Recent Submissions

  • Recovery Colleges Characterisation and Testing in England (RECOLLECT): rationale and protocol

    Repper, Julie; Brewin, John; Sara, Meddings; McPhilbin, Merly; Yeo, Caroline; Slade, Mike (2022)
    Recovery Colleges are a relatively recent initiative within mental health services. The first opened in 2009 in London and since then numbers have grown. They are based on principles of personal recovery in mental health, co-production between people with lived experience of mental health problems and professionals, and adult learning. Student eligibility criteria vary, but all serve people who use mental health services, with empirical evidence of benefit. Previously we developed a Recovery College fidelity measure and a preliminary change model identifying the mechanisms of action and outcomes for this group, which we refer to as service user students. The Recovery Colleges Characterisation and Testing (RECOLLECT) study is a five-year (2020–2025) programme of research in England. The aim of RECOLLECT is to determine Recovery Colleges’ effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and identify organisational influences on fidelity and improvements in mental health outcomes. 
  • Mental health workers’ perspectives on peer support in high-, middle- and low income settings: a focus group study

    Charles, Ashleigh (2022)
    Peer support is increasingly acknowledged as an integral part of mental health services around the world. However, most research on peer support comes from high-income countries, with little attention to similarities and differences between different settings and how these affect implementation. Mental health workers have an important role to play in integrating formal peer support into statutory services, and their attitudes toward peer support can represent either a barrier to or facilitator of successful implementation. Thus, this study investigates mental health workers’ attitudes toward peer support across a range of high- (Germany, Israel), middle- (India), and low-income country (Tanzania, Uganda) settings.
  • ‘Maybe I shouldn’t talk’: The role of power in the telling of mental health recovery stories

    Llewellyn-Beardsley, Joy; Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan; Ali, Yasmin; Watson, Emma; Yeo, Caroline; Ng, Fiona; Slade, Mike (2022)
    Mental health ?recovery narratives? are increasingly used within teaching, learning and practice environments. The mainstreaming of their use has been critiqued by scholars and activists as a co-option of lived experience for organisational purposes. But how people report their experiences of telling their stories has not been investigated at scale. We present accounts from 71 people with lived experience of multiple inequalities of telling their stories in formal and informal settings. A reflexive thematic analysis was conducted within a critical constructivist approach. Our overarching finding was that questions of power were central to all accounts. Four themes were identified: (1) Challenging the status quo; (2) Risky consequences; (3) Producing ?acceptable? stories; (4) Untellable stories. We discuss how the concept of narrative power foregrounds inequalities in settings within which recovery stories are invited and co-constructed, and conclude that power imbalances complicate the seemingly benign act of telling stories of lived experience.
  • Self-help digital interventions targeted at improving psychological well-being in young people with perceived or clinically diagnosed reduced well-being: Systematic review

    Babbage, Camilla M.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Davies, E. Bethan; Nixon, Elena (2022)
    Background: Levels of well-being are declining, whereas rates of mental health problems remain high in young people. The World Health Organization defines mental health as not merely the absence of mental disorder but also includes social and psychological well-being as integral to positive mental health, highlighting that mental health is applicable to young people with mental health conditions and those without a diagnosis of a mental health condition. Reduced mental well-being have been identified in studies of young people with clinical populations, as well as in populations consisting of nonclinical young people. Self-help digital interventions can be delivered at mass at a low cost and without the need for trained input, thereby facilitating access to support for well-being. Self-help interventions are effective in young people with mental health conditions, but systematic reviews of such studies have been limited to randomized controlled trials, have not included reduced well-being as an inclusion criterion, and do not consider engagement factors such as retention. Objective: The objective of this study was to systematically review all controlled studies of digitally delivered, self-administered interventions for young people aged 9 to 25 years, with perceived or clinically diagnosed reduced psychological well-being. Participant retention and effectiveness of the interventions were also explored. Methods: A systematic search of the PsycInfo, EMBASE, Cochrane, Scopus, and MEDLINE databases from inception to 2021, reference searches of relevant papers, and gray literature was carried out for digitally controlled studies conducted with young people with perceived or clinically diagnosed reduced well-being, aimed at improving psychological well-being. Data were extracted to identify the effectiveness and retention rates of the interventions and the quality of the studies. Results: Overall, 1.04% (12/1153) of studies met the inclusion criteria: 83% (10/12) of studies were randomized controlled trials and 17% (2/12) were controlled pre-post studies. Most (6/12, 50%) studies aimed to improve symptoms of depression; 3 interventions aimed at both anxiety and depressive symptoms and 2 studies aimed at improving social functioning difficulties. Owing to the high risk of bias across interventions and lack of similar outcome measures, a meta-analysis was not conducted. Retention rates across studies were regarded as good, with moderate to high retention. Overall, the findings indicated that predominantly self-administered self-help interventions improved well-being in the areas targeted by the intervention and identified additional areas of well-being that were positively affected by interventions. Few interventions supported psychological well-being that was different from those used by young people with a clinical diagnosis of mental illness or young people from neurodiverse backgrounds. Conclusions: The findings, along with the advantages of self-help interventions, highlight the need for upscaling self-help interventions to better support vulnerable populations of young people who experience poor psychological well-being. Trial Registration: PROSPERO CRD42019129321;
  • Taking a position within powerful systems

    Coles, Steven (2022)
    Psychiatric diagnosis remains the dominant model for conceptualising mental health difficulties and psychological distress. Psychiatric discourses rooted in the biomedical and biopsychosocial models are structurally embedded within service design throughout the UK and determine service provision, access to help and support, research grants, and overwhelmingly shape policy and legislation. Within this socio-political context, clinical and community psychologists continue to develop alternative conceptual frameworks and practices to counter individualising and arguably pathologising constructs of disorder and mental illness. As practitioners become increasingly outwardly looking and focus efforts on changing the underlying socio-materialist conditions that shape psychological distress, the need to recalibrate clinical psychology to address inequality, discrimination and social injustice as a matter of course is irrevocable. For many psychologists working in organisations designed on the basis of diagnostic discourses, the question as to how one positions themselves in-line with pre-existing psychiatric practices is crucial. Does one integrate approaches or question and challenge these psychiatric practices more overtly? Alternatively, could clinical and community psychology achieve a more ethical and conceptually coherent practice through activism to protest against the dominance of psychiatric diagnosis? This chapter explores how clinical psychologists position themselves in contexts where psychiatric diagnosis is the prevailing mode of practice, and it then goes on to explore what lessons clinical psychology can learn from community psychology when it comes to questions of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: book)
  • An exploration of young people's experiences relating to stability and permanence throughout their care journey

    Woodall, Tamara; Browne, Kevin D.; Green, Kathleen; Majumder, Pallab (2022)
    Instability in the lives of young people in care is a public health concern. Placement moves and loss of relationships can have serious implications for young people's overall functioning, as well as their future life outcomes. Despite this, research often lacks the perspective and voice of young people in care. In this qualitative research, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to provide a deeper insight into young people's perceptions and beliefs about their care experiences to explore the impact of these on their ability to achieve a sense of stability and permanency across time. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six males from UK foster, residential and semi-independent care homes. The main themes highlighted young people's perceptions of their care environment, relationships with others, sense of self and future under the overarching issue of permanence. Policy and practice implications propose strategies to target instability at the micro-level and how that may facilitate positive outcomes. The study revealed insights that may be helpful for frontline professionals and highlight to policy makers the importance of ensuring environmental and relational stability. An awareness of attachment theory to implement effective caregiving, should be a priority for training parents, caregivers, professionals and policy makers.
  • Impact of clinical decision-making participation and satisfaction on outcomes in mental health practice: results from the CEDAR European longitudinal study

    Slade, Mike (2022)
    The present study aimed to assess: (1) whether a more active involvement of patients is associated with an improvement of clinical symptoms, global functioning, and quality-of-life; and (2) how patients’ satisfaction with clinical decisions can lead to better outcome after 1 year. Data were collected as part of the study ‘Clinical decision-making and outcome in routine care for people with severe mental illness (CEDAR)’, a longitudinal observational study, funded by the European Commission and carried out in six European countries. Patients’ inclusion criteria were: (a) aged between 18 and 60 years; (b) diagnosis of a severe mental illness of any kind according to the Threshold Assessment Grid (TAG) ≥ 5 and duration of illness ≥ 2 years; (c) expected contact with the local mental health service during the 12-month observation period; (d) adequate skills in the language of the host countries; and (e) the ability to provide written informed consent. The clinical decision-making styles of clinicians and the patient satisfaction with decisions were assessed using the Clinical Decision Making Style and the Clinical Decision Making Involvement and Satisfaction scales, respectively. Patients were assessed at baseline and 1 year after the recruitment. The sample consisted of 588 patients with severe mental illness, mainly female, with a mean age of 41.69 (±10.74) and a mean duration of illness of 12.5 (±9.27) years. The majority of patients were diagnosed with psychotic (45.75%) or affective disorders (34.01%). At baseline, a shared CDM style was preferred by 70.6% of clinicians and about 40% of patients indicated a high level of satisfaction with the decision and 31% a medium level of satisfaction. Higher participation in clinical decisions was associated with improved social functioning and quality-of-life, and reduced interpersonal conflicts, sense of loneliness, feelings of inadequacy, and withdrawal in friendships after 1 year (p < 0.05). Moreover, a higher satisfaction with decisions was associated with a better quality-of-life (p < 0.0001), reduced symptom severity (p < 0.0001), and a significantly lower illness burden associated with symptoms of distress (p < 0.0001), interpersonal difficulties (p < 0.0001), and problems in social roles (p < 0.05). Our findings clearly show that a higher involvement in and satisfaction of patients with clinical decision-making was associated with better outcomes. More efforts have to be made to increase the involvement of patients in clinical decision-making in routine care settings. © 2022 Institute of Psychiatry and Johns Hopkins University.
  • Posttraumatic growth and recovery among a sample of Egyptian mental health service users: a phenomenological study

    Ng, Fiona; Slade, Mike (2022)
    BACKGROUNDDelivery of recovery-oriented mental health practice is fundamental to personal recovery. Yet, there is lack of service users' accounts on what constitutes mental health recovery in Egypt.OBJECTIVESThe aim of this study was to explore mental health recovery meaning informed by people with personal experience of recovery.METHODSA phenomenological research design was used. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 adult community-dwelling individuals who identified as recovered/recovering from mental health issues. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to analyses participants' responses.RESULTSParticipants predominately reported personal and functional definitions of mental health recovery. Posttraumatic growth was the strongest theme comprising: relation to others, spirituality, new possibilities, identity & strengths, and appreciation of life. Themes of acceptance and forgiveness, functional and clinical recovery, and finding hope were also identified.CONCLUSIONSThis is the first study to explore mental health recovery meaning among a sample of people with lived experience of mental health issues in Egypt. Findings suggest that developing and implementing psychosocial interventions to support posttraumatic growth among people with mental health issues is a priority.
  • Character strength-focused positive psychotherapy on acute psychiatric wards: A feasibility and acceptability study

    Slade, Mike (2022)
    OBJECTIVEA manualized single-session positive psychotherapy intervention was developed and tested on acute psychiatric wards.METHODSParticipants were invited in 2018-2019 to identify positive experiences, link them to a personal character strength, and plan a strengths-based activity. The intervention's feasibility was evaluated through fidelity to session components, character strengths identification, and activity completion. Acceptability was evaluated with self-reported pre- and postsession mood ratings, a postsession helpfulness rating, and narrative feedback.RESULTSParticipants (N=70) had complex and severe mental health conditions. In 18 group sessions, 89% of components were delivered with fidelity; 80% of the participants identified a character strength, of whom 71% identified a strengths-based activity, and 58% completed the activity. The mean±SD helpfulness rating (N=23) was 8.5±1.5 (on a 10-point Likert scale), and positive mood significantly increased postsession (5.9 presession vs. 7.2 postsession).CONCLUSIONSPositive psychotherapy is feasible in challenging inpatient settings, and service users with severe and complex mental health conditions find it helpful.
  • Automated virtual reality cognitive therapy (gameChange) in inpatient psychiatric wards: Qualitative study of staff and patient views using an implementation framework

    Jones, Julia (2022)
    BACKGROUNDAutomated virtual reality (VR) therapy could allow a greater number of patients to receive evidence-based psychological therapy. The aim of the gameChange VR therapy is to help patients overcome anxious avoidance of everyday social situations. gameChange has been evaluated with outpatients, but it may also help inpatients prepare for discharge from psychiatric hospital.OBJECTIVEThe aim of this study is to explore the views of patients and staff on the provision of VR therapy on psychiatric wards.METHODSFocus groups or individual interviews were conducted with patients (n=19) and National Health Service staff (n=22) in acute psychiatric wards. Questions were derived from the nonadoption, abandonment, and challenges to the scale-up, spread, and sustainability framework. Expectations of VR therapy were discussed, and participants were then given the opportunity to try out the gameChange VR therapy before they were asked questions that focused on opinions about the therapy and feasibility of adoption.RESULTSThere was great enthusiasm for the use of gameChange VR therapy on psychiatric wards. It was considered that gameChange could help build confidence, reduce anxiety, and "bridge that gap" between the differences of being in hospital and being discharged to the community. However, it was reflected that the VR therapy may not suit everyone, especially if they are acutely unwell. VR on hospital wards for entertainment and relaxation was also viewed positively. Participants were particularly impressed by the immersive quality of gameChange and the virtual coach. It was considered that a range of staff groups could support VR therapy delivery. The staff thought that implementation would be facilitated by having a lead staff member, having ongoing training accessible, and involving the multidisciplinary team in decision-making for VR therapy use. The most significant barrier to implementation identified by patients and staff was a practical one: access to sufficient, private space to provide the therapy.CONCLUSIONSPatients and staff were keen for VR to be used on psychiatric wards. In general, patients and staff viewed automated VR therapy as possible to implement within current care provision, with few significant barriers other than constraints of space. Patients and staff thought of many further uses of VR on psychiatric wards. The value of VR therapy on psychiatric wards now requires systematic evaluation.INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID)RR2-10.2196/20300.
  • Typology of content warnings and trigger warnings: Systematic review

    Charles, Ashleigh; Hare-Duke, Laurie; Nudds, Hannah; Llewellyn-Beardsley, Joy; Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan; Ng, Fiona; Yeo, Caroline; Slade, Mike (2022)
    Content and trigger warnings give information about the content of material prior to receiving it. Different typologies of content warnings have emerged across multiple sectors, including health, social media, education and entertainment. Benefits arising from their use are contested, with recent empirical evidence from educational sectors suggesting they may raise anxiety and reinforce the centrality of trauma experience to identity, whilst benefits relate to increased individual agency in making informed decisions about engaging with content. Research is hampered by the absence of a shared inter-sectoral typology of warnings. The aims of this systematic review are to develop a typology of content warnings and to identify the contexts in which content warnings are used. The review was pre-registered (ID: CRD42020197687, URL: and used five sources: electronic databases covering multiple sectors (n = 19); table of contents from multi-sectoral journals (n = 5), traditional and social media websites (n = 53 spanning 36 countries); forward and backward citation tracking; and expert consultation (n = 15). In total, 6,254 documents were reviewed for eligibility and 136 documents from 32 countries were included. These were synthesised to develop the Narrative Experiences Online (NEON) content warning typology, which comprises 14 domains: Violence, Sex, Stigma, Disturbing content, Language, Risky behaviours, Mental health, Death, Parental guidance, Crime, Abuse, Socio-political, Flashing lights and Objects. Ten sectors were identified: Education, Audio-visual industries, Games and Apps, Media studies, Social sciences, Comic books, Social media, Music, Mental health, and Science and Technology. Presentation formats (n = 15) comprised: education materials, film, games, websites, television, books, social media, verbally, print media, apps, radio, music, research, DVD/video and policy document. The NEON content warning typology provides a framework for consistent warning use and specification of key contextual information (sector, presentation format, target audience) in future content warning research, allowing personalisation of content warnings and investigation of global sociopolitical trends over time.
  • Impact of receiving recorded mental health recovery narratives on quality of life in people experiencing non-psychosis mental health problems (NEON-O Trial): updated randomised controlled trial protocol

    Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan; Newby, Christopher; Slade, Mike (2022)
    Mental health recovery narratives are first-person lived experience accounts of recovery from mental health problems, which refer to events or actions over a period of time, and which include elements of adversity or struggle, and also self-defined or observable strengths, successes, or survival. Recorded recovery narratives are those presented in invariant form, including text, audio, or video. In a previous publication, we presented a protocol for three pragmatic trials of the Narrative Experiences Online (NEON) Intervention, a web application recommending recorded recovery narratives to participants. The aim of the definitive NEON Trial was to understand whether the NEON Intervention benefitted people with experience of psychosis. The aim of the smaller NEON-O and NEON-C trials was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting definitive trials of the NEON Intervention with people (1) experiencing non-psychosis mental health problems and (2) who informally care for others experiencing mental health problems.
  • A nationwide evaluation study of the quality of care and respect of human rights in mental health facilities in Ghana: results from the World Health Organization QualityRights initiative

    Orrell, Martin (2022)
    BACKGROUND: In 2012, Ghana ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and enacted a Mental Health Act to improve the quality of mental health care and stop human rights violations against people with mental health conditions. In line with these objectives, Ghanaian stakeholders collected data on the quality of mental health services and respect for human rights in psychiatric facilities to identify challenges and gather useful information for the development of plans aimed to improve the quality of the services offered. This study aimed to assess psychiatric facilities from different Ghanaian regions and provide evidence on the quality of care and respect of human rights in mental health services. METHODS: Assessments were conducted by independent visiting committees that collected data through observation, review of documentation, and interviews with service users, staff, and carers, and provided scores using the World Health Organization QualityRights Toolkit methodology. RESULTS: This study revealed significant key challenges in the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities principles in Ghanaian psychiatric services. The rights to an adequate standard of living and enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health were not fully promoted. Only initial steps had been taken to guarantee the right to exercise legal capacity and the right to personal liberty and security. Significant gaps in the promotion of the right to live independently and be included in the community were identified. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies shortcomings and critical areas that the Ghanaian government and facilities need to target for implementing a human rights-based approach in mental health and improve the quality of mental health care throughout the country.
  • Limitations of the new ISO standard for health and wellness apps

    Craven, Michael P.; Dening, Tom (2022)
    Software apps for health and wellness are proliferating rapidly.1 Policy makers, health-care providers, and consumers can benefit from assessment and standardisation of these apps, to support decision making in a rapidly developing field. Recognising this unmet need, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published a standard in July, 2021, with the purpose of defining a framework for quality assessment and labelling of health apps.2 The framework defined by the standard comprises four subscales: healthy and safe, easy to use, secure data, and robust build, with corresponding questions and proposed evidence standards for those seeking to evaluate the apps in question. However, we fear that, in its current form, the standard could stigmatise some app users and worsen inequalities in access to digital health technologies.
  • The utility of patient-reported outcome measures in mental health

    Slade, Mike (2022)
    For decades, clinician-rated outcome measures have been the central source of data informing clinical practice and policy. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) more directly assess the lived experiences of service users, capturing their perspectives on their health status and essential subjective constructs such as goal attainment, quality of life and social inclusion. Patient reported experience measures (PREMs) assess their experiences of using health services, including communication, responsiveness and recovery orientation.
  • A multi-national peer support intervention: the UPSIDES pilot phase

    Charles, Ashleigh; Slade, Mike (2022)
    Objective: Using Peer Support in Developing Empowering Mental Health Services (UPSIDES) is evaluating implementation of a peer support worker (PSW) intervention at six recruiting sites (Germany, India, Israel, Tanzania, and Uganda) (ISRCTN26008944). The aim of this study is to evaluate the pre-trial pilot phase. Method: The initial training to prepare individuals for the PSW role and the implementation of the peer support (PS) intervention was evaluated using a multi-method design comprising six focus groups (FG; n = 22) and questionnaires capturing the perspectives of service users, PSWs, peer trainers, and mental health staff members (n = 21). Results: Findings were organised across eleven key implementation themes: organisational culture, PSW training, PSW role definition, staff willingness and ability to work with PSWs, resource availability, financial arrangements, support for PSW well-being, PSW access to a peer network, acceptance, preparation, and other challenges. Discussion: The following recommendations are made, based on this pilot phase: the PS training should train on practical skills using role-playing exercises; PSWs should work in teams, including role reflection with colleagues (intervision) or with a highly experienced coach (supervision); necessary resources and tools for networking should be provided; and continuous awareness-raising about PS is needed. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Youth mental health: risks and opportunities in the digital world

    Hollis, Chris P. (2022)
    McGorry et al1 present a call to action to redesign youth mental health care and conceptualize youth psychiatry as a distinct discipline. Their proposed framework for youth mental health care contains four key elements: a) a focus on prevention and early intervention, with youth mental health services embedded in primary care and community settings; b) services co-designed with young people to be accessible, engaging and destigmatizing; c) blending the benefits of digital technology, to provide accessibility and scale, with human online and face-to-face support to promote youth engagement; d) extending the age boundary of youth mental health provision to cover the period of extended brain maturation in the “new adolescence” and the peak risk period of onset of mental disorders up to age 25.
  • How do recorded mental health recovery narratives create connection and improve hopefulness?

    Ng, Fiona; Newby, Christopher; Llewellyn-Beardsley, Joy; Yeo, Caroline; Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan; Slade, Mike (2022)
    BACKGROUNDMental health recovery narratives are an active ingredient of recovery-oriented interventions such as peer support. Recovery narratives can create connection and hope, but there is limited evidence on the predictors of impact.AIMSThe aim of this study was to identify characteristics of the narrator, narrative content and participant which predict the short-term impact of recovery narratives on participants.METHODIndependent studies were conducted in an experimental (n = 40) and a clinical setting (n = 13). In both studies, participants with mental health problems received recorded recovery narratives and rated impact on hopefulness and connection. Predictive characteristics were identified using multi-level modelling.RESULTSThe experimental study found that narratives portraying a narrator as living well with mental health problems that is intermediate between no and full recovery, generated higher self-rated levels of hopefulness. Participants from ethnic minority backgrounds had lower levels of connection with narrators compared to participants from a white background, potentially due to reduced visibility of a narrator's diversity characteristics.CONCLUSIONSNarratives describing partial but not complete recovery and matching on ethnicity may lead to a higher impact. Having access to narratives portraying a range of narrator characteristics to maximise the possibility of a beneficial impact on connection and hopefulness.
  • INCRESE: Development of an inventory to characterize recorded mental health recovery narratives

    Llewellyn-Beardsley, Joy; Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan; Ng, Fiona; Hui, Ada; Deakin, Emilia; Hare-Duke, Laurie; Slade, Mike (2020)
    ObjectiveMental health recovery narratives are increasingly used in clinical practice, public health campaigns, and as directly-accessed online resources. No instrument exists to describe characteristics of individual recovery narratives. The aims were to develop and evaluate an inventory to characterize recorded recovery narratives.Research Design and MethodsA preliminary version of the Inventory of Characteristics of Recovery Stories (INCRESE) was generated from an existing theory-base. Feasibility and acceptability were evaluated by two coders each rating 30 purposively-selected narratives. A refined version was produced and a formal evaluation conducted. Reliability was assessed by four coders each rating 95 purposively-selected narratives. Inter-coder reliability was assessed using Fleiss's kappa coefficients; test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs).ResultsMultiple refinements to description, coding categories, and language were made. Data completeness was high, and no floor or ceiling effects were found. Intercoder reliability ranged from moderate (k=0.58) to perfect (k=1.00) agreement. Test-retest reliability ranged from moderate (ICC=0.57) to complete (ICC=1.00) agreement. The final INCRESE comprises 77 items spanning five sections: Narrative Eligibility; Narrative Mode; Narrator Characteristics; Narrative Characteristics; Narrative Content.ConclusionINCRESE is the first evaluated tool to characterize mental health recovery narratives. It addresses current concerns around normative recovery narratives being used to promote compulsory wellness, e.g. by identifying narratives that reject diagnosis as an explanatory model and those with non-upward trajectories. INCRESE can be used to establish the diversity of a narrative collection and will be used in the NEON trials (ISRCTN11152837, ISRCTN63197153, ISRCTN76355273) to allow a recommender system to match narratives to participants.
  • How effective is group intervention in the treatment of unaccompanied and accompanied refugee minors with mental health difficulties: A systematic review

    Majumder, Pallab (2021)
    Background:Unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) are at significantly higher risk of trauma exposure and mental illness. Research examining the most effective treatments for this population is limited.Aims:To study the available research evidence on outcomes from various group interventions in this population. The objective is to investigate if these can be used clinically in future interventions.Methods:Systematic review was carried out for patient outcomes where group therapy was used as treatment in URM. Studies with ARM (Accompanied refugee minors) were included because of similarities between these groups and because many studies were mixed population.Results:Seventeen papers met eligibility criteria with a total of N?=?1,119 participants. About 80% studies with a quantitative component reported improvements, and 69% of the studies that carried out statistical analyses reported statistically significant improvements in mental health symptoms. Every qualitative measure reported positive outcome for the participants. Studies with URM tended to show improved outcomes more often than studies exclusively with ARM.Conclusions:The evidence demonstrates the efficacy of group therapy in improving mental health outcomes, although the number of studies with robust methodology is small. Group intervention has potential to improve engagement and outcomes of URM with mental illness. Future direction for research is discussed.

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