Now showing items 1-20 of 611

    • To plate, or not to plate? A systematic review of functional outcomes and complications of plate fixation in patellar fractures.

      Ilo, Kevin
      PURPOSE: Poor outcomes and high complication and reoperation rates have been reported with tension-band wiring (TBW) in the management of patellar fractures and particularly the comminuted ones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional outcomes and complication rates of patellar fractures managed with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with a plate. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMCare, CINAHL, AMED and HMIC were searched, and the PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent reviewers extracted the data from the included studies and assessed them for the risk of bias. RESULTS: Plating of patellar fractures is associated with satisfactory range of movement (ROM) and postoperative function and low pain levels. We found a 10.44% complication rate and a low reoperation rate. Reoperations were mainly performed for metalwork removal. CONCLUSION: ORIF with plating of patellar fractures is a safe alternative in the management of patellar fractures and may be associated with a lower complication and reoperation rate compared to TBW. Future randomized prospective studies are needed to validated the results of the present systematic review.
    • Assessing the use of the frequency, etiology, direction, and severity classification system for shoulder instability in physical therapy research - A scoping review.

      Bateman, Marcus
      OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the implementation of the Frequency, Etiology, Direction, and Severity (FEDS) classification for shoulder instability by the physical therapy scientific community since its publication in 2011. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on January 10, 2024 in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, and SciELO databases, as well as Google Scholar. Studies investigating physical therapy interventions in people with shoulder instability, and reporting selection criteria for shoulder instability were considered eligible. A narrative synthesis was conducted. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were included. None reported using the FEDS classification as eligibility criteria for shoulder instability. Only 42% of the studies provided data of all four criteria of the FEDS classification. The most reported criterion was direction (92%), followed by etiology (85%), severity (65%), and frequency (58%). The most common reported descriptor for profiling shoulder instability was "dislocation" (83.3%), followed by "first-time" (66.7%), "anterior" (62.5%), and "traumatic" (59.1%). Regarding other instability classifications, only one study (4%) used the Thomas & Matsen classification, and two (8%) the Stanmore classification. CONCLUSIONS: The FEDS classification system has not been embraced enough by the physical therapy scientific community since its publication in 2011.
    • An Update Summary on the Learning Sciences Within an Ophthalmic Context.

      Khanna, Aishwarya
      Clinical reasoning, specifically diagnostic decision-making, has been a subject of fragmented literature since the 1970s, marked by diverse theories and conflicting perspectives. This article reviews the latest evidence in medical education, drawing from scientific literature, to offer ophthalmologists insights into optimal strategies for personal learning and the education of others. It explores the historical development of clinical reasoning theories, emphasising the challenges in understanding how doctors formulate diagnoses. The importance of clinical reasoning is underscored by its role in making accurate diagnoses and preventing diagnostic errors. The article delves into the dual process theory, distinguishing between type 1 and type 2 thinking and their implications for clinical decision-making. Cognitive load theory is introduced as a crucial aspect, highlighting the limited capacity of working memory and its impact on the diagnostic process. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is explored as a framework for optimal learning environments, emphasising the importance of scaffolding and deliberate practice in skill development. The article discusses semantic competence, mental representation, and the interplay of different memory stores-semantic, episodic, and procedural-in enhancing diagnostic proficiency. Self-regulated learning (SRL) is introduced as a student-centric approach, emphasising goal setting, metacognition, and continuous improvement. Practical advice is provided for minimising cognitive errors in clinical reasoning, applying dual process theory, and considering cognitive load theory in teaching. The relevance of deliberate practice in ophthalmology, especially in a rapidly evolving field, is emphasised for continuous learning and staying updated with advancements. The article concludes by highlighting the importance of clinical supervisors in recognising and supporting trainees' self-regulated learning and understanding the principles of various teaching and learning theories. Ultimately, a profound comprehension of the science behind clinical reasoning is deemed fundamental for ophthalmologists to deliver high-quality, evidence-based care and foster critical thinking skills in the dynamic landscape of ophthalmology.
    • Artificial Intelligence ChatGPT’s Perspective on Implementation of Augmented Intelligence within Orthopaedic Practice—A Comparative Narrative Synthesis?

      Ashwood, Neil; Dekker, Andrew
      ChatGPT has obvious benefits in the way it can interrogate vast amounts of reference information and utilise metadata generation to answer questions posed to it and is freely available having been developed through human feedback. Already there are ethical and practical implications on its impact on learning and research. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been seen as a way of improving healthcare provision by delivering more robust outcomes but measuring these and implementing AI within this setting is at present limited and disjointed. Methods: ChatGPT was interrogated to see what it felt were the barriers to its implementation within healthcare and in particular ortho paedic practice. The evidence for this determination was then examined for validity and applicability for a practical roll out at a Trust, Regional or Na tional level. Results: AI can synthesise a vast amount of information to help it answer specific questions. The context and structure of any question will de termine the usefulness of the answer which can then be used to develop prac tical solutions based on experience and resource limitations. Conclusions: AI has a role in service development and can quickly focus a working group to areas to consider when practically implementing change
    • The incidence and severity of diabetic hand infection presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

      Morris, H; Gillott, E.; Bainbridge, Chris; Johnson, Nick
      Diabetic hand infections are difficult to treat and can present with high morbidity. We set out to identify any changes in presentation and disease severity during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 61 pre-COVID and 32 during COVID patients with diabetes with a hand infection requiring intravenous antibiotics were included in the study. The pandemic caused a decrease in the number and proportion of presentations. Hospital admissions reduced as service provision was amended to enable increased outpatient treatment. However, there was a significant increase in surgical management (25 vs. 21, p = 0.02), total complications (5 vs. 8, p < 0.05) and incidence of amputations (2 vs. 4, p = 0.09). Mean haemoglobin A1C was also higher (48 mmol/L vs. 40 mmol/L, p < 0.05). While fewer patients attended the service during the pandemic, we witnessed an increased severity of hand infections in those we treated. There is a role for daily outpatient administration of intravenous antibiotics in selected patients to reduce the number of hospital admissions.
    • Systematic review of nerves at risk at the wrist in common surgical approaches to the forearm: Anatomical variations and surgical implications

      Ashwood, Neil
      Three commonly used approaches to the forearm in orthopedic surgery are Henry's, Thompson's, and the ulnar approach, each of which has the potential to cause injury to nerves around the wrist. Preserving these nerves is important to prevent complications such as neuroma formation and motor and sensory changes to the hand. We conducted a review of the literature to assess the nerves at risk and whether ‘safe zones’ exist to avoid these nerves. An independent reviewer conducted searches in Embase and MEDLINE of the literature from 2010 to 2020. A total of 68 papers were identified, with 18 articles being included in the review. Multiple nerves were identified as being at risk for each of the approaches described. In the anterior approach, the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBMN) is most at risk of injury. An incision immediately radial to the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) or directly over the FCR is most likely to avoid injury to both superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and PCBMN. With Thompson's approach, the safest zone for an incision is directly over or slightly radial to Lister's tubercle to avoid injury to SBRN and lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. For the ulnar approach, a safe zone was shown to be on the ulnar side of the wrist around the ulnar styloid (US) when the forearm was in supination or a neutral position to avoid injury to the dorsal branch of the ulna nerve (DBUN). Care must be taken around the US due to the density of nerves and the proximity of the last motor branch of the posterior interosseous nerve to the ulnar head. This review highlighted the proximity of nerves to the three most common surgical incisions used to access the forearm. In addition, anatomical variations may exist, and each of the nerves identified as being at risk has multiple branches. Both factors increase the potential of intraoperative damage if the anatomy is not properly understood. The surgeon must adhere carefully to the established approaches to the wrist and distal forearm to minimize damage to nerves and optimize surgical outcomes for the patient.
    • Day case orthopaedic trauma surgery effectiveness: a systematic review

      Ashwood, Neil
      Day case surgery facilitates effective orthopaedic care for ambulatory trauma cases and can act as an effective pathway in times of reduced resource availability within acute hospitals. A systematic review of the available literature was performed using a narrative synthesis to look for themes underpinning day case trauma practice. A 25 papers were selected from a total of 9956 papers screened to identify those papers that considered day case trauma surgery and its impact on clinical outcome, patient satisfaction and feasibility of delivery within the UK. 9014 patients had day case trauma operations within the 25 papers identified, 86% had general anaesthesia and 14% either regional or local anaesthesia. The mean reported age was 37.5 years with a wide age range (2-83) years treating roughly similar proportions of men and women with a high satisfaction rate when recorded. All areas of the upper limb were operated on apart from the scapula the commonest being the wrist. In the lower limb surgery was undertaken in the knee, ankle or foot with removal of foreign body or ankle fixation being the commonest procedures undertaken. Prevalence of complications at 0.0156% of cases undergoing day case surgery was seen to be lower than in a similar group of inpatient cases. resources are stretched. Day case surgery for trauma procedures within orthopaedics is safe, cost effective and well tolerated by patients. It frees up resources to facilitate treatment and should be utilised within each hospital to enable timely care.
    • Molecular mechanisms underpinning favourable physiological adaptations to exercise prehabilitation for urological cancer surgery

      Blackwell, James; Williams, John; Lund, Jonathan
      BACKGROUND: Surgery for urological cancers is associated with high complication rates and survivors commonly experience fatigue, reduced physical ability and quality of life. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) as surgical prehabilitation has been proven effective for improving the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of urological cancer patients, however the mechanistic basis of this favourable adaptation is undefined. Thus, we aimed to assess the mechanisms of physiological responses to HIIT as surgical prehabilitation for urological cancer. METHODS: Nineteen male patients scheduled for major urological surgery were randomised to complete 4-weeks HIIT prehabilitation (71.6 ± 0.75 years, BMI: 27.7 ± 0.9 kg·m2) or a no-intervention control (71.8 ± 1.1 years, BMI: 26.9 ± 1.3 kg·m2). Before and after the intervention period, patients underwent m. vastus lateralis biopsies to quantify the impact of HIIT on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity, cumulative myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and anabolic, catabolic and insulin-related signalling. RESULTS: OXPHOS capacity increased with HIIT, with increased expression of electron transport chain protein complexes (C)-II (p = 0.010) and III (p = 0.045); and a significant correlation between changes in C-I (r = 0.80, p = 0.003), C-IV (r = 0.75, p = 0.008) and C-V (r = 0.61, p = 0.046) and changes in CRF. Neither MPS (1.81 ± 0.12 to 2.04 ± 0.14%·day-1, p = 0.39) nor anabolic or catabolic proteins were upregulated by HIIT (p > 0.05). There was, however, an increase in phosphorylation of AS160Thr642 (p = 0.046) post-HIIT. CONCLUSIONS: A HIIT surgical prehabilitation regime, which improved the CRF of urological cancer patients, enhanced capacity for skeletal muscle OXPHOS; offering potential mechanistic explanation for this favourable adaptation. HIIT did not stimulate MPS, synonymous with the observed lack of hypertrophy. Larger trials pairing patient-centred and clinical endpoints with mechanistic investigations are required to determine the broader impacts of HIIT prehabilitation in this cohort, and to inform on future optimisation (i.e., to increase muscle mass).
    • Identifying clusters of objective functional impairment in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal disease using unsupervised learning.

      Klukowska, Anita
      OBJECTIVES: The five-repetition sit-to-stand (5R-STS) test was designed to capture objective functional impairment (OFI), and thus provides an adjunctive dimension in patient assessment. It is conceivable that there are different subsets of patients with OFI and degenerative lumbar disease. We aim to identify clusters of objectively functionally impaired individuals based on 5R-STS and unsupervised machine learning (ML). METHODS: Data from two prospective cohort studies on patients with surgery for degenerative lumbar disease and 5R-STS times of ≥ 10.5 s-indicating presence of OFI. K-means clustering-an unsupervised ML algorithm-was applied to identify clusters of OFI. Cluster hallmarks were then identified using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. RESULTS: We included 173 patients (mean age [standard deviation]: 46.7 [12.7] years, 45% male) and identified three types of OFI. OFI Type 1 (57 pts., 32.9%), Type 2 (81 pts., 46.8%), and Type 3 (35 pts., 20.2%) exhibited mean 5R-STS test times of 14.0 (3.2), 14.5 (3.3), and 27.1 (4.4) seconds, respectively. The grades of OFI according to the validated baseline severity stratification of the 5R-STS increased significantly with each OFI type, as did extreme anxiety and depression symptoms, issues with mobility and daily activities. Types 1 and 2 are characterized by mild to moderate OFI-with female gender, lower body mass index, and less smokers as Type I hallmarks. CONCLUSIONS: Unsupervised learning techniques identified three distinct clusters of patients with OFI that may represent a more holistic clinical classification of patients with OFI than test-time stratifications alone, by accounting for individual patient characteristics.
    • Statistical primer: using prognostic models to predict the future: what cardiothoracic surgery can learn from Strictly Come Dancing

      Mawhinney, Jamie
      OBJECTIVES: Prognostic models are widely used across medicine and within cardiothoracic surgery, where predictive tools such as EuroSCORE are commonplace. Such models are a useful component of clinical assessment but may be misapplied. In this article, we demonstrate some of the major issues with risk scores by using the popular BBC television programme Strictly Come Dancing (known as Dancing with the Stars in many other countries) as an example. METHODS: We generated a multivariable prognostic model using data from the then-completed 19 series of Strictly Come Dancing to predict prospectively the results of the 20th series. RESULTS: The initial model based solely on demographic data was limited in its predictive value (0.25, 0.22; R2 and Spearman's rank correlation, respectively) but was substantially improved following the introduction of early judges' scores deemed representative of whether contestants could actually dance (0.40, 0.30). We then utilize our model to discuss the difficulties and pitfalls in using and interpreting prognostic models in cardiothoracic surgery and beyond, particularly where these do not adequately capture potentially important prognostic information. CONCLUSION: Researchers and clinicians alike should use prognostic models cautiously and not extrapolate conclusions from demographic data alone.
    • Guideline of guidelines: Postprostatectomy incontinence

      Pavithran, A
      The diagnosis of Postprostatectomy Incontinence (PPI) relies heavily on expert opinions. Challenges in assessing and treating PPI arise due to limited robust evidence and the absence of a concise definition, resulting in diverse reported incidence rates. In addition, unclear pathophysiological mechanisms, and lack of consensus on diagnostic work-up and treatment selection contribute to knowledge gaps. We aimed to provide a comprehensive review of guidelines from various professional organisations on the work-up and management of PPI. The following guidelines were included in this review: European Association of Urology (EAU 2023), American Urological Association/Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction (AUA/SUFU 2019), International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI, 2018), the Canadian Urological Association (CUA, 2012) and the Urological Society of India (USI, 2018). In general, the guidelines concur regarding the significance of conducting a comprehensive history and physical examination for patients with post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI). However, there are variations among the guidelines concerning the recommended additional investigations. In cases of troublesome PPI, male slings are typically recommended for mild to moderate urinary incontinence (UI), while artificial urinary sphincters (AUS) are preferred for moderate to severe UI, although the precise definition of this severity remains unclear. The guidelines provided by AUA/SUFU and the ICI have offered suggestions for managing complications or persistent/recurrent UI post-surgery, though some differences can be observed within these recommendations as well. This is a first of its kind review encompassing Guidelines on PPI spanning over a decade. Although guidelines share overarching principles, nuanced variations persist, posing challenges for clinicians. This compilation consolidates and highlights both the similarities and differences among guidelines, providing a comprehensive overview of PPI diagnosis and management for practitioners. It is our expectation that as more evidence emerges in this and other areas of PPI management, the guidelines will converge and address crucial patient-centric aspects.
    • Ultrasound-guided percutaneous retrieval of non-radiopaque radial line using a microsnare

      Alaeddin, Hasan
      Radial arterial lines are inserted in critically ill patients admitted to hospital intensive care units for continuous monitoring of their blood pressure. On removal the line can rarely become transected, potentially leading to thrombosis of the radial artery. Retrieval of the broken fragment can be achieved by open surgery, however other retrieval methods using ultrasound-guidance have been performed as they are considered safer and less invasive. We describe our technique of ultrasound-guided percutaneous retrieval of a broken non-radioopaque radial line in one patient, which involved the use of a microsnare. Under local anaesthesia and ultrasound guidance, a 6 Fr 5.5 cm short brite tip sheath was introduced into the radial artery, followed by a microsnare which was used to capture the arterial line, track the line back into the sheath and remove it uneventfully. The use of a microsnare under ultrasound-guidance is only one method to retrieve transected radial lines, with other interventional methods described in the literature. It enables a minimally invasive and safer approach to this potentially critical challenge and can help affected patients avoid open surgery to achieve the same management outcome
    • Scoping review: Evidence for long-term follow-up and monitoring in shoulder and elbow arthroplasty

      Tambe, Amol
      AIMS: Long-term follow-up and monitoring of asymptomatic shoulder and elbow arthroplasty remains contentious, with a wide spectrum of non-evidence-based mechanisms used. This scoping review aims to outline related evidence, thereby informing research requirements. METHODS: Studies relevant to shoulder and elbow arthroplasty follow-up, surveillance and time-related failure were included. The review included randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and economic studies indexed in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CDSR and Cochrane CENTRAL since 1 January 2012. In addition, all registry studies, follow-up studies, cohort studies and case reports indexed in MEDLINE since 1 January 2020 were included. The screening was undertaken by two reviewers. Key characteristics of each study were described, alongside a narrative review. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were included. We were unable to identify evidence that long-term follow-up and monitoring of asymptomatic shoulder and elbow arthroplasty identifies failure or leads to a revision that is of reduced patient morbidity and cost. In addition, no evidence was apparent to inform whether patients will self-present with a failing implant. Several surveillance mechanisms were identified. CONCLUSION: This scoping review highlights the paucity of evidence related to long-term follow-up and monitoring of shoulder and elbow arthroplasty, and the need for high-quality data to inform the development of evidence-based care pathways.
    • Physiotherapist-led exercise versus usual care (waiting-list) control for patients awaiting rotator cuff repair surgery: A pilot randomised controlled trial (POWER).

      Beckhelling, Jacqueline; Davis, Daniel; Pitt, Lisa
      BACKGROUND: Once a decision to undergo rotator cuff repair surgery is made, patients are placed on the waiting list. It can take weeks or months to receive surgery. There has been a call to move from waiting lists to 'preparation' lists to better prepare patients for surgery and to ensure it remains an appropriate treatment option for them. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, as measured by recruitment rates, treatment fidelity and follow-up rates, of a future multi-centre randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of undertaking a physiotherapist-led exercise programme while waiting for surgery versus usual care (waiting-list control). DESIGN: Two-arm, multi-centre pilot randomised controlled trial with feasibility objectives in six NHS hospitals in England. METHOD: Adults (n = 76) awaiting rotator cuff repair surgery were recruited and randomly allocated to a programme of physiotherapist-led exercise (n = 38) or usual care control (n = 38). RESULTS: Of 302 eligible patients, 76 (25%) were randomised. Of 38 participants randomised to physiotherapist-led exercise, 28 (74%) received the exercise programme as intended. 51/76 (67%) Shoulder Pain and Disability Index questionnaires were returned at 6-months. Of 76 participants, 32 had not received surgery after 6-months (42%). Of those 32, 20 were allocated to physiotherapist-led exercise; 12 to usual care control. CONCLUSIONS: A future multi-centre randomised controlled trial is feasible but would require planning for variable recruitment rates between sites, measures to improve treatment fidelity and opportunity for surgical exit, and optimisation of follow-up. A fully powered, randomised controlled trial is now needed to robustly inform clinical decision-making.
    • The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland guideline on the management of anal fissure.

      Lund, Jonathan
      AIM: The management of anal fissure: ACPGBI position statement was written 15 years ago. [KLR Cross et al., Colorectal Dis, 2008]. Our aim was to update the guideline and provide recommendations on the most effective treatment for patients with anal fissures utilising a multidisciplinary, rigorous guideline methodology. METHODS: The development process consisted of six phases. In phase 1 we defined the scope of the guideline. The patient population included patients with acute and chronic anal fissure. The target group was all practitioners (primary and secondary care) treating patients with fissures and, in addition, healthcare workers and patients who desired information regarding fissure management. In phase 2 we formed a guideline development group (GDG) including a methodologist. In phase 3 review questions were formulated, using a reversed PICO process, starting with possible recommendations based on the GDG's knowledge. In phase 4 a comprehensive literature search focused on existing systematic reviews addressing each review question, supplemented by more recent studies if appropriate. In phase 5 data were extracted from the included papers and checked by the GDG. If indicated, meta-analysis of systematic review data was updated by the GDG. During phase 6 the GDG members decided what recommendations could be made based on the evidence in the literature and strength of the recommendation was assessed using 'grade'. RESULTS: This guideline is divided into two sections: Primary care which includes (i) diagnosis; (ii) basic treatment; (iii) topical treatment; and secondary care which includes (iv) botulinum toxin therapy; (v) surgical intervention and (vi) special situations (including pregnancy and breast-feeding patients, children, receptive anal intercourse and low-pressure fissures). A total of 23 recommendations were formulated. A new term clinically healed was described by the GDG. CONCLUSION: This guideline provides an up-to-date evidence-based summary of the current knowledge of the management of anal fissure and may serve as a useful guide for clinicians as well as a potential reference for patients.
    • A call for clarity: a scoping review of predictors of poor outcome after emergency abdominal surgery for inflammatory bowel disease.

      Bunce, J
      AIM: The medical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly progressing; however, many patients with the disease still require surgery. Often this is done as an emergency. Initiatives such as the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit have shown how evidence-based emergency surgery improves outcomes for the patient. The aim of this scoping review is to describe the current evidence base on risk stratification in emergency abdominal surgery for IBD. METHODS: A literature search, abstract and full paper screening resulted in 17 articles representing 63 472 patients from seven countries. RESULTS: It is likely that age, the American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, comorbidity and organ dysfunction play a similar role in risk stratification in IBD patients as in other emergency abdominal surgery cohorts. However, the reporting of what is considered an IBD emergency is variable. Six studies include clear definitions of emergency in our study. The range of what is considered an emergency is within 12 h of admission to any time within an unplanned admission. CONCLUSION: To have data driven, evidence-based emergency surgical practice in IBD we need consistency of reporting, including the definitions of emergency and urgency. Core descriptor sets in IBD would be valuable.
    • Comparison between intra-articular injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, PRP and placebo for thumb base osteoarthritis: A frequentist network meta-analysis.

      Johnson, Nick
      BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current evidence for the use of intra-articular injections for thumb base osteoarthritis (TBOA) is equivocal. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma. METHODS: A Frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted comparing outcomes at short (≤3 months) and medium-term (>3-12 months) time points. RESULTS: Data from 7 RCTs and 1 non-RCT (446 patients) were collected, consisting of corticosteroids (n = 7), hyaluronic acid (n = 7), platelet-rich plasma (n = 2) and placebo (n = 2). At the short-term time point, no intra-articular injection demonstrated superiority over placebo at reducing pain. At the medium-term time point, superiority of platelet-rich plasma at reducing pain over placebo and corticosteroids was seen following sensitivity analysis (RCTs only) (SMD -1.48 95 % CI -2.71; -0.25). No injection proved superior at improving function at short or medium-term time points. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, despite the promising result for platelet-rich plasma, the evidence quality was limited to two studies only justifying the need for further and larger methodologically robust trials investigating corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma vs each other and placebo.
    • Outcomes of Concurrent Hiatus Hernia Repair with Different Bariatric Surgery Procedures: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

      Idris, Iskandar
      BACKGROUND: Hiatus hernia (HH) is prevalent among patients with obesity. Concurrent repair is often performed during metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS), but a consensus on the safety and effectiveness of concurrent HH repair (HHR) and MBS remains unclear. We performed a systematic review of the safety and effectiveness of concurrent HHR and MBS through the measurement of multiple postoperative outcomes. METHOD: Seventeen studies relating to concurrent MBS and HHR were identified. MBS procedures included laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), and adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Studies with pre- and postoperative measurements and outcomes were extracted. RESULTS: For LSG, 9 of 11 studies concluded concurrent procedures to be safe and effective with no increase in mortality. Reoperation and readmission rates however were increased with HHR, whilst GORD rates were seen to improve, therefore providing a solution to the predominant issue with LSG. For LRYGB, in all 5 studies, concurrent procedures were concluded to be safe and effective, with no increase in mortality, length of stay, readmission and reoperation rates. Higher complication rates were observed compared to LSG with HHR. Among LAGB studies, all 4 studies were concluded to be safe and effective with no adverse outcomes on mortality and length of stay. GORD rates were seen to decrease, and reoperation rates from pouch dilatation and gastric prolapse were observed to significantly decrease. CONCLUSION: Concurrent HHR with MBS appears to be safe and effective. Assessment of MBS warrants the consideration of concurrent HHR depending on specific patient case and the surgeon's preference.