Recent Submissions

  • Characterization of hemodynamic alterations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and their effect on resting-state fMRI functional connectivity

    Liddle, Peter F. (2021)
    Common and distinct neural bases of Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) have been explored using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) functional connectivity (FC). However, fMRI is an indirect measure of neural activity, which is a convolution of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) and latent neural activity. The HRF, which models neurovascular coupling, varies across the brain within and across individuals, and is altered in many psychiatric disorders. Given this background, this study had three aims: quantifying HRF aberrations in SZ and BP, measuring the impact of such HRF aberrations on FC group differences, and exploring the genetic basis of HRF aberrations. We estimated voxel-level HRFs by deconvolving rs-fMRI data obtained from SZ (N = 38), BP (N = 19), and matched healthy controls (N = 35). We identified HRF group differences (P < .05, FDR corrected) in many regions previously implicated in SZ/BP, with mediodorsal, habenular, and central lateral nuclei of the thalamus exhibiting HRF differences in all pairwise group comparisons. Thalamus seed-based FC analysis revealed that ignoring HRF variability results in false-positive and false-negative FC group differences, especially in insula, superior frontal, and lingual gyri. HRF was associated with DRD2 gene expression (P < .05, 1.62 < |Z| < 2.0), as well as with medication dose (P < .05, 1.75 < |Z| < 3.25). In this first study to report HRF aberrations in SZ and BP, we report the possible modulatory effect of dopaminergic signalling on HRF, and the impact that HRF variability can have on FC studies in clinical samples. To mitigate the impact of HRF variability on FC group differences, we suggest deconvolution during data preprocessing.
  • Post-traumatic growth in psychosis: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

    Ng, Fiona; Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan; Newby, Christopher; Hare-Duke, Laurie; Llewellyn-Beardsley, Joy; Yeo, Caroline; Slade, Mike (2021)
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVEPeople with psychosis report experiences of highly traumatic events. Positive change or post-traumatic growth (PTG) can occur as a result of traumatic experiences. Yet there is limited attention on PTG in psychosis, possibly due to the negative impact of psychotic symptoms on functioning and quality of life. The aim of this review was to identify significant correlates and mediators of PTG in psychosis, and to develop a conceptual framework synthesising facilitators of PTG in psychosis.METHODTen electronic databases were searched in seven languages, and five journals and grey literature were searched in English. Quantitative studies were eligible if examining correlates, mediators, or the temporal relationship between PTG and one or more variables. Qualitative studies were eligible if describing PTG arising from experiences of psychosis. Findings from quantitative papers were grouped by analysis method, with significant correlates, mediators, and temporal relationships descriptively reported upon. Narrative synthesis was conducted on findings in qualitative papers.RESULTSThirty-seven papers were included. Significant correlates and mediators of PTG were identified. Mediators of PTG in psychosis included meaning in life, coping self-efficacy, core beliefs, and self-reported recovery. No studies describing the temporal relationship between PTG and psychosis were identified. The narrative synthesis identified seven facilitators of PTG in psychosis: Personal identity and strength, Receiving support, Opportunities and possibilities, Strategies for coping, Perspective shift, Emotional experience, and Relationships, giving the acronym PROSPER.CONCLUSIONSIndividuals with psychosis can be supported to grow from traumatic experiences. Clinicians can support PTG through the provision of trauma-informed care that supports positively valued identity changes. For researchers, the findings provide an evidence-based theoretical framework for conceptualising PTG, which can be validated through longitudinal cohort studies and underpin the development of new clinical interventions.
  • The relationships between childhood abuse and neglect, sub-clinical symptoms of psychosis and self-harm in a non-clinical community sample

    Green, Kathleen; Webster, Anthony (2021)
    There is now substantial evidence that childhood adverse events are a significant risk factor for symptoms of psychosis in both clinical and community samples. Both childhood trauma and positive symptoms of psychosis are associated with an increased risk of self-harming behaviours. Therefore the current study aimed to consider the relationship between retrospective reports of childhood adversity, sub-clinical positive symptoms of psychosis and self-harm in a non-clinical community sample. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design, distributed online. Participants were asked to complete psychometric assessments relating to: demographic characteristics including past-year substance misuse; childhood adversity; sub-clinical symptoms of psychosis (delusions and hallucinations) and self-harming behaviours. The results found that, after controlling for substance misuse, childhood adversity predicted significant variance in sub-clinical delusions and hallucinations in the general population. Both symptoms of psychosis and childhood adversity increased the risk of self-harming behaviours. Positive symptoms partially mediated the relationship between early adversity and self-harming behaviours. For some people, the sequelae of early adversity including sub-clinical delusions and hallucinations may increase the risk of self-harming behaviours. Future research would benefit from considering the role of dissociation in these relationships and the affective impact of pseudo-psychotic experiences. Practitioners should consider the impact of childhood adversity, unusual perceptual experiences and distorted beliefs when working with people who self-harm. The current research was limited by the cross-sectional survey design and non-random sampling methodology.
  • Psychoses in global context: Do not forget the Muslim world

    Sami, Musa (2021)
    Comment: I wish to congratulate Craig Morgan and colleagues1 on their ambitious proposal to set up a Lancet Psychiatry Commission on Psychoses in Global Context. The Commission has an opportunity to remedy an important oversight among psychosis researchers and policy makers: the often neglected plight of Muslim populations struggling with mental illness.
  • Development and validation of a nonremission risk prediction model in first-episode psychosis: An analysis of 2 longitudinal studies

    Liddle, Peter F. (2021)
    Psychosis is a major mental illness with first onset in young adults. The prognosis is poor in around half of the people affected, and difficult to predict. The few tools available to predict prognosis have major weaknesses which limit their use in clinical practice. We aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model of symptom nonremission in first-episode psychosis. Our development cohort consisted of 1027 patients with first-episode psychosis recruited between 2005 and 2010 from 14 early intervention services across the National Health Service in England. Our validation cohort consisted of 399 patients with first-episode psychosis recruited between 2006 and 2009 from a further 11 English early intervention services. The one-year nonremission rate was 52% and 54% in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop a risk prediction model for nonremission, which was externally validated. The prediction model showed good discrimination C-statistic of 0.73 (0.71, 0.75) and adequate calibration with intercept alpha of 0.12 (0.02, 0.22) and slope beta of 0.98 (0.85, 1.11). Our model improved the net-benefit by 15% at a risk threshold of 50% compared to the strategy of treating all, equivalent to 15 more detected nonremitted first-episode psychosis individuals per 100 without incorrectly classifying remitted cases. Once prospectively validated, our first episode psychosis prediction model could help identify patients at increased risk of nonremission at initial clinical contact.
  • The clinical relevance of formal thought disorder in the early stages of psychosis: results from the PRONIA study

    Liddle, Peter F. (2021)
    BACKGROUNDFormal thought disorder (FTD) has been associated with more severe illness courses and functional deficits in patients with psychotic disorders. However, it remains unclear whether the presence of FTD characterises a specific subgroup of patients showing more prominent illness severity, neurocognitive and functional impairments. This study aimed to identify stable and generalizable FTD-subgroups of patients with recent-onset psychosis (ROP) by applying a comprehensive data-driven clustering approach and to test the validity of these subgroups by assessing associations between this FTD-related stratification, social and occupational functioning, and neurocognition.METHODS279 patients with ROP were recruited as part of the multi-site European PRONIA study (Personalised Prognostic Tools for Early Psychosis Management; Five FTD-related symptoms (conceptual disorganization, poverty of content of speech, difficulty in abstract thinking, increased latency of response and poverty of speech) were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS).RESULTSThe results with two patient subgroups showing different levels of FTD were the most stable and generalizable clustering solution (predicted clustering strength value = 0.86). FTD-High subgroup had lower scores in social (pfdr < 0.001) and role (pfdr < 0.001) functioning, as well as worse neurocognitive performance in semantic (pfdr < 0.001) and phonological verbal fluency (pfdr < 0.001), short-term verbal memory (pfdr = 0.002) and abstract thinking (pfdr = 0.010), in comparison to FTD-Low group.CONCLUSIONSClustering techniques allowed us to identify patients with more pronounced FTD showing more severe deficits in functioning and neurocognition, thus suggesting that FTD may be a relevant marker of illness severity in the early psychosis pathway.
  • Audit on clozapine dose and plasma level correlation for patients with chronic treatment-resistant psychosis

    Macnamara, Olivia; Lawton, John D.; Lankappa, Sudheer (2021)
    Aims Clozapine is associated with a risk of severe adverse events for which there are current monitoring systems are in place; however, there are no established regimens for monitoring of clozapine plasma levels. Recent Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) guidance advises clozapine levels should be monitored in certain clinical situations where toxicity may be suspected. This audit aimed to evaluate current practice of clozapine level monitoring within one Local Mental Health Team (LMHT). Method Electronic (RiO) records of 41 patients (33 male, 8 female; aged from 27 to 76 years; mean age 45 years) registered to the ZTAS system within the Nottingham City Central LMHT were reviewed. 46% had been on clozapine for over 16 years. 73.3% of patients were within clusters 12 and 13; 25.4% of patients were in cluster 11, with one patient in cluster 8. Dates of clozapine plasma level tests for each patient between 2006 and 2020 were found on the electronic NoTIS system, along with clozapine, norclozapine and total clozapine levels. Concurrent clozapine dose and regimens were obtained from pharmacy records from 2018 onwards. Result 273 clozapine plasma levels were conducted between 2006 and 2020. The average interval between levels taken was 10 months, 2 weeks but had a wide range, the shortest interval being 2 days, the longest being 13 years. 88 levels taken were >600 ug/L, suggesting increased toxicity risk. 108 levels were <350 ug/L, suggesting possible sub-optimal dosing or non-compliance. Statistical tests on correlation coefficient, although statistically non-significant (R = 0.37), showed a positive trend between total clozapine dose and the plasma level between all 3 parameters (i.e. clozapine, norclozapine and total clozapine). Conclusion There does not appear to be any routine plasma clozapine level monitoring throughout the LMHT with an average interval between tests of 10 months. There was a non-significant but positive trend between total daily dose of clozapine and clozapine level. 32% of clozapine levels returned were higher than the recommended level. We would recommend as suggested in the guidelines from MHRA, clozapine plasma levels should be monitored in certain clinical situations with increased toxicity risk. Trough levels should be taken with records of time of previous dose taken. Limitations of this study included a small sample size (41 patients) with data collection reliant on electronic systems. It was unclear if these results represent trough levels, making values difficult to interpret. Multifactorial impact on clozapine metabolism causes wide patient variability in plasma levels.
  • Quantfying the disorganization and the core deficit in classical schizophrenia

    Rathnaiah, Mohanbabu; Faruqi, Catherine; Kelly, Christina; Gill, Malkeet (2021)
    Aims To derive scores for mental disorganization and impoverishment from commonly used rating scales, and test the hypothesis that disorganization and impoverishment, along with impaired cognition and role-function reflect a latent variable that is a plausible candidate for the putative core deficit. Background For more than 100 years, disorganization and impoverishment of mental activity have been recognised as fundamental symptoms of schizophrenia. These symptoms may reflect a core brain process underlying persisting disability. Delusions and hallucinations have been regarded as accessory features. The psychopathological processes predisposing to persisting disability in schizophrenia are poorly understood. The delineation of a core deficit underlying persisting disability would be potentially of great value in predicting outcome and developing improved treatment. Method Patients aged 18–55 years were included if: they satisfied DSM IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Healthy controls were recruited by public advertisement and selected to match the patient group in age and sex. Study sample included 39 participants with schizophrenia, 1 with schizoaffective disorder and 44 matched healthy controls. We derived disorganization and impoverishment scores from three symptom scales: PANSS, SSPI and CASH. We computed composite scores for disorganization and for impoverishment and employed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to test the hypothesis that a single factor accounts for the relationships between disorganization, impoverishment, cognitive impairment and impaired role function. We assessed the relationship between this latent “core deficit” and diminished Post Movement Beta Rebound (PMBR), an electrophysiological measure from Magnetoencephalography (MEG), associated with persisting brain disorders. Result Fit indices for the single factor model from CFA indicated a good fit: χ2(2) = 1.817, p = .403; RMSEA <.001 GFI = .979. PMBR was significantly reduced in the schizophrenia group compared to healthy controls, t (68) = 3.55, p < .001. Within the patient group, PMBR was significantly and negatively correlated with the CFA factor scores representing the Core Deficit score, r=−.543, p < .01, indicating that high core deficit scores were associated with reduced PMBR. PMBR was significantly correlated with the composite Disorganization score, r=−.521, p < .001. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the shared variance between impoverishment (psychomotor poverty); disorganization; cognitive impairment; and impaired role function can be accounted for by a latent variable that can reasonably be described as the core deficit of classical schizophrenia. The demonstration that the severity of the putative core deficit is correlated with the reduction in PMBR provides evidence that the core deficit is associated with an identifiable abnormality of brain dysfunction.
  • Oxidative stress and the pathophysiology and symptom profile of schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Katshu, Mohammad Z.; Liddle, Peter F. (2021)
    Schizophrenia is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress, as reflected by an increase in the concentrations of damaging reactive species and a reduction in anti-oxidant defences to combat them. Evidence has suggested that whilst not the likely primary cause of schizophrenia, increased oxidative stress may contribute to declining course and poor outcomes associated with schizophrenia. Here we discuss how oxidative stress may be implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia and examine how current understanding relates associations with symptoms, potentially via lipid peroxidation induced neuronal damage. We argue that oxidative stress may be a good target for future pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia and suggest a multi-step model of illness progression with oxidative stress involved at each stage.
  • Acute psychotic presentation in syphilis-the great imitator is back

    Katshu, Mohammad Z. (2021)
    In the late 19th and the early 20th century, general paresis of the insane, as it was known historically, or neurosyphilis was a common cause of new-onset psychosis. Symptomatic neurosyphilis was reported in 10-20% patients with syphilis (Singh & Romanowski 1999). The widespread use of penicillin resulted in a marked reduction in syphilis (Kim 1965). Towards the end of the 20th century, syphilis was considered a rare disease and its relevance in clinical training and practice in general, and in neuropsychiatric settings in particular, diminished (Ropper 2019). Unfortunately, there has been a global resurgence of syphilis over the past decade. In England, between 2010 and 2019, the number of newly diagnosed syphilis patients increased from 2646 to 7982 (Mitchell et al. 2020). A similar increase from 45844 to 115045 was observed in the USA between 2010 and 2018 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2019). Despite these increasing numbers, the clinical interest in syphilis, known for its protean manifestations earning the name of the 'great imitator', remains low.
  • Z Factor: Drama as a tool to tackle mental health stigma: study design and protocol for community and public engagement in rural Zimbabwe

    Wright, Nicola; O'Regan, Eileen (2021)
    Background: Mental health is slowly gaining global significance as a key health issue, yet the stigma attached to psychosis is still a major problem. There has been little in-depth exploration of sustainable, cost-effective, and replicable community engagement strategies that address mental health myths and stigma, which are major barriers to early health-seeking behaviours. In low-income countries such as Zimbabwe, cultural and spiritual beliefs are at the centre of most mental health explanatory models, perpetuating an environment where mental health conversations are a cultural taboo. Mental health interventions should be accompanied by creative, evidence-based community engagement, ensuring that interventions are suitable for local settings and giving communities a voice in directing their health initiatives.  Methods: Z Factor aimed to engage young adults and their support networks across a variety of socioeconomic groups in a rural district of Zimbabwe through their participation in an inter-ward five-staged drama competition. The focus was on psychosis, with subcategories of initial presentation/detection, seeking help/pathway to care, and the road to recovery/treatment. Each drama group's composition included a young adult and a typical support network seeking treatment from the service provider of choice. Dramas were to act as discussion starters, paving the way toward broader and deeper psychosis treatment discussions among rural communities and gaining insight into service user expectations from health research. Conclusions: Outcomes of the pilot community engagement project will be instrumental in improving understanding community perceptions about psychosis treatment and recovery in rural Zimbabwe and increasing community awareness about psychosis, as well as paving the way for initiating service provider collaboration to promote early detection and encouraging early health-seeking behaviours. The above outcomes will also inform the design of models for more responsive community and public engagement initiatives in similar low resource settings in Zimbabwe and beyond.
  • Recovery-oriented services

    Slade, Mike; Repper, Julie (2021)
    The notion of recovery has a long history in mental health services, traditionally understood as synonymous with a "return to normal." However, in the past few decades a new understanding has emerged, which challenges the view that recovery involves a return to symptom free "normality." People personally affected by mental illness have become increasingly vocal in communicating what helps in moving beyond the role of "patient." The most widely cited definition is that recovery is "a deeply personal, unique process of changing one's attitudes, values, feelings, goals, skills, and/ or roles" and "a way of living a satisfying, hopeful, and contributing life even within the limitations caused by illness." The policy context has also altered, with a "recovery orientation" central to national mental health policy in almost all high- income countries and also transnationally. The economic case for a recovery orientation is increasingly compelling. Finally, associated clinical developments have gained traction in mental health systems, e.g., new employment roles, structures, interventions and working practices. This chapter outlines some of the research underpinning these developments, and their implications for services working with people living with psychosis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: chapter)
  • The importance of personal recovery and perceived recovery support among service users with psychosis

    Slade, Mike (2021)
    OBJECTIVE: More knowledge is needed about whether personal recovery, as defined by the CHIME framework (connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and purpose, and empowerment), is considered important by service users with psychosis. This study examined the importance of personal recovery for a large, heterogeneous group of service users with psychosis and their perceived support from clinicians for personal recovery. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used baseline data from 321 service users with psychosis from 39 clinical units across Norway. The INSPIRE Measure of Staff Support for Personal Recovery (based on CHIME) was used to examine personal recovery and perceived support provided for recovery. Twenty support-for-recovery items were each rated on importance (yes or no) and on the extent of support received (5-point scale). Bivariate and multiple linear regression models assessed variables associated with rated importance and support. Results: Most service users rated personal recovery items as important, regardless of their symptomatology and functioning. Previous experience with Illness Management and Recovery, knowledge about coping with stress and illness, and having a plan for early detection and prevention of relapse were significantly associated with higher perceived support. Higher self-reported depressive symptoms, lower score on the Global Assessment of Functioning symptom subscale, and male sex were significantly associated with less perceived support. CONCLUSIONS: Most service users with psychosis found personal recovery important, regardless of symptomatology and functioning, which has implications for clinical practice and provides empirical evidence that recovery-oriented treatments are relevant for most service users with psychosis in various mental health services.
  • Relationship between satisfaction with mental health services, personal recovery and quality of life among service users with psychosis: a cross-sectional study

    Slade, Mike (2021)
    Background: Mental health policy internationally emphasizes patient centredness and personal recovery. This study investigated the relationship between satisfaction with mental health services among service users with psychosis in Norway, and personal recovery, perceived support for personal recovery, and quality of life. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 292 service users diagnosed with psychosis from 39 clinical sites across Norway. Satisfaction with services was assessed using the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8. A linear mixed model was estimated to explore the relationship between satisfaction with services and preselected covariates, and to control for confounding factors. Results: A large majority of participants (89%) reported moderate-to-high levels of satisfaction. Satisfaction with services was positively associated with perceived support for personal recovery, but not with personal recovery or quality of life. In addition, service users under a Community Treatment Order (CTO) were significantly less satisfied than those who were not. Conclusions: Satisfaction levels among service users were higher compared with similar, international studies. Those who feel supported in their personal recovery were more satisfied with the care they receive, which support the need for implementation of recovery-oriented practices for service users with psychosis. However, satisfaction with services was not related to service user-rated quality of life or level of personal recovery; thus, more follow-up studies are needed. The lower satisfaction of service users placed under CTOs shows the importance of targeted interventions to improve satisfaction with services among this group.
  • Personal recovery in people with a psychotic disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of associated factors

    Slade, Mike (2021)
    Background: Personal recovery (PR) is a subjective, multidimensional concept, and quantitative research using PR as an outcome is rapidly increasing. This systematic review is intended to support the design of interventions that contribute to PR in psychotic disorders, by providing an overview of associated factors and their weighted importance to PR: clinical factors, social factors, and socio-demographic characteristics are included, and factors related to the concept of PR (organized into CHIME dimensions). Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted from inception to March 2020. Quantitative studies that had used a validated questionnaire assessing the concept of PR were included. Mean effect sizes for the relationship between PR-scale total scores and related factors were calculated using meta-analyses. Sources of heterogeneity were examined using meta-regression tests. Results: Forty-six studies, that used (a total of) eight PR measures, showed that in clinical factors, affective symptoms had a medium negative association with PR-scale total scores (r = −0.44, 95%CI −0.50 to −0.37), while positive, negative and general symptoms had small negative correlations. No association was found with neuro-cognition. Social factors (support, work and housing, and functioning) showed small positive correlations. Gender and age differences had barely been researched. Large associations were found for PR-scale total scores with the CHIME dimensions hope (r = 0.56, 95%CI 0.48–0.63), meaning in life (r = 0.48, 95%CI 0.38–0.58) and empowerment (r = 0.53, 95%CI 0.42–0.63); while medium associations were found with connectedness (r = 0.34, 95%CI 0.43–0.65) and identity (r = 0.43, 95%CI 0.35–0.50). Levels of heterogeneity were high, sources included: the variety of PR measures, variations in sample characteristics, publication bias, variations in outcome measures, and cultural differences. Discussion: Most interventions in mental healthcare aim to reduce symptoms and improve functioning. With regard to stimulating PR, these interventions may benefit from also focusing on enhancing hope, empowerment, and meaning in life. The strength of these findings is limited by the challenges of comparing separate CHIME dimensions with questionnaires assessing the concept of PR, and by the high levels of heterogeneity observed. Future research should focus on the interaction between elements of PR and clinical and social factors over time. © Copyright © 2021 Leendertse, Wierdsma, van den Berg, Ruissen, Slade, Castelein and Mulder.
  • Eye movements in patients in early psychosis with and without a history of cannabis use

    Sami, Musa (2021)
    It is unclear whether early psychosis in the context of cannabis use is different from psychosis without cannabis. We investigated this issue by examining whether abnormalities in oculomotor control differ between patients with psychosis with and without a history of cannabis use. We studied four groups: patients in the early phase of psychosis with a history of cannabis use (EPC; n = 28); patients in the early phase of psychosis without (EPNC; n = 25); controls with a history of cannabis use (HCC; n = 16); and controls without (HCNC; n = 22). We studied smooth pursuit eye movements using a stimulus with sinusoidal waveform at three target frequencies (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 Hz). Participants also performed 40 antisaccade trials. There were no differences between the EPC and EPNC groups in diagnosis, symptom severity or level of functioning. We found evidence for a cannabis effect (chi2 = 23.14, p < 0.001), patient effect (chi2 = 4.84, p = 0.028) and patient x cannabis effect (chi2 = 4.20, p = 0.04) for smooth pursuit velocity gain. There was a large difference between EPC and EPNC (g = 0.76-0.86) with impairment in the non cannabis using group. We found no significant effect for antisaccade error whereas patients had fewer valid trials compared to controls. These data indicate that impairment of smooth pursuit in psychosis is more severe in patients without a history of cannabis use. This is consistent with the notion that the severity of neurobiological alterations in psychosis is lower in patients whose illness developed in the context of cannabis use. Copyright © 2021, The Author(s).
  • Cannabis use linked to altered functional connectivity of the visual attentional connectivity in patients with psychosis and controls

    Sami, Musa (2020)
    Background: Both chronic cannabis use and psychotic disorders are associated with abnormalities in visual attentional processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we sought to determine whether there would be a difference in functional connectivity in patients and controls with and without a history of cannabis use in the visual and dorsal attention networks. Methods: Resting-state fMRI data were acquired in patients with early psychosis with (EPC = 29) and without (EPNC = 25); and controls with (HCC = 16) and without (HCNC = 22) cannabis use. Results: There was a patient effect in both Visual-Dorsal Attention Internetwork (F(1,87) = 5.326, P = .023) and the Visual Network (F(1,87) = 4.044, P = .047) and a cannabis effect in the Dorsal Attention Network (F(1,87) = 4.773, P = .032). These effects were specific to the networks examined with no evidence for significant patient or cannabis effects in other canonical networks. Patients with a history of cannabis use showed increased connectivity in the Dorsal Attention Network (134%, P = .019) and Visual Dorsal Attention Internetwork (285%, P = .036) compared to non-using controls. In the EPC group connectivity of the Visual Network (ρ = 0.379, P = .042) and Visual-Dorsal Attention Internetwork (ρ = 0.421, P = .023) correlated with visual hallucinations which were significantly different from EPNC (P = .011). Dorsal attention network strength correlated with severity of dependence for cannabis (ρ = 0.215, P = .04). Conclusion: We demonstrate specific cannabis and patient effects in networks associated with visual attentional processing. There is a differential association with hallucinatory symptoms in patients with and without a history of cannabis use. This may indicate that dysconnectivity in these networks serves different roles in the context of cannabis use.
  • Living with psychosis without mental health services: A narrative interview study

    Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan; Slade, Mike (2021)
    OBJECTIVES: Little research has looked at how people who do not use mental health services experience psychosis. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the experiences and views of people with psychosis who have neither sought nor received support from mental health services for at least 5 years. DESIGN: A narrative interview study. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight participants with self-defined psychotic experiences were asked to provide a free narrative about their experiences. RESULTS: Five themes were identified: (1) Perceiving psychosis as positive; (2) Making sense of psychotic experiences as a more active psychological process to find explanations and meaning; (3) Finding sources of strength, mainly in relationships and the environment, but outside of services; (4) Negative past experiences of mental health services, leading to disengagement and (5) Positive past experiences with individual clinicians, as an appreciation of individuals despite negative views of services as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Perceiving psychosis as something positive, a process of making sense of psychotic experiences and the ability to find external sources of strength all underpin-in addition to negative experiences with services-a choice to live with psychosis outside of services. Future research may explore to what extent these perceptions, psychological processes and abilities can be facilitated and strengthened, in order to support those people with psychosis who do not seek treatment and possibly also some of those who are in treatment.
  • Diagnostic stability and outcome after first episode psychosis

    Doody, Gillian A. (2021)
    Background Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia are often assigned other psychiatric diagnoses during their lives. The significance of changing diagnosis has not been widely studied.Aims Our aim was to examine the association between diagnostic change and later outcome.Methods Individuals' diagnostic history, clinical and social outcomes were extracted from the AESOP-10 study, a 10-year follow-up of first episode psychosis cases. The association between outcome and different patterns of diagnosis over time were assessed using linear or logistic regression.Results Individuals always diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=136) had worse clinical and social outcomes at follow-up than those never diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=163), being more likely to be symptomatic, unemployed, single, and socially isolated. There was no difference in outcome between individuals always diagnosed with schizophrenia and those changing to a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n=60), and no difference in outcome between individuals never diagnosed with schizophrenia, and those changing from a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n=44).Conclusions Individuals always and never diagnosed with schizophrenia had different outcomes. In cases of diagnostic instability participants had similar outcomes to those always assigned the diagnosis they changed to irrespective of initial diagnosis.
  • Classification of all pharmacological interventions tested in trials relevant to people with schizophrenia: A study-based analysis

    Adams, Clive E. (2021)
    Background: Systematic reviewing is a time-consuming and resource-intensive process. Information specialists are maintaining study-based registers to facilitate efficient conduct of systematic reviews. Classification of study-level meta-data -such as interventions –can result in much more accurate searches, saving time in the early steps of systematic reviewing. Objective: To classify all pharmacological interventions from all schizophrenia trials. Methods: We used Cochrane Schizophrenia's Study-based Register as the source of trials, Emtree and MeSH for synonyms, AdisInsight and for research drugs and WHO ATC for marketed drugs. Results: One third of tested interventions on patients with schizophrenia are pharmacological (816; belonging to 106 clinical classes) with antipsychotic drugs being the most researched (15.1%). Only 528 of these medications are listed in WHO ATC. Around one third of these drug interventions are seen only in research (236; from 21 pharmacological/biochemical classes). Within the pharmacological interventions, we identified 28 ‘qualifiers’ including dose, route and timing of drug delivery. Conclusion: Identification and classification of pharmacological interventions from trials require use of many sources of information none of which are inclusive of all drugs. Limitations of each source are helpful to understand. Classification of non-pharmacological interventions is now a priority for clinical and information scientists and professionals. © 2021 Health Libraries Group

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