Recent Submissions

  • Atraumatic Isolated Peroneal Compartment Syndrome

    Ashwood, Neil
    26-year-old male presented with leg lateral aspect pain with numbness over foot dorsum lateral aspect for 6 hours after rugby training with no trauma. Slight peroneal compartment tightness with negative stretch test. Creatine kinase 4659U/L. Peroneal compartment discomfort was worsening, fasciotomy of all leg compartments was done with only lateral peroneal compartment affected. Sensory changes in presentation highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion. One could use biochemical mark ers aiding decision making on borderline situations, however we advise decompression in these cases. Although the patient had uneventful postoperative recovery, having ICP monitoring equipment or MRI would prevent overzealous opening of posterior compartment.
  • A Rare Presentation of Myositis Ossificans in a Diabetic Individual

    Hind, Jamie; Prabodhinee, Dhiren Jogiya; Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Suryawanshi, Suraj; Amara, Veda; Ashwood, Neil
    Introduction: Myositis ossificans (MO) is a disease with self-limiting, benign ossifying lesions. MO traumatica is most common cause and occurs after blunt trauma to muscle tissue and the most common site of occurrence is the anterior thigh often developing after an intramuscular hematoma. The pathophysiology of MO is not well understood. The association of myositis and diabetes is quite rare.Case Report: A 57-year-old male presented with a discharging ulcer on the right lateral lower leg. A radiograph was carried out to ascertain the degree of bone involvement. However, the X-ray showed calcifications. Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray imaging were used to exclude malignant disorders such as osteomyelitis or osteosarcoma. The diagnosis of myositis ossificans was confirmed with MRI. As the patient had a background of diabetes, this could have led to MO as a result of the macrovascular complication of a discharging ulcer; hence, diabetes could be considered a risk factor for the disease. Conclusion:The reader may appreciate that diabetic patients may present with MO and that repeated discharging ulcers may imitate the effects of physical trauma on calcifications. The specific take home message is that regardless of the apparent rarity of a disease and subversion to typical clinical presentation, it should still be considered. Furthermore, the exclusion of severe and malignant diseases which benign diseases may mimic is of utmost importance to correctly manage patients.
  • Rupture of the Tibialis Posterior Tendon With Associated Bimalleolar Ankle Fracture.

    Clarke, D
    The acute traumatic rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon in association with closed ankle fractures is rare and often under-recognised. If recognised early, outcomes can be excellent. There are 28 known cases in the literature, and we report two further cases associated with bimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation. A 49-year-old presented with valgus deformity at the ankle joint and global tenderness following a work injury as a mechanic. A plain radiograph showed a displaced oblique comminuted fracture of the lateral malleolus with valgus angulation at a syndesmosis, with significant talar shift. The patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a seven-hole, one-third tubular plate and screws. A 35-year-old involved in a motorcycle collision with a car presented with swollen left ankle and valgus deformity. Plain radiographs revealed bimalleolar fracture subluxation. Closed reduction was unsuccessful and hence direct medial approach demonstrated a complete rupture of the posterior tendon. The medial malleolus was fixed using lag screws and washers. The tendon was repaired using the modified Kessler technique in both cases. The tibialis posterior plays a significant role in foot and ankle biomechanics due to its broad tendinous insertion. Acute traumatic rupture is rare, as it is protected due to its deep-seated anatomic location within the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Preoperative diagnosis of this injury is challenging and hence this diagnosis is often made intraoperatively. In both cases, there was a retraction of the proximal end beyond incision margins, and this can make tendon rupture difficult to identify intraoperatively as well. Upon identification, assessment of the tendon for degenerative changes was key to deciding upon suitability for primary repair. Despite its rarity, a high index of suspicion should be maintained in fracture dislocation of the ankle joint, especially when the mechanism is known to be pronation-external rotation.
  • The time course of disuse muscle atrophy of the lower limb in health and disease.

    Hardy, EJO; Doleman, Brett
    Short, intermittent episodes of disuse muscle atrophy (DMA) may have negative impact on age related muscle loss. There is evidence of variability in rate of DMA between muscles and over the duration of immobilization. As yet, this is poorly characterized. This review aims to establish and compare the time-course of DMA in immobilized human lower limb muscles in both healthy and critically ill individuals, exploring evidence for an acute phase of DMA and differential rates of atrophy between and muscle groups. MEDLINE, Embase, CINHAL and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to April 2021 for any study of human lower limb immobilization reporting muscle volume, cross-sectional area (CSA), architecture or lean leg mass over multiple post-immobilization timepoints. Risk of bias was assessed using ROBINS-I. Where possible meta-analysis was performed using a DerSimonian and Laird random effects model with effect sizes reported as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) at various time-points and a narrative review when meta-analysis was not possible. Twenty-nine studies were included, 12 in healthy volunteers (total n = 140), 18 in patients on an Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) (total n = 516) and 3 in patients with ankle fracture (total n = 39). The majority of included studies are at moderate risk of bias. Rate of quadriceps atrophy over the first 14 days was significantly greater in the ITU patients (MD -1.01 95% CI -1.32, -0.69), than healthy cohorts (MD -0.12 95% CI -0.49, 0.24) (P < 0.001). Rates of atrophy appeared to vary between muscle groups (greatest in triceps surae (-11.2% day 28), followed by quadriceps (-9.2% day 28), then hamstrings (-6.5% day 28), then foot dorsiflexors (-3.2% day 28)). Rates of atrophy appear to decrease over time in healthy quadriceps (-6.5% day 14 vs. -9.1% day 28) and triceps surae (-7.8% day 14 vs. -11.2% day 28), and ITU quadriceps (-13.2% day 7 vs. -28.2% day 14). There appears to be variability in the rate of DMA between muscle groups, and more rapid atrophy during the earliest period of immobilization, indicating different mechanisms being dominant at different timepoints. Rates of atrophy are greater amongst critically unwell patients. Overall evidence is limited, and existing data has wide variability in the measures reported. Further work is required to fully characterize the time course of DMA in both health and disease.
  • Bilateral STT Arthrodesis in a Young Patient with Occult Proximal Row Coalition.

    Wharton, RMH
    Background  Carpal coalitions have an incidence of 0.1 to 1% in Caucasians and up to 8 to 9% in African populations. They rarely cause clinical problems requiring investigation or treatment, but are commonly identified on imaging obtained for other indications. Case Description  We report a case of a 35-year-old male with progressive degenerative change of incomplete coalitions of the scaphotrapeziotrapezoid joint (STT) in the presence of bilateral complete osseous lunate-triquetral coalitions (Minnaar type 4). He was successfully treated with staged bilateral arthrodesis with excellent symptom resolution and preservation of function. Literature Review  In patients with isolated STT coalition six reports of surgery exist, two of which were for arthrodesis. This is the first described case of STT arthrodesis in a patient with coexistent lunate-triquetral coalition. Clinical Relevance  The STT arthrodesis remains a safe and effective treatment for STT pain even in cases of occult carpal coalition. Functional range of movement was well preserved. Level of evidence  This is a Level V study.
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of ketamine-associated uropathy

    Chan, VW
    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review and meta-analysis focused on the literature regarding ketamine-associated uropathy to summarise its clinical manifestations, the results of urological assessments, and current management. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using keywords and MeSH terms related to ketamine abuse, urinary tracts, and urological examinations. Databases including Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 26 June 2020. RESULTS: In total, 1365 articles were retrieved; 45 articles (4921 patients) were included in the analysis of patient demographics, clinical manifestations, examination results, and treatments. Frequency was the most common manifestation (pooled prevalence 77.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=56.9%-92.2%), followed by urgency (69.9%, 95% CI=48.8%-87.3%) and suprapubic pain (60.4%, 95% CI=35.3%-82.9%). Upper urinary tract involvement was less common; the pooled prevalence of hydronephrosis was 30.2% (95% CI=22.0%-39.2%). Further workup revealed a pooled functional bladder capacity of 95.23 mL (95% CI=63.57-126.88 mL), pooled voided volume of 113.31 mL (95% CI=59.44- 167.19 mL), and pooled maximum urine flow rate of 8.69 mL/s (95% CI=5.54-11.83 mL/s). Cystoscopic examinations and bladder biopsy revealed frequent urothelial denudation, inflammatory changes, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Treatments included oral medications for symptomatic relief, intravesical therapy, and surgery (eg, hydrodistension and bladder reconstruction), but ketamine abstinence was necessary for improvement. CONCLUSION: Ketamine-associated uropathy frequently involves frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain; upper urinary tract involvement is less common. Affected patients showed reductions in bladder capacity and urine flow rate. Endoscopic and histological analyses often revealed cystitis. Despite variations in treatment, ketamine abstinence is important for all patients with ketamine-associated uropathy.
  • Management of self-harm injuries: a review of the evidence and guidance

    Oakley, Ben; O'Brien, M; Bainbridge, Chris; Johnson, Nick
  • Sodium-Glucose Co-transporter-2 Inhibitors Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series.

    Viswanath, Gokhare; Bandlamudi, N; Madhok, Brijesh
    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are glucose-lowering agents being increasingly used for cardio-renal protection in patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This systematic review identified the clinical risk factors and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in patients undergoing bariatric and metabolic surgery (BMS) on SGLT2i. We found 12 studies with a total of 16 patients (10 females; mean age of 51 years). Apart from one patient, all patients developed DKA in the post-operative period presenting at a median of 5 days after surgery. Most of the patients were euglycaemic on presentation with DKA. Patients undergoing BMS on SGLT2i are at increased risk of developing DKA that can mimic post-operative surgical complications causing diagnostic dilemmas, especially with the euglycaemic variant, and delaying treatment.
  • The Curious Case of Lip Tongue Fusion: A Consequence of Suboptimal Oral Care.

    Xu, Jimmy; Biyani, P; Orr, R
    Oral care is an often difficult and an unappreciated part of hospital life. Patients who are unable to provide their own care rely on assistance from hospital personnel. Most sequelae from suboptimal oral care often present over months if not years, in the form of dental caries and periodontal disease. We present an exception, where a 66-year-old patient who experienced widespread ulceration and necrosis from Capnocytophaga-related sepsis received suboptimal oral care, resulting in their tongue being fused to their lip. This was later divided by the oral and maxillofacial team resulting in restoration of full function. Future cases can be avoided in patients with similar symptoms, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or erythema multiforme, if rigorous oral care can be provided.
  • Role of Wrist Arthroscopy in Juvenile Inflammatory Arthritis.

    Lindau, Tommy
    Background and Purposes  The wrist is the fourth most common joint to be involved in juvenile inflammatory arthritis (JIA), which is a common rheumatological condition affecting children. Wrist arthroscopy is well established in rheumatoid arthritis, but remains unexplored in JIA. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of wrist arthroscopy in JIA, with focus on those who are refractory to medical management. Methods  This is a prospective observational study, including consecutive patients with JIA undergoing arthroscopy between January 2016 and December 2020. Those over the age of 18 years and those with other rheumatological diagnoses were excluded. Data including pre-, intra-, and postoperative variables, demographics, and patient-reported outcomes were collated and are reported using standard measures. Results  A total of 15 patients underwent arthroscopy ( n  = 20 wrists). Synovitis was noted in all wrists on arthroscopy and synovectomy was performed in all cases. Other procedures were performed as indicated during the procedure. The median follow-up duration was 11.3 (interquartile range [IQR] 8.1-24.2) months. Median reduction of 4 (IQR 2.25-6) points on the Visual Analogue Score for pain on loading was noted postoperatively. Grip strength was improved in n  = 11/20 wrists and functional improvement was noted in n  = 18/20 wrists. Restriction of range of motion was achieved with a shrinkage procedure in patients with hypermobile joints. There were no postoperative complications, and no patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusion  In experienced hands, wrist arthroscopy is feasible, safe, and efficacious in the management of JIA, among patients who are refractory to medical management. Level of Evidence  This is a Level II study.
  • Atraumatic Isolated Peroneal Compartment

    Mohamed, Nagy; Ashwood, Neil
    Abstract 26-year-old male presented with leg lateral aspect pain with numbness over foot dorsum lateral aspect for 6 hours after rugby training with no trauma. Slight peroneal compartment tightness with negative stretch test. Creatine kinase 4659U/L. Peroneal compartment discomfort was worsening, fasciotomy of all leg compartments was done with only lateral peroneal compartment affected. Sensory changes in pres entation highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion. One could use biochemical mark ers aiding decision making on borderline situations, however we advise decompression in these cases. Although the patient had uneventful postoperative recovery, having ICP monitoring equipment or MRI would prevent overzealous opening of posterior compartment.
  • Results of Wedgeless Distal Femoral Osteotomy for the Treatment of Genu Valgus Deformity

    Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Mubarak, Islam; Alwadiya, Ahmed; Mohamed, Nagy; Ashwood, Neil
    Abstract Introduction: Coronal plane knee deformities are common disorders affecting adolescents. Valgus deformities (tibiofemoral angle (TFA) > 12-15 degrees and intermalleolar distance (IMD) > 10 cm) often require corrective osteotomy and a wedgeless "V" distal femoral osteotomy is a good treatment option for such deformities. Materials and methods: Thirty adolescent patients (13-17 years) with valgus deformities were included. Patients with severe collateral ligament instability, subluxation, and sagittal plane deformity > 15 degrees or genu valgum due to tibial deformity were excluded. Preoperative clinical (Bostman's knee score, IMD, and knee-flexion test) and radiological evaluations were done. The surgery (wedgeless distal femoral V osteotomy) was performed and stabilized with two Kirschner wires (K-wires). Postoperative clinical and radiological parameters were recorded including complications. Results: The preoperative TFA was 20.23 ± 3.63 degrees, which reduced to 5.5 ± 0.73 at six months postoperatively. The preoperative IMD was 12.45 ± 2.2 cm, which reduced to 1.63 ± 0.32 cm at six months. The mean mechanical axis deviation (MAD) and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA) were recorded as 2.8 ± 0.39 and 87.7 ± 0.83, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant from preoperative values. The Bostman score was 26.2 ± 1.79 at three months and 29.47 ± 0.9 at six months. The complications included infection in two patients, a hypertrophic scar in one patient, and common peroneal neuropraxia in one patient. Conclusion: Wedgeless distal femoral osteotomy with K-wire fixation is a viable option for correction of genu valgus deformity with potential advantages of minimal blood loss, no leg length discrepancy, non-rigid fixation, and early union as compared to other treatment options.
  • Post-operative electrical muscle stimulation attenuates loss of muscle mass and function following major abdominal surgery in older adults: a split body randomised control trial.

    Doleman, Brett
    INTRODUCTION: Significant losses of muscle mass and function occur after major abdominal surgery. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to reduce muscle atrophy in some patient groups, but evidence in post-operative patients is limited. This study assesses the efficacy of NMES for attenuating muscle atrophy and functional declines following major abdominal surgery in older adults. METHODS: Fifteen patients undergoing open colorectal resection completed a split body randomised control trial. Patients' lower limbs were randomised to control (CON) or NMES (STIM). The STIM limb underwent 15 minutes of quadriceps NMES twice daily on post-operative days (PODs) 1-4. Ultrasound measurements of Vastus Lateralis cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle thickness (MT) were made preoperatively and on POD 5, as was dynamometry to determine knee extensor strength (KES). Change in CSA was the primary outcome. All outcomes were statistically analysed using linear mixed models. RESULTS: NMES significantly reduced the loss of CSA (-2.52 versus -9.16%, P < 0.001), MT (-2.76 versus -8.145, P = 0.001) and KES (-10.35 versus -19.69%, P = 0.03) compared to CON. No adverse events occurred, and patients reported that NMES caused minimal or no discomfort and felt that ~90-minutes of NMES daily would be tolerable. DISCUSSION: NMES reduces losses of muscle mass and function following major abdominal surgery, and as such, may be the promising tool for post-operative recovery. This is important in preventing long-term post-operative dependency, especially in the increasingly frail older patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Further studies should establish the efficacy of bilateral NMES for improving patient-centred outcomes.
  • Effect of institution volume on mortality and outcomes in osteoporotic hip fracture care.

    Johnson, NA
    Hospitals that treat more patients with osteoporotic hip fractures do not generally have better care outcomes than those that treat fewer hip fracture patients. Institutions that do look after more such patients tend, however, to more consistently perform relevant health assessments. INTRODUCTION: An inveterate link has been found between institution case volume and a wide range of clinical outcomes; for a host of medical and surgical conditions. Hip fracture patients, notwithstanding the significance of this injury, have largely been overlooked with regard to this important evaluation. METHODS: We used the UK National Hip Fracture database to determine the effect of institution hip fracture case volume on hip fracture healthcare outcomes in 2019. Using logistic regression for each healthcare outcome, we compared the best performing 50 units with the poorest performing 50 institutions to determine if the unit volume was associated with performance in each particular outcome. RESULTS: There were 175 institutions with included 67,673 patients involved. The number of hip fractures between units ranged from 86 to 952. Larger units tendered to perform health assessments more consistently and mobilise patients more expeditiously post-operatively. However, patients treated at large institutions did not have any shorter lengths of stay. With regard to most other outcomes there was no association between the unit number of cases and performance; notably mortality, compliance with best practice tariff, time to surgery, the proportion of eligible patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, length of stay delirium risk and pressure sore risk. CONCLUSIONS: There is no relationship between unit volume and the majority of health care outcomes. It would seem that larger institutions tend to perform better at parameters that are dependent upon personnel numbers. However, where the outcome is contingent, even partially, on physical infrastructure capacity, there was no difference between larger and smaller units.
  • Low re-dislocation rate following Bereiter trochleoplasty for recurrent patellar instability with severe trochlear dysplasia.

    Ng, J; Broomfield, John; Barbosa, Francisco; Bhangoo, Navjot; Geutjens, Guido
    PURPOSE: Trochlear dysplasia is an independent risk factor for recurrent patellar instability with evidence demonstrating its presence in up to 85% of patients with patellar instability. Severe trochlear dysplasia can be treated with trochleoplasty to improve engagement of the patella in the trochlear groove and prevent future dislocations. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome of Bereiter trochleoplasty in patients with recurrent patellar instability and severe trochlear dysplasia. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of all trochleoplasties performed in our institution from 2008-2019. All clinical records and pre-operative MRI scans were reviewed to assess for trochlear dysplasia, tibial tuberosity to trochlear groove distance (TTTG) and patella height using patella trochlear index (PTI). Trochlear dysplasia was classified using Dejour classification. Incidence of re-dislocation, infection, arthrofibrosis, chondral necrosis and re-operation were recorded. All patients were invited to complete a post-operative visual analog score for pain (VAS-P) and Banff Patella Instability Instrument (BPII). RESULTS: Fifty-eight trochleoplasties were performed in fifty patients during this period. All trochleoplasties were combined with additional procedures. 93% had concomitant medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstructions and 47% had tibial tuberosity transfer. The mean follow-up period was 36.8 months. The rate of dislocation and arthrofibrosis were 5% each. There were no chondral necrosis or nonunion. The mean post-operative BPII was 58.4 and VAS-P was 30.4. CONCLUSIONS: Bereiter trochleoplasty, often combined with MPFL reconstruction and/or tibial tuberosity transfer results in low re-dislocation and complication rate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
  • Time Frame to Surgery from Presentation of Ankle Fractures and the Impact of the BOAST Standards, do we meet the BOAST Guidelines?

    Al Wadiya, Ahmed; Ashwood, Neil
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance with the BOAST guidelines for early fixation on the day or day after ankle fractures in the age group of 60 years old or less when the ankle mortise is unstable. Method: This retrospective study reviewed all the ankle fractures that were admitted for ankle fixation in 2015-2016, pre BOAST standard, and following it in 2018- 2019. The inclusion and exclusion criteria used in the standard were then applied. Results: In 2018-19, 44 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 18 males with an average age of 39.3 and 26 females with an average age of 42.2. Twenty-nine ankles (66%) were fixed on the day or day after injury while 5 ankles (11%) had the surgery within 48 hours. In 2015-16, 37 patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria, 21 males with an average age of 37.8 years, 16 females with an average age of 42.1 years. Twenty-one ankles (56.7%) were fixed on the day or day after injury. While 8 ankles (21.6%) had the surgery within 48 hours. Conclusion: Most of the ankle fractures requiring surgery, who presented to our trust, were fixed within 48 hours accounting for 77% of cases in 2018-19 versus 79% in 2015-16 with no statistically significant difference in our practice between pre and post BOAST guidelines publishing. The rest of cases had delayed fixation mainly due to the surrounding soft tissue swelling.
  • An algorithmic approach to shoulder pathology

    Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Ashwood, Neil
    Abstract: Introduction: Shoulder pain is a common presentation in both hospitals and the community. Shoulder pain can result from a number of different pathologies and to manage the shoulder pain, an accurate diagnosis is needed. Method: An accurate diagnosis can often be made following a detailed history and examination. Investigations, such as imaging and blood tests may also be required. In this study, we provide an algorithmic approach to shoulder pain that can be used in the clinical setting. Summary: This algorithm can be used in hospitals and the community to help identify and manage the different causes of shoulder pain. Keywords: Algorithm, diagnosis, management, shoulder.
  • The Use of Fluoroscan in Hand Clinic During the Covid Pandemic to Optimise Conservative Treatment

    Ashwood, Neil
    Introduction The study assessed the use of Fluoroscan (Hologic, Inc., Marlborough, MA) in hand clinic as advised by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) during the COVID-19 pandemic to facilitate treatment of fractures requiring manipulation and reduce admissions to evaluate if this should be embedded in practice permanently. Method Eighty-three wrist and hand fractures requiring manipulation were identified between April 2020 and March 2021. Demographics, mechanism of injury, timing of intervention, radiological outcome, further intervention and functional assessment by QuickDASH scoring were recorded. Results Sixty-eight cases were manipulated within the first week of fracture, simple pain control measures were used, and dose area product (DAP) averaged 1.3 Gy cm2 well below the dose limit set by the trust. Satisfactory fracture reduction was achieved in 59 cases avoiding admission. Further surgical intervention was offered to 24 patients: five re-manipulated while 19 had operation, all with a good functional outcome. Conclusion Fluoroscan use in fracture clinics achieved effective fracture control in 77% of cases. The use of Fluoroscan avoided admissions for surgery during the pandemic and lengthy clinic visits, four out of five did not need admission.

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