed cerebellar tonsillar herniation of 9-10mm indicating a Chiari type 1 malformation and a large tubular T2 high-intensity lesion in the cervical cord, extending from the C2/3-disc level down to C6/C7 as well as a similar but smaller lesion behind the bodies of C7 and T1. Both lesions were consistent with syringomyelia. Surgical intervention was deemed inappropriate, and she was treated with three months of physiotherapy. Regular follow-up for two years showed gradual symptom resolution, syrinx shrinkage, and no further complications arising secondary to Chiari type 1 malformation. Chiari malformation is an anatomical anomaly of the cranio-cervical junction. It is often incidentally found on MRI, but although asymptomatic in the population, complications associated with the condition such as syringomyelia are a common initial presentation. The relationship between Chiari malformation, particularly Chiari type 1 malformation, and syringomyelia is close with the majority of patients often presenting with idiopathic syringomyelia also found to have a Chiari type 1 malformation. Considerable discussion about the pathogenic mechanisms for syringomyelia development in Chiari malformation is recognized and advancing continually.
  • Does long-term follow-up and monitoring of primary shoulder arthroplasty identify failing implants requiring revision?

    Dover, Caroline; Walstow, Katherine; Pitt, Lisa; Morgan, Marie; Espag, Marius; Clark, David; Tambe, Amol
    BACKGROUND: Published scoping review has identified evidence paucity related to long-term follow-up of shoulder arthroplasty. We aim to report effectiveness of elective primary shoulder arthroplasty surveillance in identifying failing implants requiring revision. METHODS: Analysis of a prospective database recording shoulder arthroplasty and subsequent follow-up surveillance in a shoulder unit. Shoulder arthroplasty were performed by 4 fellowship-trained shoulder surgeons for accepted elective indications including the use of anatomic arthroplasty in arthritic shoulders with intact rotator cuff and a reverse prosthesis being utilized in rotator cuff deficient shoulders and rotator cuff competent arthritic shoulders when deemed preferable by the treating surgeon. All shoulder arthroplasty implants utilized had achieved a minimum 7A Orthopaedic Data Evaluation Panel (ODEP) rating. Included shoulder arthroplasty were performed 01/05/2004-31/12/2021 with minimum 1-year follow-up. Surveillance program involves specialist physiotherapist review at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 15-years postoperatively including clinical examination, outcome scoring and radiographs. Patient-initiated review occurred between timepoints if a patient requested assessment due to symptoms. Outcome measures include ratio of failing implants identified by surveillance and patient-initiated review, with number of surveillance reviews offered and proportion that identified a failing implant requiring revision calculated. RESULTS: 1002 elective primary shoulder arthroplasty with minimum 1-year follow-up were performed (547 reverse total shoulder arthroplasty [rTSA], 234 anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty [aTSA], 221 hemiarthroplasty [HA]). 238 patients died prior to 31/12/2022 resulting in 4019 surveillance appointments offered. 38 prostheses required revision ≥ 1-year postoperatively (6 rTSA, 9 aTSA, 23 HA) with surveillance identifying requirement in 53% (33% rTSA, 56% aTSA, 57% HA) and patient-initiated review in 47%. Mean years from implantation to revision was 5.2 (2.7 rTSA, 3.6 aTSA, 6.6 HA). Revision indications included rotator cuff failure (56% aTSR, 43% HA) and glenoid erosion (57% HA). CONCLUSION: This is the first series reporting effectiveness of shoulder arthroplasty surveillance in identifying implants requiring revision. Surveillance identified over half of implants requiring revision though only 0.5% of appointments identified revision requirement. Surveillance enrolment may influence patient-initiated review utilization therefore similar studies utilizing only patient-initiated follow-up would help inform recommendations.
  • Urology boot camp for medical students: Using virtual technology to enhance undergraduate education.

    Fonseka, Thomas; Henry, Mei-Ling; Gowda, Arjun; Ellis, Ricky
    OBJECTIVES: The study aims to describe the methodology of converting the urology boot camp for medical students into a virtual course with key take home points for a successful conversion and to present quantitative and qualitative data demonstrating the impact of the boot camp on improving delegates' knowledge and clinical acumen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The face-to-face boot camp was converted to a virtual format employing a variety of techniques including; utilizing an online platform to deliver live screened lectures, using online polling software to foster an interactive learning environment and displaying pre-recorded videos to teach practical skills. Validated Multiple Choice Questionnaires (MCQs) were used prior to and after the course. This enabled the assessment of delegates' knowledge of urology according to the national undergraduate curriculum, and paired t tests were used to quantify the level of improvement. Thematic analysis was carried out on post-course delegate feedback to identify highlights of the course and ways of improving future iterations. RESULTS: In total, 131 delegates took part in the pilot virtual course. Of these, 105 delegates completed the pre- and post-course MCQs. There was a statistically significant improvement in the assessment following the course (p = <0.001) with mean score increasing from 47.5% pre-course to 65.8% post-course. All delegates who attended the most recent implementation of the virtual course (n = 31) felt it improved their knowledge and confidence in urology. Twenty delegates (64.5%) felt that it prepared them for both final year medical school examinations and working as a foundation year doctor. Positive themes in feedback were identified, which included the interactive nature of the course, the quality of teaching, the level and content of information provided and the high yield, concise organization of the teaching schedule. CONCLUSION: Using virtual technology and innovative educational frameworks, we have demonstrated the successful conversion of the urology boot camp for medical students to a virtual format. At a national level, with support from the British Association of Urological Surgeons, the face-to-face component of the course will continue to run in parallel with the virtual course with the aim of standardizing and improving UK undergraduate urological education. The virtual course has been implemented on an international scale, and this has already shown promising results.
  • The incidence and severity of diabetic hand infection presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Morris, H; Gillott, E.; Bainbridge, Chris; Johnson, Nicholas
    No abstract available.
  • Optical coherence tomography angiography: a review of the current literature

    Khanna, Aishwarya
    This narrative review presents a comprehensive examination of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), a non-invasive retinal vascular imaging technology, as reported in the existing literature. Building on the coherence tomography principles of standard OCT, OCTA further delineates the retinal vascular system, thus offering an advanced alternative to conventional dye-based imaging. OCTA provides high-resolution visualisation of both the superficial and deep capillary networks, an achievement previously unattainable. However, image quality may be compromised by factors such as motion artefacts or media opacities, potentially limiting the utility of OCTA in certain patient cohorts. Despite these limitations, OCTA has various potential clinical applications in managing retinal and choroidal vascular diseases. Still, given its considerable cost implications relative to current modalities, further research is warranted to justify its broader application in clinical practice.
  • An international survey of 1014 hernia surgeons: outcome of GLACIER (global practice of inguinal hernia repair) study.

    Nanayakkara, K D L; Viswanath, Gokhare; Madhok, Brijesh
    INTRODUCTION: The practice of inguinal hernia repair varies internationally. The global practice of inguinal hernia repair study (GLACIER) aimed to capture these variations in open, laparoscopic, and robotic inguinal hernia repair. METHODS: A questionnaire-based survey was created on a web-based platform, and the link was shared on various social media platforms, personal e-mail network of authors, and e-mails to members of the endorsed organisations, which include British Hernia Society (BHS), The Upper Gastrointestinal Surgical Society (TUGSS), and Abdominal Core Health Quality Collaborative (ACHQC). RESULTS: A total of 1014 surgeons from 81 countries completed the survey. Open and laparoscopic approaches were preferred by 43% and 47% of participants, respectively. Transabdominal pre-peritoneal repair (TAPP) was the favoured minimally invasive approach. Bilateral and recurrent hernia following previous open repair were the most common indications for a minimally invasive procedure. Ninety-eight percent of the surgeons preferred repair with a mesh, and synthetic monofilament lightweight mesh with large pores was the most common choice. Lichtenstein repair was the most favoured open mesh repair technique (90%), while Shouldice repair was the favoured non-mesh repair technique. The risk of chronic groin pain was quoted as 5% after open repair and 1% after minimally invasive repair. Only 10% of surgeons preferred to perform an open repair using local anaesthesia. CONCLUSION: This survey identified similarities and variations in practice internationally and some discrepancies in inguinal hernia repair compared to best practice guidelines, such as low rates of repair using local anaesthesia and the use of lightweight mesh for minimally invasive repair. It also identifies several key areas for future research, such as incidence, risk factors, and management of chronic groin pain after hernia surgery and the clinical and cost-effectiveness of robotic hernia surgery.
  • Hip fractures in the older adult: orthopaedic and geriatric shared care model in Southland, New Zealand-a 5-year follow-up study.

    Morris, H
    BACKGROUND: Neck of femur fractures are common with associated high morbidity and mortality rates. National standards include provision of orthogeriatric care to any patient with a hip fracture. This study assessed the outcomes at 5 years following implementation of a collaborative orthogeriatric service at Southland Hospital in 2012. METHODS: Retrospective data were collected for patients aged 65 years and older admitted with a fragility hip fracture. Data were collated for 2011 (preimplementation) and 2017 (postimplementation). Demographic data and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores were recorded to ensure comparability of the patient groups. Length of stay, postoperative complications and 30-day and 1-year mortality were assessed. RESULTS: 74 admissions with mean age at surgery of 84.2 years in 2011 and 107 admissions with mean age of 82.6 years in 2017. There was a higher proportion of ASA 2 and ASA 3 patients in 2017 compared with 2011 (p=0.036). The median length of stay in the orthopaedic ward was unchanged in the two cohorts but there was a shorter median length of stay by 6.5 days and mean length of stay by 11 days in 2017 in the rehabilitation ward (p<0.001 for both median and mean). Through logistic regression controlling for age, sex and ASA score, there was a reduction in the odds of having a complication by 12% (p<0.001). The study was too small to undertake statistical testing to calculate significant difference in overall 30-day and 1-year mortality between the groups. CONCLUSION: The orthogeriatric service has reduced the frequency of complications and length of stay on the rehabilitation ward 5 years following implementation.
  • Plus Sutures for preventing surgical site infection: a systematic review of clinical outcomes with economic and environmental models.

    Hardy, Katie
    BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) represent ~ 20% of all hospital-acquired infections in surgical patients and are associated with prolonged hospital stay, admission to intensive care, and mortality. We conducted a systematic review with economic and environmental models to assess whether triclosan-coated sutures (Plus Sutures) provide benefits over non-coated sutures in the reduction of SSI risk. METHODS: Searches were conducted in fifteen databases. A total of 1,991 records were retrieved. Following deduplication and screening by two independent reviewers, 31 randomized controlled trials in adults and children were included in the review. Similarity of the studies was assessed by narrative review and confirmed by quantitative assessment. A fixed effects meta-analysis of SSI incidence model including all groups of patients estimated a risk ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.64 to 0.79) indicating those in the Plus Sutures group had a 29% reduction in the risk of developing an SSI compared with those in the control group (p < 0.001). Safety outcomes were analysed qualitatively. RESULTS: The economic model estimated the use of Plus Sutures to result in average cost savings of £13.63 per patient. Plus Sutures remained cost-saving in all subgroup analyses with cost-savings ranging between £11 (clean wounds) and £140 (non-clean wounds). The environmental impact of SSI is substantial, and the model suggests that the introduction of Plus Sutures could result in potential environmental benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that Plus Sutures are associated with a reduced incidence of SSI across all surgery types alongside cost savings when compared with standard sutures.
  • To plate, or not to plate? A systematic review of functional outcomes and complications of plate fixation in patellar fractures.

    Ilo, Kevin
    PURPOSE: Poor outcomes and high complication and reoperation rates have been reported with tension-band wiring (TBW) in the management of patellar fractures and particularly the comminuted ones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional outcomes and complication rates of patellar fractures managed with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with a plate. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMCare, CINAHL, AMED and HMIC were searched, and the PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent reviewers extracted the data from the included studies and assessed them for the risk of bias. RESULTS: Plating of patellar fractures is associated with satisfactory range of movement (ROM) and postoperative function and low pain levels. We found a 10.44% complication rate and a low reoperation rate. Reoperations were mainly performed for metalwork removal. CONCLUSION: ORIF with plating of patellar fractures is a safe alternative in the management of patellar fractures and may be associated with a lower complication and reoperation rate compared to TBW. Future randomized prospective studies are needed to validated the results of the present systematic review.
  • The Impact of Surgeon Speciality Interest on Outcomes of Emergency Laparotomy in IBD

    Tierney, Gillian; Bunce, J; Doleman, Brett; Lund, Jonathan
    Introduction Emergency laparotomy may be required in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). NELA is the largest prospectively maintained database of adult emergency laparotomies in England and Wales and includes clinical urgency of the cases. The impact of surgeon subspeciality on outcomes after emergency laparotomy for IBD is unclear. We have investigated this association, according to the degree of urgency in IBD emergency laparotomy, including the effect of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Methods Adults with IBD in the NELA database between 2013 and 2016 were included. Surgeon subspeciality was colorectal or non-colorectal. Urgencies are ‘Immediate’, ‘2–6 h’, ‘6–18 h’ and ’18–24 h’. Logistic regression was used to investigate in-patient mortality and post-operative length of stay (LOS). Results There was significantly reduced mortality and LOS in IBD patients who were operated on by a colorectal surgeon in the least urgent category of emergency laparotomies; Mortality adjusted OR 2.99 (CI 1.2–7.8) P = 0.025, LOS IRR 1.18 (CI 1.02–1.4) P = 0.025. This association was not seen in more urgent categories. Colorectal surgeons were more likely to use MIS, P \0.001, and MIS was associated with decreased LOS in the least urgent cohort, P \0.001, but not in the other urgencies. Conclusions We found improved outcomes in the least urgent cohort of IBD emergency laparotomies when operated on by a colorectal surgeon in comparison to a non-colorectal general surgeon. In the most urgent cases, there was no benefit in the operation being performed by a colorectal surgeon. Further work on characterising IBD emergencies by urgency would be of value
  • Arthroscopic Capsular Shrinkage Is Safe and Effective in the Treatment of Midcarpal Instability in a Pediatric Population: A Single-Center Experience of 51 Cases.

    Wharton, RMH; Lindau, Tommy
    Objective  Treatment of palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) remains controversial and children can develop PMCI from asymptomatic hypermobility. Recently, case series have been published regarding the use of arthroscopic thermal shrinkage of the capsule in adults. Reports of the use of the technique in children and adolescents are rare, and there are no published case series. Methods  In a tertiary hand centre for children's hand and wrist conditions, 51 patients were treated with arthroscopy for PMCI between 2014 and 2021. Eighteen out of 51 patients carried additional diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) or a congenital arthritis. Data were collected including range of movement, visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and with load, and grip strength. Data was used to determine the safety and efficacy of this treatment in paediatric and adolescent patients. Results  Mean follow-up was 11.9 months. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications were recorded. Range of movement was preserved postoperatively. In all groups VAS scores at rest and with load improved. Those who underwent arthroscopic capsular shrinkage (ACS) had significantly greater improvement in VAS with load, compared with those who underwent arthroscopic synovectomy alone ( p  = 0.04). Comparing those treated with underlying JIA versus those without, there was no difference in postoperative range of movement, but there was significantly greater improvement for the non-JIA group in terms of both VAS at rest ( p  = 0.02) and VAS with load ( p  = 0.02). Those with JIA and hypermobility stabilized postoperatively, and those with JIA with signs of early carpal collapse and no hypermobility achieved improved range of movement, in terms of flexion ( p  = 0.02), extension ( p  = 0.03), and radial deviation ( p  = 0.01). Conclusion  ACS is a well-tolerated, safe, and effective procedure for PMCI in children and adolescents. It improves pain and instability at rest and with load, and offers benefit over open synovectomy alone. This is the first case series describing the usefulness of the procedure in children and adolescents, and demonstrates effective use of the technique in experienced hands in a specialist centre. Level of Evidence  This is a Level IV study.
  • Beyond high-risk: analysis of the outcomes of extreme-risk patients in the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit.

    Tierney, Gillian
    Patients who require emergency laparotomy are defined as high risk if their 30-day predicted risk of mortality is ≥ 5%. Despite a large difference in the characteristics of patients with a mortality risk score of between 5% and 50%, these outcomes are aggregated by the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA). Our aim was to describe the outcomes of the cohort of patients at extreme risk of death, which we defined as having a NELA-predicted 30-day mortality of ≥ 50%. All patients enrolled in the NELA database between December 2012 and 2020 were included. We compared patient characteristics; length of hospital stay; rates of unplanned return to the operating theatre; and 90-day survival in extreme-risk groups (predicted ≥ 50%) and high-risk patients (predicted 5-49%). Of 161,337 patients, 5193 (3.2%) had a predicted mortality of ≥ 50%. When patients were further subdivided, 2437 (47%) had predicted mortality of 50-59% (group 50-59); 1484 (29%) predicted mortality of 60-69% (group 60-69); 840 (16%) predicted mortality of 70-79% (group 70-79); and 423 (8%) predicted mortality of ≥ 80% (group 80+). Extreme-risk patients were significantly more likely to have been admitted electively than high-risk patients (p < 0.001). Length of stay increased from a median (IQR [range]) of 26 (16-43 [0-271]) days in group 50-59 to 35 (21-56 [0-368]) days in group 80+, compared with 17 (10-30 [0-1136]) days for high-risk patients. Rates of unplanned return to the operating theatre were higher in extreme-risk groups compared with high-risk patients (11% vs. 8%). The 90-day survival was 43% in group 50-59, 34% in group 60-69, 27% in group 70-79 and 17% in group 80+. These data underscore the need for a differentiated approach when discussing risk with patients at extreme risk of mortality following an emergency laparotomy. Clinicians should focus on patient priorities on quantity and quality of life during informed consent discussions before surgery. Future work should extend beyond the immediate postoperative period to encompass the longer-term outcomes (survival and function) of patients who have emergency laparotomies.

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