• Femoral Nerve Block Intervention in Neck of Femur Fracture (FINOF): a randomised controlled trial.

      Walt, Gerrie Van De (2018-04)
      OBJECTIVE: Fractured neck of femur is a severely painful condition with significant mortality and morbidity. We investigated whether early and continuous use of femoral nerve block can improve pain on movement and mobility after surgery in older participants with fragility neck of femur fracture. DESIGN: Prospective single-centre, randomised controlled pragmatic trial. SETTING: Secondary care, acute National Health Service Trust, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Participants admitted with a history and examination suggesting fractured neck of femur. INTERVENTION: Immediate continuous femoral nerve block via catheter or standard analgesia. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measures were Cumulative Dynamic Pain score and Cumulated Ambulation Score from surgery until day 3 postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures included pain scores at rest, cumulative side effects (nausea and constipation), quality of life (measured by EuroQOL 5 D instrument (EQ-5D) score) at day 3 and day 30, and rehabilitation outcome (measured by mobility score). RESULTS: 141 participants were recruited, with 23 excluded. No significant difference was detected between Cumulative Dynamic Pain Score (standard care (n=56) vs intervention (n=55) 20 (IQR 15-24) vs 20 (15-23), p=0.51) or Cumulated Ambulation Score (standard care vs intervention 6 (5-9) vs 7 (5-10), p=0.76). There were no statistically different differences in secondary outcomes except cumulative pain at rest: 5 (0.5-6.5) in the standard care group and 2 (0-5) in the intervention group (p=0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Early application of continuous femoral nerve block compared with standard systemic analgesia did not result in improved dynamic pain score or superior postoperative ambulation. This technique may provide superior pain relief at rest. Continuous femoral nerve block did not delay initial control of pain or mobilisation after surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN92946117; Pre-results
    • Guidelines for the safe practice of total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA): Joint Guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists and the Society for Intravenous Anaesthesia.

      Mulvey, David (2018-10)
      Guidelines are presented for safe practice in the use of intravenous drug infusions for general anaesthesia. When maintenance of general anaesthesia is by intravenous infusion, this is referred to as total intravenous anaesthesia. Although total intravenous anaesthesia has advantages for some patients, the commonest technique used for maintenance of anaesthesia in the UK and Ireland remains the administration of an inhaled volatile anaesthetic. However, the use of an inhalational technique is sometimes not possible, and in some situations, inhalational anaesthesia is contraindicated. Therefore, all anaesthetists should be able to deliver total intravenous anaesthesia competently and safely. For the purposes of simplicity, these guidelines will use the term total intravenous anaesthesia but also encompass techniques involving a combination of intravenous infusion and inhalational anaesthesia. This document is intended as a guideline for safe practice when total intravenous anaesthesia is being used, and not as a review of the pros and cons of total intravenous anaesthesia vs. inhalational anaesthesia in situations where both techniques are possible.
    • A multicentre prospective cohort study of the accuracy of conventional landmark technique for cricoid localisation using ultrasound scanning.

      Lee, David; Elriedy, Mohamed; Nair, Ashok (2018-07)
      Cricoid pressure is employed during rapid sequence induction to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. Correct application of cricoid pressure depends on knowledge of neck anatomy and precise identification of surface landmarks. Inaccurate localisation of the cricoid cartilage during rapid sequence induction risks incomplete oesophageal occlusion, with potential for pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. It may also compromise the laryngeal view for the anaesthetist. Accurate localisation of the cricoid cartilage therefore has relevance for the safe conduct of rapid sequence induction. We conducted a multicentre, prospective cohort study to determine the accuracy of cricoid cartilage identification in 100 patients. The cranio-caudal midpoint of the cricoid cartilage was identified by a qualified anaesthetic assistant using the conventional landmark technique and marked. While maintaining the patient in the same position, a second mark was made by identifying the midpoint of the cricoid cartilage using ultrasound scanning. The mean (SD) distance between the two marks was 2.07 (8.49) mm. In 41% of patients the midpoint was incorrectly identified by a margin greater than 5 mm. This error was uniformly distributed both above and below the midpoint of the cricoid cartilage. The Pearson correlation coefficient of this error with respect to body mass index was 0.062 (p = 0.539) and with age was -0.020 (p = 0.843). There were also no significant differences in error between male and female patients. Identification of cricoid position using a landmark technique has a high degree of variability and has little correlation with age, sex or body mass index. These findings have significant implications for the safe application of cricoid pressure in the context of rapid sequence induction.
    • Pre-emptive and preventive NSAIDs for postoperative pain in adults undergoing all types of surgery.

      Carrick, Laura
      BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is a common consequence of surgery and can have many negative perioperative effects. It has been suggested that the administration of analgesia before a painful stimulus may improve pain control. We defined pre-emptive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) as those given before surgery but not continued afterwards and preventive NSAIDs as those given before surgery and continued afterwards. These were compared to a control group given the NSAIDs after surgery instead of before surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of preventive and pre-emptive NSAIDs for reducing postoperative pain in adults undergoing all types of surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, AMED and CINAHL (up to June 2020). In addition, we searched for unpublished studies in three clinical trial databases, conference proceedings, grey literature databases, and reference lists of retrieved articles. We did not apply any restrictions on language or date of publication. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included parallel-group randomized controlled trials (RCTs) only. We included adult participants undergoing any type of surgery. We defined pre-emptive NSAIDs as those given before surgery but not continued afterwards and preventive NSAIDs as those given before surgery and continued afterwards. These were compared to a control group given the NSAIDs after surgery instead of before surgery. We included studies that gave the medication by any route but not given on the skin. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods expected by Cochrane, as well as a novel publication bias test developed by our research group. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. Outcomes included acute postoperative pain (minimal clinically important difference (MCID): 1.5 on a 0-10 scale), adverse events of NSAIDs, nausea and vomiting, 24-hour morphine consumption (MCID: 10 mg reduction), time to analgesic request (MCID: one hour), pruritus, sedation, patient satisfaction, chronic pain and time to first bowel movement (MCID: 12 hours). MAIN RESULTS: We included 71 RCTs. Seven studies are awaiting classification. We included 45 studies that evaluated pre-emptive NSAIDs and 26 studies that evaluated preventive NSAIDs. We considered only four studies to be at low risk of bias for most domains. The operations and NSAIDs used varied, although most studies were conducted in abdominal, orthopaedic and dental surgery. Most studies were conducted in secondary care and in low-risk participants. Common exclusions were participants on analgesic medications prior to surgery and those with chronic pain. Pre-emptive NSAIDs compared to post-incision NSAIDs For pre-emptive NSAIDs, there is probably a decrease in early acute postoperative pain (MD -0.69, 95% CI -0.97 to -0.41; studies = 36; participants = 2032; I2 = 96%; moderate-certainty evidence). None of the included studies that reported on acute postoperative pain reported adverse events as an outcome. There may be little or no difference between the groups in short-term (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.94; studies = 2; participants = 100; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence) or long-term nausea and vomiting (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.38; studies = 5; participants = 228; I2 = 29%; low-certainty evidence). There may be a reduction in late acute postoperative pain (MD -0.22, 95% CI -0.44 to 0.00; studies = 28; participants = 1645; I2 = 97%; low-certainty evidence). There may be a reduction in 24-hour morphine consumption with pre-emptive NSAIDs (MD -5.62 mg, 95% CI -9.00 mg to -2.24 mg; studies = 16; participants = 854; I2 = 99%; low-certainty evidence) and an increase in the time to analgesic request (MD 17.04 minutes, 95% CI 3.77 minutes to 30.31 minutes; studies = 18; participants = 975; I2 = 95%; low-certainty evidence). There may be little or no difference in opioid adverse events such as pruritus (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.76; studies = 4; participants = 254; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence) or sedation (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.68; studies = 4; participants = 281; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence), although the number of included studies for these outcomes was small. No study reported patient satisfaction, chronic pain or time to first bowel movement for pre-emptive NSAIDs. Preventive NSAIDs compared to post-incision NSAIDs For preventive NSAIDs, there may be little or no difference in early acute postoperative pain (MD -0.14, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.12; studies = 18; participants = 1140; I2 = 75%; low-certainty evidence). One study reported adverse events from NSAIDs (reoperation for bleeding) although the events were low which did not allow any meaningful conclusions to be drawn (RR 1.95; 95% CI 0.18 to 20.68). There may be little or no difference in rates of short-term (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.49 to 3.30; studies = 1; participants = 76; low-certainty evidence) or long-term (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.38; studies = 5; participants = 456; I2 = 29%; low-certainty evidence) nausea and vomiting. There may be a reduction in late acute postoperative pain (MD -0.33, 95% CI -0.59 to -0.07; studies = 21; participants = 1441; I2 = 81%; low-certainty evidence). There is probably a reduction in 24-hour morphine consumption (MD -1.93 mg, 95% CI -3.55 mg to -0.32 mg; studies = 16; participants = 1323; I2 = 49%; moderate-certainty evidence). It is uncertain if there is any difference in time to analgesic request (MD 8.51 minutes, 95% CI -31.24 minutes to 48.27 minutes; studies = 8; participants = 410; I2 = 98%; very low-certainty evidence). As with pre-emptive NSAIDs, there may be little or no difference in other opioid adverse events such as pruritus (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.09 to 3.35; studies = 3; participants = 211; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence) and sedation (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.63; studies = 5; participants = 497; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence). There is probably little or no difference in patient satisfaction (MD -0.42; 95% CI -1.09 to 0.25; studies = 1; participants = 72; moderate-certainty evidence). No study reported on chronic pain. There is probably little or no difference in time to first bowel movement (MD 0.00; 95% CI -15.99 to 15.99; studies = 1; participants = 76; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There was some evidence that pre-emptive and preventive NSAIDs reduce both pain and morphine consumption, although this was not universal for all pain and morphine consumption outcomes. Any differences found were not clinically significant, although we cannot exclude this in more painful operations. Moreover, without any evidence of reductions in opioid adverse effects, the clinical significance of these results is questionable although few studies reported these outcomes. Only one study reported clinically significant adverse events from NSAIDs administered before surgery and, therefore, we have very few data to assess the safety of either pre-emptive or preventive NSAIDs. Therefore, future research should aim to adhere to the highest methodology and be adequately powered to assess serious adverse events of NSAIDs and reductions in opioid adverse events.
    • A randomised clinical trial comparing the 'sniffing' and neutral position using channelled (KingVision® ) and non-channelled (C-MAC® ) videolaryngoscopes

      Ungureanu, Narcis (2018-04)
      Head and neck position is one of the factors which can be associated with difficult videolaryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. This prospective randomised clinical trial compared 'sniffing' and neutral positions using a channelled (KingVision® ) and a non-channelled (C-MAC® D-blade) videolaryngoscope in 200 adult patients randomly allocated into four groups (KingVision 'sniffing', KingVision neutral, C-MAC 'sniffing' and C-MAC neutral). The primary outcome was the ease of tracheal intubation using the modified intubation difficulty scale (mIDS) score. Laryngoscopy time, intubation time, laryngoscopic view using the percentage of glottic opening (POGO) score and success rate of tracheal intubation were secondary outcomes. The median (IQR [range]) modified difficulty scale scores for the four groups, respectively, were 0 (0-1 [0-3]), 0 (0-1 [0-4]), 1 (0-1 [0-5]) and 0 (0-1 [0-3]; p = 0.384). There was no significant difference in laryngoscopy time (p = 0.020), intubation time (p = 0.272) and success rate (p = 0.968) between the groups. The percentage of glottic opening score was lower for C-MAC neutral group as compared with other three groups (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the ease of intubation between the 'sniffing' and the neutral position when using the KingVision and the C-MAC videolaryngoscopes. Therefore, either of the two positions could be used with these types of videolaryngoscopes, if deemed advantageous for the patient.
    • Recommendations for standards of monitoring during anaesthesia and recovery 2015: Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

      Morris, C; Verma, R (2016-01)
      This guideline updates and replaces the 4th edition of the AAGBI Standards of Monitoring published in 2007. The aim of this document is to provide guidance on the minimum standards for physiological monitoring of any patient undergoing anaesthesia or sedation under the care of an anaesthetist. The recommendations are primarily aimed at anaesthetists practising in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Minimum standards for monitoring patients during anaesthesia and in the recovery phase are included. There is also guidance on monitoring patients undergoing sedation and also during transfer of anaesthetised or sedated patients. There are new sections discussing the role of monitoring depth of anaesthesia, neuromuscular blockade and cardiac output. The indications for end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring have been updated.
    • Recommendations for standards of monitoring during anaesthesia and recovery 2021: Guideline from the Association of Anaesthetists.

      Morris, C
      This guideline updates and replaces the 5th edition of the Standards of Monitoring published in 2015. The aim of this document is to provide guidance on the minimum standards for monitoring of any patient undergoing anaesthesia or sedation under the care of an anaesthetist. The recommendations are primarily aimed at anaesthetists practising in the UK and Ireland, but it is recognised that these guidelines may also be of use in other areas of the world. Minimum standards for monitoring patients during anaesthesia and in the recovery phase are included. There is also guidance on monitoring patients undergoing sedation and during transfer. There are new sections specifically discussing capnography, sedation and regional anaesthesia. In addition, the indications for processed electroencephalogram and neuromuscular monitoring have been updated.
    • Short-Term, Equipment-Free High Intensity Interval Training Elicits Significant Improvements in Cardiorespiratory Fitness Irrespective of Supervision in Early Adulthood.

      Doleman, Brett (2021-07)
      Introduction: Serious health implications from having low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and being overweight in young adulthood are carried forward into later life. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-effective, potent stimulus for improving CRF and indices of cardiometabolic health. To date, few studies have investigated the use of equipment-free HIIT or the impact of supervision for improving CRF via HIIT. Methods: Thirty healthy young adults (18-30 y) were randomised to 4 weeks (12 sessions) equipment-free, bodyweight based supervised laboratory HIIT (L-HIIT), unsupervised home HIIT (H-HIIT) or no-intervention (CON). Utilised exercises were star jumps, squats and standing sprints. Measurements of CRF (anaerobic threshold (AT) and VO2peak), blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), blood glucose and plasma insulin by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and muscle architecture were performed at baseline and after the intervention. Results: When compared to the control group, both HIIT protocols improved CRF (AT: L-HIIT mean difference compared to the control group (MD) +2.1 (95% CI: 0.34-4.03) ml/kg/min; p = 0.02; H-HIIT MD +3.01 (1.17-4.85) ml/kg/min; p = 0.002), VO2peak: L-HIIT (MD +2.94 (0.64-5.25) ml/kg/min; p = 0.01; H-HIIT MD +2.55 (0.34-4.76) ml/kg/min; p = 0.03), BMI (L-HIIT MD -0.43 (-0.86 to 0.00) kg/m2; p = 0.05; H-HIIT: MD -0.51 (-0.95 to -0.07) kg/m2; p = 0.03) and m. vastus lateralis pennation angle (L-HIIT MD 0.2 (0.13-0.27)°; p < 0.001; H-HIIT MD 0.17 (0.09 to 0.24)°; p < 0.001). There was no significant change in BP, blood glucose or plasma insulin in any of the groups. Conclusions: Four weeks time-efficient, equipment-free, bodyweight-based HIIT is able to elicit improvements in CRF irrespective of supervision status. Unsupervised HIIT may be a useful tool for counteracting the rise of sedentary behaviours and consequent cardiometabolic disorders in young adults.
    • Study investigating the role of skeletal muscle mass estimation in metastatic spinal cord compression

      Blackwell, James; Williams, John P (2015-10)
      BACKGROUND: Age-related loss of functional muscle mass is associated with reduced functional ability and life expectancy. In disseminated cancer, age-related muscle loss may be exacerbated by cachexia and poor nutritional intake, increasing functional decline, morbidity and accelerate death. Patients with spinal metastases frequently present for decompressive surgery with decision to operate based upon functional assessment. A subjective assessment of physical performance has, however, been shown to be a poor indicator of life expectancy in these patients. We aimed to develop an objective measure based upon lean muscle mass to aid decision making, in these individuals, by investigating the association between muscle mass and 1-year survival. METHODS: Muscle mass was calculated as total psoas area (TPA)/ vertebral body area (VBA), by two independent blinded doctors from CT images, acquired within 7 days of spinal metastases surgery, at the mid L3 vertebral level. Outcome at 1 year following surgery was recorded from a prospectively updated metastatic spinal cord compression database. RESULTS: 86 patients were followed for 1 year, with an overall mortality of 39.5%. Mortality rates at 1 year were significantly high among patients in the lowest quartile of muscle mass, compared with those in the highest quartile (57.1 vs 23.8%, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Death within 1 year in individuals with spinal metastases is related to lean muscle mass at presentation. Assessment of lean muscle mass may inform decision to operate in patients with spinal metastases.
    • The effect of anaesthetist grade and frequency of insertion on epidural failure: a service evaluation in a United Kingdom teaching hospital.

      Heinink, Thomas (2015-01)
      BACKGROUND: Despite being a commonly performed procedure, epidural catheter insertion has a significant failure rate. There is a lack of guidance as to how regularly the procedure should be performed in order to maintain competence. This study aimed to quantify whether increasing frequency of practice is associated with a reduction in failure rates. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on all patients undergoing intra-abdominal or thoraco-abdominal surgery who received epidural analgesia as part of their post-operative analgesic regimen over a 36 month period. Records were examined to identify the reason for epidural catheter removal, classified according to standardised definitions, the seniority of the inserting anaesthetist, and whether or not they were a permanent member of the anaesthetic department. Data were analysed using independent t tests, Mann-Whitney tests and Fisher's test. RESULTS: 881 epidurals were inserted during the study period. 48 hour failure rate was 27.2%, whilst by 96 hours 33.9% of epidurals had failed. Increasing frequency of epidural insertion did not show a significant decrease in failure rate at either 48 (p = 0.36) or 96 hours (p = 0.28). However, long-term survival of epidurals at 96 hours was greater if inserted by permanent rather than temporary members of staff (non-permanent 60/141, 42.6% vs permanent 228/715, 31.9%, OR 1.58 (CI 1.09-2.29) p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that failure rates for postoperative epidural analgesia in major surgery are not dependent upon the frequency with which practitioners insert epidural catheters. However, failure rates are dependent on permanency of anaesthetic staff. These findings are significant when placed in the context of the General Medical Council's requirements for clinicians to maintain competence in their clinical practice, suggesting that institutional factors may have greater bearing on epidural success or failure than frequency of task performance.
    • Trainee-led emergency laparotomy operating.

      Boyd-Carson, H; Doleman, Brett; Williams, John P; Tierney, Gillian (2020-04)
      BACKGROUND: To achieve completion of training in general surgery, trainees are required to demonstrate competency in common procedures performed at emergency laparotomy. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of trainee led emergency laparotomy operating and the association between postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Data on all patients who had an emergency laparotomy between December 2013 and November 2017 were extracted from the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit database. Patients were grouped by grade of operating surgeon: trainee (specialty registrar) or consultant (including post-Certificate of Completion of Training fellows). Trends in trainee operating by deanery, hospital size and time of day of surgery were investigated. Univariable and adjusted regression analyses were performed for the outcomes 90-day mortality and return to theatre, with analysis of patients in operative subgroups segmental colectomy, Hartmann's procedure, adhesiolysis and repair of perforated peptic ulcer disease. RESULTS: The study cohort included 87 367 patients. The 90-day mortality rate was 15•1 per cent in the consultant group compared with 11•0 per cent in the trainee group. There were no increased odds of death by 90 days or of return to theatre across any of the operative groups when the operation was performed with a trainee listed as the most senior surgeon in theatre. Trainees were more likely to operate independently in high-volume centres (highest- versus lowest-volume centres: odds ratio (OR) 2•11, 95 per cent c.i. 1•91 to 2•33) and at night (00.00 to 07.59 versus 08.00 to 11.59 hours; OR 3•20, 2•95 to 3•48). CONCLUSION: There is significant variation in trainee-led operating in emergency laparotomy by geographical area, hospital size and by time of day. However, this does not appear to influence mortality or return to theatre.
    • Ultrasound guided popliteal sciatic block combined with femoral nerve block for managing a high risk patient on apixaban for i&d of footabscess

      Gnanamuttu, Anush; Haldar, Manabendra (2017)
      Current guidance is to avoid peripheral nerve blocks in the presence of anticoagulation. However in certain situations, where the risks of alternative techniques are high, then it may be appropriate to perform these blocks in the presence of anticoagulation. Here we present our management of a high risk anticoagulated patient who presented for incision and drainage of abscess using peripheral nerve blocks alone. Methods:We were asked to pre-assess a 89 year old patient posted for i&d of an absess of the foot. He had been admitted to hospital following falls and increased confusion and known to have COPD, hypertension, atrial fibrillation for which hewas on apixaban and congestive cardiac failure. His exercise tolerance was only 10 yards and saturations were 87% on air. Results: Ultrasound guided popliteal sciatic nerve and saphenous nerve block at the level of knee was performed. After 25 minutes there was almost complete motor block and surgery performedwithout any complications. Therewere no complications to report. Conclusions: Peripheral nerve blocks in the presence of anticoagulation can be associated with complications.Most of these have been associated with deep blocks or with peripheral nerve catheters. If the risks for alternative techniques are high, then on a relative risk basis, there may be role for peripheral nerve blocks in the presence of anticoagulation. The use of ultrasound guidance, helps avoid injury to vascular structures, which might cause nerve injury through haematoma formation.
    • What is the optimal type of fluid to be used for peri-operative fluid optimisation directed by oesophageal Doppler monitoring?

      Morris, C; Rogerson, D (2011-09)
      The objective of this review was to determine the optimal type or class of intravenous fluid to be used during peri-operative patient optimisation guided by oesophageal Doppler monitoring and to identify future directions for research. We undertook a literature review of patients undergoing major (general, colorectal, orthopaedic and urological) surgery, whose fluid therapy was managed using peri-operative oesophageal Doppler monitoring. We identified 10 studies that included 891 randomised patients. A variety of regimens and types of fluid were used in association with oesophageal Doppler monitoring, including crystalloid, gelatin and hydroxyethyl starch. A wide variety of hydroxyethyl starch preparations were used, including high molecular weight and highly substituted hetastarches, and lower molecular weight tetrastarches. Most studies were of high quality, associated with reduced hospital stay, but underpowered to evaluate other outcomes. In units with established enhanced recovery facilities, the benefits of colloid based on oesophageal Doppler monitoring were not reproduced. There is little evidence to support preferential use of any particular type of fluid during oesophageal Doppler guided optimisation; however, routine use of colloids is associated with significantly higher costs and may increase hospital stay. Furthermore, many of these fluids have not been evaluated in patient populations in whom optimisation is being applied or proposed, and the potential for harm cannot be excluded. Recommendations for future studies are provided, including adequate power for primary end points beyond hospital stay and adequate follow-up, and inclusion of a crystalloid comparison group.
    • Why most published meta-analysis findings are false.

      Doleman, Brett; Williams, John P; Lund, Jonathan (2019-06)