Recent Submissions

  • A Biopsychosocial Intervention for Stroke Carers (BISC): development and description of the intervention

    Kontou, Eirini (2022)
    ABSTRACTObjective Family members of stroke survivors are often not supported for their caring role, with many reporting adjustment difficulties. This paper describes the development and content of a group-based intervention for informal carers of stroke survivors.Method The intervention is based on the theoretical foundation of the biopsychosocial model with the aim to understand and address the physical, psychological and social factors of caring for stroke survivors. Findings from a comprehensive literature review and a qualitative study with carers and stroke professionals were synthesized to guide the intervention development. The Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist was used as a framework to describe the intervention.Results The intervention integrates cognitive-behavioural approaches via the identification of the biopsychosocial (physical, emotional, social) factors that can have an impact on the well-being of carers. It includes education on stroke-specific topics and advice on coping strategies. It consists of six structured two-hour group sessions facilitated in a community setting. It provides information and support on adjusting to the caring role in the first year post-stroke. Intervention materials were designed for addressing carers? specific needs using psychological techniques, such as problem-solving, goal setting and relaxation exercises.Conclusion We have underlined the importance for describing and reporting the process of intervention development for complex interventions in the context of stroke rehabilitation. An intervention addressing the needs of informal stroke carers (Biopsychosocial Intervention for Stroke Carers; BISC) has been developed and described. BISC was further evaluated in a single-centre feasibility randomized controlled trial.
  • Conceptual framework for personal recovery in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Slade, Mike (2021)
    Background Although there has been movement in cardiology to advance patient-centered approaches to postacute myocardial infarction (AMI) care, work remains to be done in aligning patient preferences with clinical care. Our objective was to characterize patients' experience of AMI and treatment to develop a new conceptual framework of patient-centered recovery in cardiology. Methods and Results We conducted in-depth interviews with people who previously experienced an AMI (2016-2019). The interview focused on participants' experiences of their recovery, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a phenomenological framework. The overarching theme described by the 42 participants was feeling like a "different person" after the AMI. This shift manifested itself in both losses and gains, each of which posed new challenges to everyday life. The experience appeared to be an active process requiring people to take responsibility for their health. In terms of loss, participants describe how the AMI threatened their sense of safety and security and led to social isolation, fragility, uncertainty about the future, and difficulty expressing emotions accompanied this new fear. A conceptual framework describing the relationship between AMI, identity change, and functioning was developed. Conclusions Participants experienced the AMI as an unexpected disruption in their lives that had far-reaching effects on their daily functioning, and were resolved in numerous ways. The conceptual framework may assist in providing a theoretical basis for future interventions in cardiology that not only engage and retain patients in care but also improve long-term adherence to secondary prevention and other aspects of self-care.
  • Nitrate-rich beetroot juice reduces blood pressure in Tanzanian adults with elevated blood pressure: A double-blind randomized controlled feasibility trial

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2020)
    BACKGROUNDIn Sub-Saharan Africa, current strategies are struggling to control the burgeoning hypertension epidemic. Dietary interventions such as inorganic nitrate or folic acid supplementation could represent promising strategies for reducing blood pressure (BP) in this setting.OBJECTIVESThis feasibility study explores the effects of dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation, alone or in combination with folic acid, on BP in Tanzanian adults with elevated BP in Tanzania.METHODSA placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized controlled feasibility trial was conducted. Forty-seven middle-aged and older participants (age: 50-70 y, BMI: 26.3-29.1 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions for a period of 60 d: 1) high-nitrate beetroot juice (∼400 mg nitrate) and folic acid (∼5 mg folic acid) (N + F), 2) high-nitrate beetroot juice and placebo (N + P), or 3) nitrate-depleted beetroot juice and placebo (P + P). Clinic and 24-h ambulatory BP and measurements of compliance in plasma (nitrate and folate concentrations) and saliva (nitrate and nitrite) were obtained at baseline, 30 d, and 60 d.RESULTSBaseline resting systolic and diastolic BP (mean ± SD) was 151.0 ± 19.4 mm Hg and 91.8 ± 11.7 mm Hg, respectively. Compliance to the interventions was high (>90%) in all groups which was confirmed by the significant increase in nitrate and folic acid concentrations in plasma and saliva samples in the treatment arms. After 60 d, 24-h systolic BP dropped by -10.8 ± 9.8 mm Hg (P < 0.001), -6.1 ± 13.2 mm Hg (P = 0.03), and -0.3 ± 9.7 mm Hg (P = 0.83) in the N + P, N + F, and P + P groups, respectively. There was a significant decrease in 24-h diastolic BP in the N + P group (-5.4 ± 5.0 mm Hg, P = 0.004), whereas changes were not significant in the N + F (-1.8 ± 8.1 mm Hg, P = 0.32) and P + P (1.6 ± 8.3 mm Hg, P = 0.43) groups.CONCLUSIONSDietary inorganic nitrate represents a potential nutritional strategy to lessen the hypertension epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. These findings support the rationale for future long-term investigations exploring the efficacy of dietary nitrate for lowering BP and attenuating cardiovascular disease risk in this setting.This trial was registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN67978523.
  • Impact of memory problems post-stroke on patients and their family carers: A qualitative study

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2020)
    Background: Memory problems post-stroke are common and for some, these problems could then progress to a dementia illness. Once in the community, stroke-survivors are looked after by their family doctors although there is evidence that these patients may struggle to access appropriate help in the community for these problems. Although a stroke-survivor may be physically capable of performing daily tasks, they and their families may have to learn to manage and adapt to their new memory deficits. There is often less focus on cognitive recovery post-stroke from clinical services perhaps because of the lack of awareness and evidence of these adaptations. There is also good evidence that organized stroke care improves physical recovery but no equivalent evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation. The aim of this qualitative study was to report the impact of memory problems on the stroke-survivor and their family once they are living in the community. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients and family carers to gain an in-depth understanding of their experiences. Participants were invited to take part in an interview at around six and 12-months post-stroke. A topic guide was developed to explore participant's care experiences post-stroke when they have also presented with memory difficulties. Data collection and analysis were iterative; all transcripts were anonymized. The data were thematically analyzed. Results: Twenty-two interviews were conducted. Five family carers and ten stroke-survivors were interviewed at six-months post-stroke, of these eight stroke-survivors and four family carers agreed to a 12-month follow-up interview. They identified several areas of impact: (1) impact on daily life; (2) emotional impact; and (3) compensating strategies implemented in response to impact. Conclusion: Living with stroke combined with memory impairment can have negative effects on the stroke-survivor and their family once in the community. Health professionals and services in the community need to recognize the burden of managing symptoms post-stroke for these individuals and their families. Understanding the impact can enable more effective community and specialist support to be provided particularly if we were to also identify those who may then be at risk of a future dementia illness.
  • How can population-based studies best be utilized to reduce the global impact of dementia? Recommendations for researchers, funders, and policymakers

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2020)
    In the last two decades, there has been in-depth investigation into understanding the pathogenesis, epidemiological profiling, and clinical characterization of dementia. However, these investigations have not led to successful interventions to prevent, delay, or reverse the pathological processes underlying dementia. Recent findings of a decrease in dementia risk in high-income countries such as the UK, USA and the Netherlands highlight that dementia, at least in some cases, is preventable. This article includes a synthesis of current knowledge on dementia epidemiology, biological underpinnings, risk factors, and current prevention programs, with the aim to set the path for research, funding, and policy initiatives to address the global public health challenge of how to prevent dementia or reduce risk within the framework of population-based studies. We advocate for development of novel approaches for intelligent data synthesis that go well beyond single approaches to enable powerful risk stratification analyses. An integrated approach is needed where researchers, funders, policymakers, and stakeholders contribute to and work together to formulate effective strategies for the global monitoring and development of population-based risk reduction, treatment, and prevention programs for dementia.
  • Biopsychosocial intervention for stroke carers (BISC): results of a feasibility randomised controlled trial and nested qualitative interview study

    Greensmith, Christopher; Kontou, Eirini (2020)
    OBJECTIVETo determine the feasibility of recruiting to and delivering a biopsychosocial intervention for carers of stroke survivors.DESIGNFeasibility randomised controlled study with nested qualitative interview study.SETTINGThe intervention was delivered in the community in either a group or one-to-one format.SUBJECTSCarers and stroke survivors within one year of stroke onset.INTERVENTIONSA carer targeted intervention delivered by a research psychologist in six structured two-hour sessions or usual care control. The intervention combined education about the biological, psychological and social effects of stroke with strategies and techniques focussing on adjustment to stroke and caregiving. Stroke survivors in both groups received baseline and follow-up assessment but no intervention.MAIN OUTCOMERecruitment rate, study attrition, fidelity of intervention delivery, acceptability and sensitivity of outcome measures used (health related quality of life, anxiety and depression and carer burden six months after randomisation).RESULTSOf the 257 carers approached, 41 consented. Six withdrew before randomisation. Eighteen participants were randomised to receive the intervention and 17 to usual care. Attendance at sessions was greater when treated one-to-one. Feedback interviews suggested that participants found the intervention acceptable and peer support particularly helpful in normalising their feelings. Thirty participants were assessed at follow-up with improvements from baseline on all health measures for both groups.CONCLUSIONSOur results suggest that a biopsychosocial intervention was acceptable to carers and can be delivered in group and one-to-one formats. Timing of approach and mode of intervention delivery is critical and requires tailoring to the carers individual needs.
  • Validating the dysphagia severity rating scale: A prospective and retrospective study

    Everton, Lisa F. (2020)
    Outcome measures used in dysphagia rehabilitation should be validated and clinically meaningful. The Dysphagia Severity Rating Scale (DSRS) is a clinician-rated scale of oral intake, with three ordinal subscales (fluids, diet, and supervision). This research describes validation of the DSRS and establishes the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) of this scale.
  • Psychometric assessment and validation of the dysphagia severity rating scale in stroke patients

    Everton, Lisa F. (2020)
    Post stroke dysphagia (PSD) is common and associated with poor outcome. The Dysphagia Severity Rating Scale (DSRS), which grades how severe dysphagia is based on fluid and diet modification and supervision requirements for feeding, is used for clinical research but has limited published validation information. Multiple approaches were taken to validate the DSRS, including concurrent- and predictive criterion validity, internal consistency, inter- and intra-rater reliability and sensitivity to change. This was done using data from four studies involving pharyngeal electrical stimulation in acute stroke patients with dysphagia, an individual patient data meta-analysis and unpublished studies (NCT03499574, NCT03700853). In addition, consensual- and content validity and the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) were assessed using anonymous surveys sent to UK-based Speech and Language Therapists (SLTs). Scores for consensual validity were mostly moderate (62.5-78%) to high or excellent (89-100%) for most scenarios. All but two assessments of content validity were excellent. In concurrent criterion validity assessments, DSRS was most closely associated with measures of radiological aspiration (penetration aspiration scale, Spearman rank rs = 0.49, p < 0.001) and swallowing (functional oral intake scale, FOIS, rs = -0.96, p < 0.001); weaker but statistically significant associations were seen with impairment, disability and dependency. A similar pattern of relationships was seen for predictive criterion validity. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was either "good" or "excellent". Intra and inter-rater reliability were largely "excellent" (intraclass correlation >0.90). DSRS was sensitive to positive change during recovery (medians: 7, 4 and 1 at baseline and 2 and 13 weeks respectively) and in response to an intervention, pharyngeal electrical stimulation, in a published meta-analysis. The MCID was 1.0 and DSRS and FOIS scores may be estimated from each other. The DSRS appears to be a valid tool for grading the severity of swallowing impairment in patients with post stroke dysphagia and is appropriate for use in clinical research and clinical service delivery.
  • Behavioural activation therapy for post-stroke depression: the BEADS feasibility RCT

    das Nair, Roshan (2019)
    Background: There is currently insufficient evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of psychological therapies for post-stroke depression. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of undertaking a definitive trial to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural activation (BA) compared with usual stroke care for treating post-stroke depression. Design: Parallel-group, feasibility, multicentre, randomised controlled trial with nested qualitative research and a health economic evaluation. Setting: Acute and community stroke services in three sites in England. Participants: Community-dwelling adults 3 months to 5 years post stroke who are depressed, as determined by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) or the Visual Analogue Mood Scales 'Sad' item. Exclusions: patients who are blind and/or deaf, have dementia, are unable to communicate in English, do not have mental capacity to consent, are receiving treatment for depression at the time of stroke onset or are currently receiving psychological intervention. Randomisation and blinding: Participants were randomised (1 : 1 ratio) to BA or usual stroke care. Randomisation was conducted using a computer-generated list with random permuted blocks of varying sizes, stratified by site. Participants and therapists were aware of the allocation, but outcome assessors were blind. Interventions: The intervention arm received up to 15 sessions of BA over 4 months. BA aims to improve mood by increasing people's level of enjoyable or valued activities. The control arm received usual care only. Main outcome measures: Primary feasibility outcomes concerned feasibility of recruitment to the main trial, acceptability of research procedures and measures, appropriateness of baseline and outcome measures, retention of participants and potential value of conducting the definitive trial. Secondary feasibility outcomes concerned the delivery of the intervention. The primary clinical outcome 6 months post randomisation was the PHQ-9. Secondary clinical outcomes were Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire - Hospital version, Nottingham Leisure Questionnaire, Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living, Carer Strain Index, Euro-QoI 5 Dimensions, five-level version and health-care resource use questionnaire. Results: Forty-eight participants were recruited in 27 centre-months of recruitment, at a recruitment rate of 1.8 participants per centre per month. The 25 participants randomised to receive BA attended a mean of 8.5 therapy sessions [standard deviation (SD) 4.4 therapy sessions]; 23 participants were allocated usual care. Outcome assessments were completed by 39 (81%) participants (BA, n = 18; usual care, n = 21). Mean PHQ-9 scores at 6-month follow-up were 10.1 points (SD 6.9 points) and 14.4 points (SD 5.1 points) in the BA and control groups, respectively, a difference of -3.8 (95% confidence interval -6.9 to -0.6) after adjusting for baseline PHQ-9 score and centre, representing a reduction in depression in the BA arm. Therapy was delivered as intended. BA was acceptable to participants, carers and therapists. Value-of-information analysis indicates that the benefits of conducting a definitive trial would be likely to outweigh the costs. It is estimated that a sample size of between 580 and 623 participants would be needed for a definitive trial. Limitations: Target recruitment was not achieved, although we identified methods to improve recruitment. Conclusions: The Behavioural Activation Therapy for Depression after Stroke trial was feasible with regard to the majority of outcomes. The outstanding issue is whether or not a sufficient number of participants could be recruited within a reasonable time frame for a definitive trial. Future work is required to identify whether or not there are sufficient sites that are able to deliver the services required for a definitive trial.
  • Special topic section: linkages among cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and cognitive disorders: Preventing dementia by preventing stroke: The Berlin Manifesto

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2019)
    The incidence of stroke and dementia are diverging across the world, rising for those in low-and middle-income countries and falling in those in high-income countries. This suggests that whatever factors cause these trends are potentially modifiable. At the population level, neurological disorders as a group account for the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years globally (10%). Among neurological disorders, stroke (42%) and dementia (10%) dominate. Stroke and dementia confer risks for each other and share some of the same, largely modifiable, risk and protective factors. In principle, 90% of strokes and 35% of dementias have been estimated to be preventable. Because a stroke doubles the chance of developing dementia and stroke is more common than dementia, more than a third of dementias could be prevented by preventing stroke. Developments at the pathological, pathophysiological, and clinical level also point to new directions. Growing understanding of brain pathophysiology has unveiled the reciprocal interaction of cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration identifying new therapeutic targets to include protection of the endothelium, the blood-brain barrier, and other components of the neurovascular unit. In addition, targeting amyloid angiopathy aspects of inflammation and genetic manipulation hold new testable promise. In the meantime, accumulating evidence suggests that whole populations experiencing improved education, and lower vascular risk factor profiles (e.g., reduced prevalence of smoking) and vascular disease, including stroke, have better cognitive function and lower dementia rates. At the individual levels, trials have demonstrated that anticoagulation of atrial fibrillation can reduce the risk of dementia by 48% and that systolic blood pressure lower than 140 mmHg may be better for the brain. Based on these considerations, the World Stroke Organization has issued a proclamation, endorsed by all the major international organizations focused on global brain and cardiovascular health, calling for the joint prevention of stroke and dementia. This article summarizes the evidence for translation into action. © 2019 the Alzheimer's Association and the World Stroke Organisation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Setting up a constraint induced movement therapy service within a community stroke team

    Harrison, Natalie; Barnes, Kate; Killick, Catherine; Williams, Gavin (2018)
    Evidence suggests that 80% of stroke survivors have upper limb motor impairments affecting their independence. There is a strong evidence base for using constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) to improve upper limb function and overcome learned non-use. This intervention restrains the non-affected upper limb, increasing motivation to use the affected limb in functional tasks. NICE guidelines(2013) and RCP(2016) guidelines support the use of CIMT for upper limb rehabilitation following stroke. There has also been a Cochrane literature review which suggests that CIMT is significantly more effective than conventional treatment for improving motor function.
  • Clinical assessment of depth sensor based pose estimation algorithms for technology supervised rehabilitation applications

    Simcox, Christopher; Killick, Catherine; Hughes, Emma (2019)
    Encouraging rehabilitation by the use of technology in the home can be a cost-effective strategy, particularly if consumer-level equipment can be used. We present a clinical qualitative and quantitative analysis of the pose estimation algorithms of a typical consumer unit (Xbox One Kinect), to assess its suitability for technology supervised rehabilitation and guide development of future pose estimation algorithms for rehabilitation applications. We focused the analysis on upper-body stroke rehabilitation as a challenging use case. We found that the algorithms require improved joint tracking, especially for the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints, and exploiting temporal information for tracking when there is full or partial occlusion in the depth data.<br/>Copyright &#xa9; 2018 The Authors
  • Effects of long-term methylphenidate use on growth and blood pressure: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)

    Hollis, Chris P.; Liddle, Elizabeth B. (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised over the safety of methylphenidate (MPH), with regard to adverse effects on growth and blood pressure. Our study investigates whether, and to what extent, methylphenidate use in boys with ADHD is associated with having low body mass index (BMI), having low height, and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. METHODS: Data used for this study stem from the German KiGGS dataset. Three different groups of boys aged 6-15 years were included in the analysis: ADHD patients who used MPH for less than 12 months; ADHD patients who used MPH for 12 months or more; and ADHD patients without current MPH treatment. Each of these three groups was compared to a non-ADHD control group regarding low weight (BMI </= 3rd percentile), low height (</=3rd percentile) and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure. For growth outcomes, boys were categorized according to age (< 11 years/>/=11 years, to account for pubertal maturation). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to test for associations. RESULTS: 4244 boys were included in the study; MPH < 12 months: n = 65 (n = 36 < 11 years), MPH >/= 12 months: n = 53 (n = 22 < 11 years), ADHD controls: n = 320 (n = 132 < 11 years), non-ADHD controls: n = 3806 (n = 2003 < 11 years). Pre-pubertal boys with MPH use less than 12 months and pubertal/postpubertal boys with MPH use of 12 months or greater were significantly more likely to have a BMI </= 3rd percentile compared to non-ADHD controls. Boys from the ADHD control group were significantly less likely to have a raised systolic blood pressure compared to non-ADHD controls. Beyond that, no significant between group differences were observed for any other growth and BP parameter. CONCLUSION: The analyses of the KiGGS dataset showed that MPH use in boys with ADHD is associated with low BMI. However, this effect was only observed in certain groups. Furthermore, our analysis was unable to confirm that MPH use is also associated with low height (</=3rd percentile) and changes in blood pressure.
  • Individual participant data meta-analyses should not ignore clustering

    Guo, Boliang (2013)
    Objectives: Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses often analyze their IPD as if coming from a single study. We compare this approach with analyses that rather account for clustering of patients within studies. Study Design and Setting: Comparison of effect estimates from logistic regression models in real and simulated examples. Results: The estimated prognostic effect of age in patients with traumatic brain injury is similar, regardless of whether clustering is accounted for. However, a family history of thrombophilia is found to be a diagnostic marker of deep vein thrombosis [odds ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.70; P = 0.05] when clustering is accounted for but not when it is ignored (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.37; P = 0.64). Similarly, the treatment effect of nicotine gum on smoking cessation is severely attenuated when clustering is ignored (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.92) rather than accounted for (odds ratio, 1.80; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.52). Simulations show models accounting for clustering perform consistently well, but downwardly biased effect estimates and low coverage can occur when ignoring clustering. Conclusion: Researchers must routinely account for clustering in IPD meta-analyses; otherwise, misleading effect estimates and conclusions may arise. &#xa9; 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Health checks: Could we be left with a hangover?

    Holmes, Mark (2010)
    Alcohol misuse costs £2.7 billion a year to the NHS. Mark Holmes and Jamie Waterall ask whether the NHS Health Check programme has missed a chance to help reduce the health risks of alcohol misuse
  • Alcohol and the NHS Health Check programme: Could we be left with a hangover?

    Holmes, Mark (2010)
    Alcohol misuse costs the NHS in the order of £2.7 billion per year; the total annual cost to the UK economy has been calculated at up to £25.1 billion. This article will examine if the Department of Health?s NHS Health Check programme policy launched in April 2009 has missed an important opportunity to contribute to tackling the growing health and economic burden of alcohol misuse. The authors believe that alcohol 'identification and brief advice' (IBA) should be a standard requirement for this programme. Consequently the article also provides a practical over view of the principles of IBA.
  • Communication and Low Mood (CALM): a randomized controlled trial of behavioural therapy for stroke patients with aphasia

    Haworth, Helen (2012)
    Objective: The aim was to evaluate behavioural therapy as a treatment for low mood in people with aphasia. Design: A randomized controlled trial comparing behavioural therapy plus usual care with a usual care control. Potential participants with aphasia after stroke were screened for the presence of low mood. Those who met the criteria and gave consent were randomly allocated. Setting: Participants were recruited from hospital wards, community rehabilitation, speech and language therapy services and stroke groups. Subjects: Of 511 people with aphasia identified, 105 had low mood and were recruited. Interventions: Behavioural therapy was offered for up to three months. Outcomes were assessed three and six months after random allocation. Main measures: Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire, Visual Analog Mood Scales ‘sad’ item, and Visual Analogue Self-Esteem Scale. Results: Participants were aged 29 to 94 years (mean 67.0, SD 13.5) and 66 (63%) were men. Regression analysis showed that at three months, when baseline values and communication impairment were controlled for, group allocation was a significant predictor of the Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire (P < 0.05), visual analogue ‘sad’ (P = 0.03), and Visual Analogue Self-Esteem Scale (P < 0.01). At six months, group alone was a significant predictor of the Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire (P < 0.05), and remained significant when baseline values were controlled for (P = 0.02). Mean Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire 10-item hospital version scores decreased from baseline to six months by six points in the intervention group as compared with an increase of 1.9 points in the control group.
  • Cardiovascular effects of stimulant and non-stimulant medication for children and adolescents with ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials of methylphenidate, amphetamines and atomoxetine

    Hollis, Chris P. (2017)
    This article presents a review to evaluate potential cardiovascular effects of these treatments, the authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamines (AMP), and atomoxetine (ATX) on diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP, SBP) and heart rate (HR) in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors conducted systematic searches in electronic databases (PsychINFO, EMBASE and Medline) to identify published trials which involved individuals who were (i) diagnosed with ADHD and were aged between 0–18 years; (ii) treated with MPH, AMP or ATX and (iii ) had their DBP and SBP and/or HR measured at baseline (pre) and the endpoint (post) of the study treatment. Eighteen clinical trials met the inclusion criteria (10 for MPH, 5 for AMP, and 7 for ATX) with data from 5837 participants (80.7% boys) and average duration of 28.7 weeks (range 4–96 weeks). Statistically significant pre–post increases of SBP, DBP and HR were associated with AMP and ATX treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD, while MPH treatment had a statistically significant effect only on SBP in these patients. These increases may be clinically significant for a significant minority of individuals that experience larger increases. Since increased BP and HR in general are considered risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality during adult life, pediatric patients using ADHD medication should be monitored closely and regularly for HR and BP. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Antipyretic therapy in acute stroke

    Sharma, Jagdish C.; Ross, Ian N. (1998)

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