• Aspects of group therapy

      Kennard, David (1991)
      Most publications in 1990 dealt with the application of group therapy to particular problems or populations - notably child sexual abuse, eating disorders and the elderly. Few developments occurred in the study of group process and its links with outcome. The field has polarized into short-term structured groups and longer term process-oriented groups.
    • The sociosexual needs of people with a mental handicap: The development of a structure for discussion

      Jones, Jo; Kitson, Deborah (1991)
      A format is presented for the discussion and assessment of the sociosexual needs of an individual living in a residential setting. It has a three-fold purpose: firstly to focus on interpersonal skills and sexuality, particularly during the preparation of individual programme plans, and highlighting areas where help is required; secondly to heighten direct care staff's awareness of clients' sociosexual needs; thirdly to consider their social environment. It is at an early stage of development and is put forward here as a pilot project which might be adapted for use in a variety of situations and developed by other workers. It is not presented as a comprehensive tool for assessment but a means of exploring the dynamics of the situation.
    • Milieu and Mutilation - A case for special treatment?

      Larkin, Emmet P. (1992)
      Special hospitals are principally concerned with the treatment of patients of dangerous, violent or criminal propensities referred from the courts and prisons. However, patients can be transferred from local NHS hospitals. The case of one such patient illustrates the potential benefits of such a transfer, even for patients who are not of immediate danger to others.
    • Psychiatric aspects of temporal arteritis: A case report and review of the literature

      Johnson, Hazel; Bouman, Walter P.; Pinner, Gill (1997)
      Temporal arteritis may present with atypical manifestations that can hamper its diagnosis. This article reports a case presenting with predominantly psychiatric symptoms including psychotic features and affective symptoms both on a background of cognitive impairment. Such clear-cut psychotic symptoms have not been described previously in the literature. Corticosteroid treatment was followed by full remission of psychotic and affective symptoms; treatment with antipsychotic medication was unnecessary. Temporal arteritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychosis and affective disorder in the elderly. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a valuable parameter in the assessment of old-age psychiatry patients presenting both with functional and neurologic disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Critical issues in clinical practice

      Clegg, Jennifer (1998)
      Are professionals really self-serving individuals pretenting to be altruistic? If ethics are the guarantor of good practice in a post-scientific age, how can we recognize and train the ethical practitioner? What models of practice will be useful in the future? Critical issues in clinical practice explores the confusions postmodernism generates, identifying contemporary concerns in clinical practice and seeking responses to current questions. The authors sets an agenda for all researchers in clincial psychology seeking key topics and themes - an agenda that promises clarity to practitioners bludgeoned by the rapid turnover of ideas that is postmodern culture. It challenges both researchers and practitioners to reach beyond the celebration of diversity, using it to construct new alliances and purpose. This volume will be essential reading for clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, nurses and speech therapists.
    • Beyond ethical individualism

      Clegg, Jennifer (2000)
      Contemporary ethical debate about clinical practice centers primarily on the individual resolution of dilemmas, an approach which is incompatible with the social constructionist focus on human interdependence. Many constructionists argue that virtue ethics (VE) offers a more useful perspective on ethics than either consequentialism or deontology. From this perspective, the purpose of ethics is not to specify the right act in a particular situation, but to understand ethical and unethical practices conceptually, i.e. how these are learned, and how these contribute to and develop the ethical life in an ethical environment. Criticisms of VE are considered alongside discussion of its implications for clinical practice with people who have intellectual disability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Fitness to be interviewed and psychological vulnerability: The views of doctors, lawyers and police officers

      Hayes, Gwilym D. (2000)
      Forensic medical examiners, psychiatrists and clinical psychologists are increasingly being asked to evaluate police detainees' fitness for interview. The aim of the present study was to further our understanding of the psychological factors that are considered important by the relevant professional groups in this evaluation process. Consultant psychiatrists, forensic medical examiners, lawyers and police officers rated the importance of detainees' psychological vulnerabilities in terms of fitness for interview. Those most commonly identified were: confusion and disorientation, withdrawing from heroin, communication problems, a paranoid belief, and not seeming to understand simple questions. In contrast, claiming amnesia, depression and appearing suggestible and eager to please were not factors that respondents thought rendered the detainees unfit for interview. Among all groups, there appeared to be a view that an appropriate adult (AA) and a solicitor could be used interchangeably, and rarely were both seen as needed. Clearer guidelines regarding psychological vulnerabilities and the role of the appropriate adult are needed.
    • A bail and probation hostel for mentally disordered defendants

      Geelan, Steve (2000)
      Elliott House is the only specialized approved bail and probation hostel for mentally disordered men in the UK. It was established as a partnership between the West Midlands probation service and the forensic psychiatry services based at the Reaside Clinic. We report on the evaluation of this facility. Comprehensive social and psychiatric data were collected on all those residents between August 1994 and April 1996. The reason for leaving the hostel was also recorded. During the study period, 83 men completed a period of residence. Of these men, 47% had a psychotic illness. Deliberate self-harm was a significant problem in 13%. Only 4% reoffended whilst resident at the hostel. The condition of residency was breached by 41%. Departure was a result of a normal bail variation for 22% and of admission to hospital for 11%. Elliott House is a successful national resource, attracting residents with major mental disorders. A key principle of the recent White Paper is that the NHS will work in partnership with other agencies to put the needs of patients at the centre of the care process. The hostel demonstrates that a close partnership between separately managed agencies can successfully deliver care to a previously deprived group.
    • Fiction, poetry and mental health: Expressive and therapeutic uses of literature

      McArdle, Shane; Byrt, Richard (2001)
      People with experience as mental health clients, mental health nurses, writers and other professionals have used literature to benefit mental health service users in various ways. These include expressive writing, as well as applications in psychotherapy and counselling and to deal with specific problems and symptoms. In addition, therapeutic story-telling, bibliotherapy and poetry therapy have been used. Various benefits have been described, but some accounts do not include evidence of clinical effectiveness. However, positive treatment outcomes have been reported in research papers and other literature, with particular evidence of clinical effectiveness in some studies of bibliotherapy, therapeutic writing and poetry therapy. Further work is needed to clarify and measure the effectiveness of various expressive and therapeutic uses of literature. The authors also recommend collaboration among practitioners and the need for supporting evidence for proposals for increased resources in this field.;
    • Mental health professionals' attitudes toward and knowledge of electroconvulsive therapy

      Lutchman, Russell D. (2001)
      The efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been established, yet widespread negative public attitudes towards the procedure remain. Little research has been carried out into the attitudes towards and knowledge of ECT among mental health staff of different disciplines. Method: Two hundred and sixty-eight staff from four mental health disciplines (psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses and social workers) were sent the Questionnaire on Attitudes and Knowledge of ECT (QuAKE) and asked about demographic details. Attitudes and knowledge were compared by discipline and the results analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The response rate was 74% (n=198). The questionnaire revealed significant differences in attitudes to and knowledge of the therapy between the four disciplines, with psychiatrists being most favourably disposed and most knowledgeable, followed by nurses, social workers and psychologists. The attitudes scale was shown to have good internal consistency and split-half reliability. Conclusion: Discipline is an accurate predictor of attitudes towards ECT. There is a need for awareness of differences of opinion towards the treatment in multidisciplinary teams, as well as for better education about ECT for all members of the clinical team.
    • Feminist conceptualizations of women's madness: A review of the literature

      Wright, Nicola (2001)
      Background: Gender is one aspect of an individual's identity that has been widely debated and discussed in relation to many different aspects of social life. The literature review explores how gender stereotypes affect women and their experience of mental illness. The aim is to demonstrate how a feminist perspective provides a useful lens through which women's experience of mental illness can be viewed.; Methods: The papers were identified by a computerized search of the CINAHL, Medline, BIDS ISI and Mental Health Nursing Collection databases and a hand search. All papers were screened and subjected to critical review.; Results: A theoretical framework was developed that reflected two key themes to emerge from the feminist literature on women and mental illness, namely psychiatry as a method of socially controlling women and the medicalization of women's unhappiness. In addition the complexities and contradictions in the feminist arguments are highlighted.; Conclusion: The paper concludes by considering the implications of the issues raised for nursing practice by drawing attention to the current debates on the need to focus on gender relations rather than just on women's issues.;
    • Research as an extended group phenomenon: Is 'hard science' a sexual metaphor?

      Evans, Chris (2001)
      The article 'The Group Conductor and Group Research - Ethical, Conceptual and Technical Problems' (Group Analysis, December 2000) by Birgitt Balhausen-Scharf and Gerhard Rudnitzki is approached as a description of research as a group analysable experience, and hence, though perhaps not generally seen that way, as something for which group analysts have pertinent and specific skills, particularly in the field of 'dynamic administration'. Their article describes the authors' departure from what they see as a largely flawed, perhaps failed, research group experience. In some ways it reflects that group experience, showing some lack of clarity about gross numbers and in the diagrammatic simplifications offered, also in possibly suggesting some idealizing (and fearful) projective views of research, or of outcome research, may have been held by the researchers. On the positive side, the article gives a very clear depiction of how easily well-intentioned research efforts can go astray, and how being involved in research can impinge on group conductors' and patients' conscious and unconscious experience of groups. Some reasons for the experience having taken the shape it did, and some wider, more positive views of the potential for the group-analytic world to embrace research more confidently and creatively are offered.
    • Mentally disordered firesetters: A structured intervention programme

      Swaffer, Tracey; Haggett, Mick; Oxley, Tanith (2001)
      Although there has been a fairly substantial focus in previous research upon understanding the characteristic of firesetters and incidents of firesetting; there is a dearth of published studies that focus upon treatment strategies for use with mentally disordered firesetters. The current research rectifies this shortfall by describing the development and content of a firesetting treatment package, designed for use with individuals who have a mental disorder. Wherever possible, the reported features of the package are ground in the previous published research. Issues concerning evaluation of this type of therapeutic work are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)