Recent Submissions

  • Cervical arthroplasty in a professional kick-boxing fighter, 7 years follow-up.

    Klezl, Zdenek
    Spinal surgery in professional athletes is a topic of much discussion. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the standard procedure used by surgeons, and other techniques used to treat athletes includes foraminotomies, laminoplasties and total disc replacement. Total disc replacement is an unusual technique used to treat athletes in general and is becoming a more important issue in full contact sports. This case report illustrates a 34 years old professional fighter that suffered a cervical injury that evolved with cervical axial pain and irradiated pain and numbness. She was submitted to total disc replacement (TDR) at the C5-6 level, returning to competitive sports after and with a seven-year follow-up. To the date she remains symptom free and besides having an anterior foramen, the spine was able to keep movement at that level. TDR may be a safe and trustworthy technique when treating elite athletes.
  • Green Tea Extract Concurrent with an Oral Nutritional Supplement Acutely Enhances Muscle Microvascular Blood Flow without Altering Leg Glucose Uptake in Healthy Older Adults.

    Lund, Jonathan; Williams, John P (2021)
    Postprandial macro- and microvascular blood flow and metabolic dysfunction manifest with advancing age, so vascular transmuting interventions are desirable. In this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, we investigated the impact of the acute administration of green tea extract (GTE; containing ~500 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate) versus placebo (CON), alongside an oral nutritional supplement (ONS), on muscle macro- and microvascular, cerebral macrovascular (via ultrasound) and leg glucose/insulin metabolic responses (via arterialised/venous blood samples) in twelve healthy older adults (42% male, 74 ± 1 y). GTE increased m. vastus lateralis microvascular blood volume (MBV) at 180 and 240 min after ONS (baseline: 1.0 vs. 180 min: 1.11 ± 0.02 vs. 240 min: 1.08 ± 0.04, both p < 0.005), with MBV significantly higher than CON at 180 min (p < 0.05). Neither the ONS nor the GTE impacted m. tibialis anterior perfusion (p > 0.05). Leg blood flow and vascular conductance increased, and vascular resistance decreased similarly in both conditions (p < 0.05). Small non-significant increases in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation were observed in the GTE only and middle cerebral artery blood flow did not change in response to GTE or CON (p > 0.05). Glucose uptake increased with the GTE only (0 min: 0.03 ± 0.01 vs. 35 min: 0.11 ± 0.02 mmol/min/leg, p = 0.007); however, glucose area under the curve and insulin kinetics were similar between conditions (p > 0.05). Acute GTE supplementation enhances MBV beyond the effects of an oral mixed meal, but this improved perfusion does not translate to increased leg muscle glucose uptake in healthy older adults.
  • SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased risk of idiopathic acute pancreatitis but not pancreatic exocrine insufficiency or diabetes: long-term results of the COVIDPAN study.

    Awan, Altaf (BMJ, 2021)
    SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased risk of idiopathic acute pancreatitis but not pancreatic exocrine insufficiency or diabetes: long-term results of the COVIDPAN study.
  • Postoperative arginine-enriched immune modulating nutrition: Long-term survival results from a randomised clinical trial in patients with oesophagogastric and pancreaticobiliary cancer.

    Iftikhar, Syed (Elsevier, 2021)
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immune modulating nutrition (IMN) has been shown to reduce postoperative infectious complications and length of stay in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Two studies of IMN in patients undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer also suggested that this treatment might improve long-term survival and progression-free survival. In the present study, we analysed follow-up data from our previous randomised controlled trial of IMN, in patients undergoing surgery for oesophagogastric and pancreaticobiliary cancer, in order to evaluate the long-term impact on survival of postoperative IMN versus an isocaloric, isonitrogenous control feed. METHODS: This study included patients undergoing surgery for cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus and stomach, who had been randomised in a double-blind manner to receive postoperative jejunostomy feeding with IMN (Stresson, Nutricia Ltd.) or an isonitrogenous, isocaloric feed (Nutrison High Protein, Nutricia) for 10-15 days. The primary outcome was long-term overall survival. RESULTS: There was complete follow-up for all 108 patients, with 54 patients randomised to each group. There were no statistically significant differences between groups by demographics [(age, p = 0.63), sex (p = 0.49) or site of cancer (p = 0.25)]. 30-day mortality was 11.1% in both groups. Mortality in the intervention group was 13%, 31.5%, 70.4%, 85.2%, 88.9%, and 96.3% at 90 days, and 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years respectively. Corresponding mortality in the control group was 14.8%, 35.2%, 68.6%, 79.6%, 85.2% and 98.1% (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). CONCLUSION: Early postoperative feeding with arginine-enriched IMN had no impact on long-term survival in patients undergoing surgery for oesophagogastric and pancreaticobiliary cancer.
  • Safe Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Madhok, Brijesh (2021)
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has had an enormous impact on all aspects of healthcare, but its effect on patients needing surgery and surgeons has been disproportionate. In this review, we aim to understand the impact of the pandemic on surgical patients and teams. We compiled the emerging data on pre-operative screening methods, vaccinations, safe-surgery pathways and surgical techniques and make recommendations for evidence-based safe-surgical pathways. We also present surgical outcomes for emergency, oncological and benign surgery in the context of the pandemic. Finally, we attempt to address the impact of the pandemic on patients, staff and surgical training and provide perspectives for the future. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgical teams have developed consensus guidelines and established research priorities and safety precautions for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence supports that surgery in patients with a peri-operative SARS-CoV-2 infection carries substantial risks, but risk mitigation strategies are effective at reducing harm to staff and patients. Surgery has increased risk for patients and staff, but this can be mitigated effectively, especially for elective surgery. Elective surgery can be safely performed during the COVID-19 pandemic employing the strategies discussed in this review.
  • Subclavian Artery Perforation and Mediastinal Hematoma Following Transradial Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Gulsin, Gaurav; Taqi, Hussein; Azeem, Tariq (2021-06)
    We present a case of subclavian artery perforation with mediastinal hematoma following elective percutaneous coronary intervention. A conservative approach was preferred over invasive correction. Although no outcome data exist specifically for subclavian artery injury, registry data in patients with iatrogenic aortic dissection suggest that long-term outcomes are good without vascular repair. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).
  • Patellar resurfacing during primary total knee replacement is associated with a lower risk of revision surgery.

    Howard, Peter
    AIMS: Debate remains whether the patella should be resurfaced during total knee replacement (TKR). For non-resurfaced TKRs, we estimated what the revision rate would have been if the patella had been resurfaced, and examined the risk of re-revision following secondary patellar resurfacing. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of the National Joint Registry (NJR) was performed. All primary TKRs for osteoarthritis alone performed between 1 April 2003 and 31 December 2016 were eligible (n = 842,072). Patellar resurfacing during TKR was performed in 36% (n = 305,844). The primary outcome was all-cause revision surgery. Secondary outcomes were the number of excess all-cause revisions associated with using TKRs without (versus with) patellar resurfacing, and the risk of re-revision after secondary patellar resurfacing. RESULTS: The cumulative risk of all-cause revision at ten years was higher (p < 0.001) in primary TKRs without patellar resurfacing (3.54% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.47 to 3.62)) compared to those with resurfacing (3.00% (95% CI 2.91 to 3.11)). Using flexible parametric survival modelling, we estimated one 'excess' revision per 189 cases performed where the patella was not resurfaced by ten years (equivalent to 2,842 excess revisions in our cohort). The risk of all-cause re-revision following secondary patellar resurfacing was 4.6 times higher than the risk of revision after primary TKR with patellar resurfacing (at five years from secondary patellar resurfacing, 8.8% vs 1.9%). CONCLUSION: Performing TKR without patellar resurfacing was associated with an increased risk of revision. Secondary patellar resurfacing led to a high risk of re-revision. This represents a potential substantial healthcare burden that should be considered when forming treatment guidelines and commissioning services. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(5):864-871.
  • Protocol for the development of a core outcome set for lateral elbow tendinopathy (COS-LET).

    Bateman, Marcus
    BACKGROUND: Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common condition that can cause significant disability and associated socioeconomic cost. Although it has been widely researched, outcome measures are highly variable which restricts evidence synthesis across studies. In 2019, a working group of international experts, health care professionals and patients, in the field of tendinopathy (International Scientific Tendinopathy Symposium Consensus (ICON) Group), published the results of a consensus exercise defining the nine core domains that should be measured in tendinopathy research. The aim of this study is to develop a core outcome set (COS) for LET mapping to these core domains. The primary output will provide a template for future outcome evaluation of LET. In this protocol, we detail the methodological approach to the COS-LET development. METHODS: This study will employ a three-phase approach. (1) A systematic review of studies investigating LET will produce a comprehensive list of all instruments currently employed to quantify the treatment effect or outcome. (2) Instruments will be matched to the list of nine core tendinopathy outcome domains by a Steering Committee of clinicians and researchers with a specialist interest in LET resulting in a set of candidate instruments. (3) An international three-stage Delphi study will be conducted involving experienced clinicians, researchers and patients. Within this Delphi study, candidate instruments will be selected based upon screening using the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) truth, feasibility and discrimination filters with a threshold of 70% agreement set for consensus. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently no COS for the measurement or monitoring of LET in trials or clinical practice. The output from this project will be a minimum COS recommended for use in all future English language studies related to LET. The findings will be published in a high-quality journal and disseminated widely using professional networks, social media and via presentation at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database, November 2019. https://www.comet-initiative.org/Studies/Details/1497 .
  • Protective Effects of Cannabidivarin and Cannabigerol on Cells of the Blood-Brain Barrier Under Ischemic Conditions.

    England, Tim; O'Sullivan, Saoirse
    Background and Objectives: Preclinical studies have shown cannabidiol is protective in models of ischemic stroke. Based on results from our recent systematic review, we investigated the effects of two promising neuroprotective phytocannabinoids, cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), on cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), namely human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), pericytes, and astrocytes. Experimental Approach: Cultures were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) protocol to model ischemic stroke and cell culture medium was assessed for cytokines and adhesion molecules post-OGD. Astrocyte cell lysates were also analyzed for DNA damage markers. Antagonist studies were conducted where appropriate to study receptor mechanisms. Results: In astrocytes CBG and CBDV attenuated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), whereas CBDV (10 nM-10 μM) also decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. CBDV (300 nM-10 μM) attenuated levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in HBMECs. In astrocytes, CBG decreased levels of DNA damage proteins, including p53, whereas CBDV increased levels of DNA damage markers. Antagonists for CB1, CB2, PPAR-γ, PPAR-α, 5-HT1A, and TRPV1 had no effect on CBG (3 μM) or CBDV (1 μM)-mediated decreases in LDH in astrocytes. GPR55 and GPR18 were partially implicated in the effects of CBDV, but no molecular target was identified for CBG. Conclusions: We show that CBG and CBDV were protective against OG mediated injury in three different cells that constitute the BBB, modulating different hallmarks of ischemic stroke pathophysiology. These data enhance our understanding of the protective effects of CBG and CBDV and warrant further investigation into these compounds in ischemic stroke. Future studies should identify other possible neuroprotective effects of CBG and CBDV and their corresponding mechanisms of action.
  • The Association Between Psoriasis and Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Taqi, Hussein
    Cardiovascular diseases and psoriasis have been well established as separate entities, however, there is uncertainty with regards to a link between the two diseases. A few environmental, psychological and social factors have been implicated as potential common risk factors that may exacerbate the two diseases, and an array of complex immune and non-immune inflammatory mediators can potentially explain a plausible link. Pharmacotherapy has also played a role in establishing a potential association, especially with the advent of biological agents which directly act on inflammatory factors shared by the two diseases. This review will look at existing evidence and ascertain a potential correlation between the two.
  • The physiological impact of high-intensity interval training in octogenarians with comorbidities.

    Blackwell, James; Doleman, Brett; Lund, Jonathan
    BACKGROUND: Declines in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and fat-free mass (FFM) with age are linked to mortality, morbidity and poor quality of life. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve CRF and FFM in many groups, but its efficacy in the very old, in whom comorbidities are present is undefined. We aimed to assess the efficacy of and physiological/metabolic responses to HIIT, in a cohort of octogenarians with comorbidities (e.g. hypertension and osteoarthritis). METHODS: Twenty-eight volunteers (18 men, 10 women, 81.2 ± 0.6 years, 27.1 ± 0.6 kg·m-2 ) with American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA) Grade 2-3 status each completed 4 weeks (12 sessions) HIIT after a control period of equal duration. Before and after each 4 week period, subjects underwent body composition assessments and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Quadriceps muscle biopsies (m. vastus lateralis) were taken to quantify anabolic signalling, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and cumulative muscle protein synthesis (MPS) over 4-weeks. RESULTS: In comorbid octogenarians, HIIT elicited improvements in CRF (anaerobic threshold: +1.2 ± 0.4 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 , P = 0.001). HIIT also augmented total FFM (47.2 ± 1.4 to 47.6 ± 1.3 kg, P = 0.04), while decreasing total fat mass (24.8 ± 1.3 to 24 ± 1.2 kg, P = 0.0002) and body fat percentage (33.1 ± 1.5 to 32.1 ± 1.4%, P = 0.0008). Mechanistically, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity increased after HIIT (i.e. citrate synthase activity: 52.4 ± 4 to 67.9 ± 5.1 nmol·min-1 ·mg-1 , P = 0.005; membrane protein complexes (C): C-II, 1.4-fold increase, P = 0.002; C-III, 1.2-fold increase, P = 0.03), as did rates of MPS (1.3 ± 0.1 to 1.5 ± 0.1%·day-1 , P = 0.03). The increase in MPS was supported by up-regulated phosphorylation of anabolic signalling proteins (e.g. AKT, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1; all P < 0.05). There were no changes in any of these parameters during the control period. No adverse events were reported throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: The HIIT enhances skeletal muscle mass and CRF in octogenarians with disease, with up-regulation of MPS and mitochondrial capacity likely underlying these improvements. HIIT can be safely delivered to octogenarians with disease and is an effective, time-efficient intervention to improve muscle mass and physical function in a short time frame.
  • A systematic review of the applications of Expert Systems (ES) and machine learning (ML) in clinical urology.

    Salem, Hatem; Soria, Daniele; Lund, Jonathan
    BACKGROUND: Testing a hypothesis for 'factors-outcome effect' is a common quest, but standard statistical regression analysis tools are rendered ineffective by data contaminated with too many noisy variables. Expert Systems (ES) can provide an alternative methodology in analysing data to identify variables with the highest correlation to the outcome. By applying their effective machine learning (ML) abilities, significant research time and costs can be saved. The study aims to systematically review the applications of ES in urological research and their methodological models for effective multi-variate analysis. Their domains, development and validity will be identified. METHODS: The PRISMA methodology was applied to formulate an effective method for data gathering and analysis. This study search included seven most relevant information sources: WEB OF SCIENCE, EMBASE, BIOSIS CITATION INDEX, SCOPUS, PUBMED, Google Scholar and MEDLINE. Eligible articles were included if they applied one of the known ML models for a clear urological research question involving multivariate analysis. Only articles with pertinent research methods in ES models were included. The analysed data included the system model, applications, input/output variables, target user, validation, and outcomes. Both ML models and the variable analysis were comparatively reported for each system. RESULTS: The search identified n = 1087 articles from all databases and n = 712 were eligible for examination against inclusion criteria. A total of 168 systems were finally included and systematically analysed demonstrating a recent increase in uptake of ES in academic urology in particular artificial neural networks with 31 systems. Most of the systems were applied in urological oncology (prostate cancer = 15, bladder cancer = 13) where diagnostic, prognostic and survival predictor markers were investigated. Due to the heterogeneity of models and their statistical tests, a meta-analysis was not feasible. CONCLUSION: ES utility offers an effective ML potential and their applications in research have demonstrated a valid model for multi-variate analysis. The complexity of their development can challenge their uptake in urological clinics whilst the limitation of the statistical tools in this domain has created a gap for further research studies. Integration of computer scientists in academic units has promoted the use of ES in clinical urological research.
  • Mortality from esophagectomy for esophageal cancer across low, middle, and high-income countries: An international cohort study

    Iftikhar, Syed (2020-12)
    Background: No evidence currently exists characterising global outcomes following major cancersurgery, including esophageal cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to characteriseimpact of high income countries (HIC) versus low and middle income countries (LMIC)on the outcomes following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Method: This international multi-center prospective study across 137 hospitals in 41 countriesincluded patients who underwent an esophagectomy for esophageal cancer, with 90-dayfollow-up. The main explanatory variable was country income, defined according tothe World Bank Data classification. The primary outcome was 90-day postoperative mortality,and secondary outcomes were composite leaks (anastomotic leak or conduit necrosis)and major complications (Clavien-Dindo Grade III - V). Multivariable generalized estimatingequation models were used to produce adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidenceintervals (CI 95%). Results: Between April 2018 to December 2018, 2247 patients were included. Patients from HICwere more significantly older, with higher ASA grade, and more advanced tumors. Patientsfrom LMIC had almost three-fold increase in 90-day mortality, compared to HIC (9.4%vs 3.7%, p < 0.001). On adjusted analysis, LMIC were independently associated withhigher 90-day mortality (OR: 2.31, CI 95%: 1.17–4.55, p = 0.015). However, LMIC were not independently associated with higherrates of anastomotic leaks (OR: 1.06, CI 95%: 0.57–1.99, p = 0.9) or major complications (OR: 0.85, CI 95%: 0.54–1.32, p = 0.5), compared to HIC. Conclusion: Resections in LMIC were independently associated with higher 90-day postoperativemortality, likely reflecting a failure to rescue of these patients following esophagectomy,despite similar composite anastomotic leaks and major complication rates to HIC. Thesefindings warrant further research, to identify potential issues and solutions to improveglobal outcomes following esophagectomy for cancer.
  • Response

    Cole, Andrew (2021-02)
  • Identification of Common Themes from Never Events Data Published by NHS England

    Madhok, Brijesh (2020-11)
    Background: Never events (NEs) are serious clinical incidents that cause potentially avoidable harm and impose a significant financial burden on healthcare systems. The purpose of this study was to identify common never events. Methods: We analysed the NHS England NE data from 2012 to 2020 to identify common never events category and themes. Results: We identified 51 common NE themes in 4 main categories out of a total of 3247 NE reported during this period. Wrong-site surgery was the most common category (n = 1307;40.25%) followed by retained foreign objects (n = 901;27.75%); wrong implant or prosthesis (n = 425;13.09%); and non-surgical/infrequent ones (n = 614; 18.9%). Wrong-side (laterality) and wrong tooth removal were the most common wrong-site NE accounting for 300 (22.95%) and 263 (20.12%) incidents, respectively. There were 197 (15%) wrong-site blocks, 125 (9.56%) wrong procedures, and 96 (7.3%) wrong skin lesions excised. Vaginal swabs were the most commonly retained items (276;30.63%) followed by surgical swabs (164;18.20%) and guidewires (152;16.87%). There were 67 (7.44%) incidents of retained parts of instruments and 48 (5.33%) retained instruments. Wrong intraocular lenses (165; 38.82%) were the most common wrong implants followed by wrong hip prostheses (n = 94; 22.11%) and wrong knees (n = 91; 21.41%). Non-surgical events accounted for 18.9% (n = 614) of the total incidents. Misplaced naso-or oro-gastric tubes (n = 178;29%) and wrong-route administration of medications were the most common events in this category (n = 111;18%), followed by unintentional connection of a patient requiring oxygen to an air flow-meter (n = 93; 15%). Conclusion: This paper identifies common NE categories and themes. Awareness of these might help reduce their incidence.
  • A multicentre prospective feasibility study of carbon dye tattooing of biopsied axillary node and surgical localisation in breast cancer patients

    Goyal, Amit; Puri, Shama; Carmichael, Amtul; Erdelyi, Gabriella; York, Joanne (2020-10)
    Background: The primary aim of this prospective, multicentre feasibility study was to determine whether the biopsied axillary node can be marked using black carbon dye and successfully identified at the time of surgery. Methods: We included breast cancer patients undergoing needle biopsy of the axillary node. The biopsied node was tattooed at the time of needle biopsy (fine needle aspiration or core biopsy) or at a separate visit with black carbon dye (Spot® or Black Eye™). Participants underwent primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and axillary surgery (SNB or ALND) as per routine care. Results: 110 patients were included. Median age of the women was 59 (range 31-88) years. 48 (44%) underwent SNB and 62 (56%) ALND. Median volume of dye injected was 2.0 ml (range 0.2-4.2). Tattooed node was identified intra-operatively in 90 (82%) patients. The identification rate was higher (76 of 88, 86%) in the primary surgery group compared with NACT (14 of 22, 64%) (p = 0.03). Of those undergoing NACT, the identification rate was better in the patients undergoing SNB (3 of 4, 75%) compared with ALND (11 of 18, 61%) (p > 0.99). The tattooed node was the sentinel node in 78% (28 of 36) patients in the primary surgery group and 100% (3 of 3) in the NACT group. There was no learning curve for surgeons or radiologists. The identification rate did not vary with timing between dye injection and surgery (p = 0.56), body mass index (p = 0.62) or volume of dye injected (p = 0.25). Conclusion: It is feasible to mark the axillary node with carbon dye and identify it intra-operatively. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03640819.
  • Legacy of COVID-19 - the opportunity to enhance surgical services for patients with colorectal disease.

    Tierney, Gillian (2020-08)
    After wide consultation with trainees, trainers, employers and other stakeholders, the new General Surgical Curriculum was approved earlier this year and will be implemented from 4 August 2021. It will be outcome based and will be the biggest change in surgical training since 2007. Trainees can progress at their own rate and complete when they have acquired the capabilities of a Day-1 consultant in general surgery with a special interest. The Multiple Consultant Report (MCR) is new and has been developed as the main assessment tool for this outcomes-based curriculum. Assessment in the MCR will be on progress from the ability to only observe at the start of training, to performance at the level of Day-1 consultant in the complex, integrated skills needed for the day-to-day performance of the role in each of the areas of the job (the Capabilities in Practice). The MCR and trainee self assessment will improve feedback and allow specific and bespoke agreed learning objectives to be more easily developed and delivered, and faster but safe training for many. New training pathways have been developed, emphasizing the commonality of emergency general surgery, but also developing special interests reflecting the needs of patients and the service.
  • European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP) Colorectal Robotic Surgery Training for the Trainers (TTT) Course - the first pilot experience.

    Tou, Samson (2020-07)
    AIM: Currently there is no established colorectal specific robotic surgery Train the Trainer (TTT) Course. The aim was to develop and evaluate such a course which can then be further developed to be incorporated within the planned European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP) / European School of Coloproctology (ESC) robotic colorectal surgery training curriculum. METHOD: After identifying the need for such a course within a training programme, the course was developed by a subgroup of the ESCP/ESC. A scoping literature review was performed and the content and materials for the course were developed by a team consisting of two gastroenterologists with a combined experience of 30 years of facilitating TTT courses, a robotic surgeon & proctor with laparoscopic TTT faculty experience and experienced robotic and laparoscopic colorectal trainers. The course was evaluated by asking delegates to complete pre and post-course questionnaires. RESULTS: There were 8 delegates on the course from across Europe. Delegates increased their knowledge of each of the course learning objectives and identified learning points in order to change practice. The feedback from the delegates of the course was positive across several areas and all felt that they had achieved their own personal objectives in attending the course. CONCLUSION: This pilot robotic colorectal TTT course has achieved its aim and demonstrated many positives. There is a need for such a course and the evaluation processes have provided opportunities for reflection, which will allow the development/tailoring of future robotic colorectal TTT courses to help develop robotic training further. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO THE LITERATURE?: The need for a colorectal robotic TTT course has previously been identified and this study presents the positive results of the first colorectal specific robotic TTT course which has been organised by a Scientific Society at a European level.

View more