Recent Submissions

  • The time course of disuse muscle atrophy of the lower limb in health and disease.

    Hardy, EJO; Doleman, Brett
    Short, intermittent episodes of disuse muscle atrophy (DMA) may have negative impact on age related muscle loss. There is evidence of variability in rate of DMA between muscles and over the duration of immobilization. As yet, this is poorly characterized. This review aims to establish and compare the time-course of DMA in immobilized human lower limb muscles in both healthy and critically ill individuals, exploring evidence for an acute phase of DMA and differential rates of atrophy between and muscle groups. MEDLINE, Embase, CINHAL and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to April 2021 for any study of human lower limb immobilization reporting muscle volume, cross-sectional area (CSA), architecture or lean leg mass over multiple post-immobilization timepoints. Risk of bias was assessed using ROBINS-I. Where possible meta-analysis was performed using a DerSimonian and Laird random effects model with effect sizes reported as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) at various time-points and a narrative review when meta-analysis was not possible. Twenty-nine studies were included, 12 in healthy volunteers (total n = 140), 18 in patients on an Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) (total n = 516) and 3 in patients with ankle fracture (total n = 39). The majority of included studies are at moderate risk of bias. Rate of quadriceps atrophy over the first 14 days was significantly greater in the ITU patients (MD -1.01 95% CI -1.32, -0.69), than healthy cohorts (MD -0.12 95% CI -0.49, 0.24) (P < 0.001). Rates of atrophy appeared to vary between muscle groups (greatest in triceps surae (-11.2% day 28), followed by quadriceps (-9.2% day 28), then hamstrings (-6.5% day 28), then foot dorsiflexors (-3.2% day 28)). Rates of atrophy appear to decrease over time in healthy quadriceps (-6.5% day 14 vs. -9.1% day 28) and triceps surae (-7.8% day 14 vs. -11.2% day 28), and ITU quadriceps (-13.2% day 7 vs. -28.2% day 14). There appears to be variability in the rate of DMA between muscle groups, and more rapid atrophy during the earliest period of immobilization, indicating different mechanisms being dominant at different timepoints. Rates of atrophy are greater amongst critically unwell patients. Overall evidence is limited, and existing data has wide variability in the measures reported. Further work is required to fully characterize the time course of DMA in both health and disease.
  • Bilateral STT Arthrodesis in a Young Patient with Occult Proximal Row Coalition.

    Wharton, RMH
    Background  Carpal coalitions have an incidence of 0.1 to 1% in Caucasians and up to 8 to 9% in African populations. They rarely cause clinical problems requiring investigation or treatment, but are commonly identified on imaging obtained for other indications. Case Description  We report a case of a 35-year-old male with progressive degenerative change of incomplete coalitions of the scaphotrapeziotrapezoid joint (STT) in the presence of bilateral complete osseous lunate-triquetral coalitions (Minnaar type 4). He was successfully treated with staged bilateral arthrodesis with excellent symptom resolution and preservation of function. Literature Review  In patients with isolated STT coalition six reports of surgery exist, two of which were for arthrodesis. This is the first described case of STT arthrodesis in a patient with coexistent lunate-triquetral coalition. Clinical Relevance  The STT arthrodesis remains a safe and effective treatment for STT pain even in cases of occult carpal coalition. Functional range of movement was well preserved. Level of evidence  This is a Level V study.
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of ketamine-associated uropathy

    Chan, VW
    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review and meta-analysis focused on the literature regarding ketamine-associated uropathy to summarise its clinical manifestations, the results of urological assessments, and current management. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using keywords and MeSH terms related to ketamine abuse, urinary tracts, and urological examinations. Databases including Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 26 June 2020. RESULTS: In total, 1365 articles were retrieved; 45 articles (4921 patients) were included in the analysis of patient demographics, clinical manifestations, examination results, and treatments. Frequency was the most common manifestation (pooled prevalence 77.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=56.9%-92.2%), followed by urgency (69.9%, 95% CI=48.8%-87.3%) and suprapubic pain (60.4%, 95% CI=35.3%-82.9%). Upper urinary tract involvement was less common; the pooled prevalence of hydronephrosis was 30.2% (95% CI=22.0%-39.2%). Further workup revealed a pooled functional bladder capacity of 95.23 mL (95% CI=63.57-126.88 mL), pooled voided volume of 113.31 mL (95% CI=59.44- 167.19 mL), and pooled maximum urine flow rate of 8.69 mL/s (95% CI=5.54-11.83 mL/s). Cystoscopic examinations and bladder biopsy revealed frequent urothelial denudation, inflammatory changes, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Treatments included oral medications for symptomatic relief, intravesical therapy, and surgery (eg, hydrodistension and bladder reconstruction), but ketamine abstinence was necessary for improvement. CONCLUSION: Ketamine-associated uropathy frequently involves frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain; upper urinary tract involvement is less common. Affected patients showed reductions in bladder capacity and urine flow rate. Endoscopic and histological analyses often revealed cystitis. Despite variations in treatment, ketamine abstinence is important for all patients with ketamine-associated uropathy.
  • Sodium-Glucose Co-transporter-2 Inhibitors Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series.

    Viswanath, Gokhare; Bandlamudi, N; Madhok, Brijesh
    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are glucose-lowering agents being increasingly used for cardio-renal protection in patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This systematic review identified the clinical risk factors and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in patients undergoing bariatric and metabolic surgery (BMS) on SGLT2i. We found 12 studies with a total of 16 patients (10 females; mean age of 51 years). Apart from one patient, all patients developed DKA in the post-operative period presenting at a median of 5 days after surgery. Most of the patients were euglycaemic on presentation with DKA. Patients undergoing BMS on SGLT2i are at increased risk of developing DKA that can mimic post-operative surgical complications causing diagnostic dilemmas, especially with the euglycaemic variant, and delaying treatment.
  • The Curious Case of Lip Tongue Fusion: A Consequence of Suboptimal Oral Care.

    Xu, Jimmy; Biyani, P; Orr, R
    Oral care is an often difficult and an unappreciated part of hospital life. Patients who are unable to provide their own care rely on assistance from hospital personnel. Most sequelae from suboptimal oral care often present over months if not years, in the form of dental caries and periodontal disease. We present an exception, where a 66-year-old patient who experienced widespread ulceration and necrosis from Capnocytophaga-related sepsis received suboptimal oral care, resulting in their tongue being fused to their lip. This was later divided by the oral and maxillofacial team resulting in restoration of full function. Future cases can be avoided in patients with similar symptoms, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or erythema multiforme, if rigorous oral care can be provided.
  • Proteomic features of skeletal muscle adaptation to resistance exercise training as a function of age.

    Williams, John P
    Resistance exercise training (RET) can counteract negative features of muscle ageing but older age associates with reduced adaptive capacity to RET. Altered muscle protein networks likely contribute to ageing RET adaptation; therefore, associated proteome-wide responses warrant exploration. We employed quantitative sarcoplasmic proteomics to compare age-related proteome and phosphoproteome responses to RET. Thigh muscle biopsies were collected from eight young (25 ± 1.1 years) and eight older (67.5 ± 2.6 years) adults before and after 20 weeks supervised RET. Muscle sarcoplasmic fractions were pooled for each condition and analysed using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) labelling, tandem mass spectrometry and network-based hub protein identification. Older adults displayed impaired RET-induced adaptations in whole-body lean mass, body fat percentage and thigh lean mass (P > 0.05). iTRAQ identified 73 differentially expressed proteins with age and/or RET. Despite possible proteomic stochasticity, RET improved ageing profiles for mitochondrial function and glucose metabolism (top hub; PYK (pyruvate kinase)) but failed to correct altered ageing expression of cytoskeletal proteins (top hub; YWHAZ (14-3-3 protein zeta/delta)). These ageing RET proteomic profiles were generally unchanged or oppositely regulated post-RET in younger muscle. Similarly, RET corrected expression of 10 phosphoproteins altered in ageing, but these responses were again different vs. younger adults. Older muscle is characterised by RET-induced metabolic protein profiles that, whilst not present in younger muscle, improve untrained age-related proteomic deficits. Combined with impaired cytoskeletal adhesion responses, these results provide a proteomic framework for understanding and optimising ageing muscle RET adaptation.
  • Surgical drainage procedures for paediatric chronic pancreatitis: a scoping review

    Awan, Altaf
    Paediatric chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a relatively rare entity, but it can be accompanied by debilitating complications such as pseudocysts, chronic pain and pancreatic duct obstruction. Surgical drainage procedures, such as pancreaticojejunostomy or cystogastrostomy/jejunostomy to address these complications may be required; however, there is a paucity of evidence as to the efficacy and long-term outcomes of these operations in the paediatric population. A scoping review of contemporary (post-2000) studies detailing surgical pancreatic drainage procedures performed in children (< 18 years) was undertaken. After screening, 24 case series detailing a total of 248 patients met the inclusion criteria. Longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy and cystogastrostomy were the most common surgical procedures performed in children with CP and pseudocysts, respectively. Overall generally favourable outcomes were reported, but all studies were considered to have a high risk of bias. Operative management for paediatric CP is infrequently required; therefore, large prospective studies or trials focusing on this population are infeasible, limiting the best available evidence on the topic to case series, level IV. Recommendations to improve the quality of surgical care in the paediatric CP population could include centralisation and the formation of registries to allow accurate long-term follow-up.
  • Safe Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

    Madhok, Brijesh
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has had an enormous impact on all aspects of healthcare, but its effect on patients needing surgery and surgeons has been disproportionate. In this review, we aim to understand the impact of the pandemic on surgical patients and teams. We compiled the emerging data on pre-operative screening methods, vaccinations, safe-surgery pathways and surgical techniques and make recommendations for evidence-based safe-surgical pathways. We also present surgical outcomes for emergency, oncological and benign surgery in the context of the pandemic. Finally, we attempt to address the impact of the pandemic on patients, staff and surgical training and provide perspectives for the future. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgical teams have developed consensus guidelines and established research priorities and safety precautions for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence supports that surgery in patients with a peri-operative SARS-CoV-2 infection carries substantial risks, but risk mitigation strategies are effective at reducing harm to staff and patients. Surgery has increased risk for patients and staff, but this can be mitigated effectively, especially for elective surgery. Elective surgery can be safely performed during the COVID-19 pandemic employing the strategies discussed in this review.
  • COVID-19 Countermeasures: An Algorithm to Stay Unlocked.

    Izadi, D
    We describe a visual algorithm to help prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contagion as well as manage COVID-19 disease according to categories of clinical severity. The algorithm is timely, with multiple countries worldwide declaring repeat surges in SARS-CoV-2 infections following the easing of lockdown measures. Its flowchart assimilates key effective interventions in a visual manner that will assist healthcare workers to manage COVID-19 disease algorithmically, and policymakers to suppress further SARS-CoV-2 waves. Importantly, we include the innovative use of topical p-menthane-3,8-diol spray by the British Army for COVID-19 Support Force personnel, which in light of its coronavirucidal properties, deserves wider dissemination. This algorithm has the potential to be updated as numerous studies are concluded globally.
  • Research priorities in emergency general surgery (EGS): a modified Delphi approach.

    Tierney, Gillian
    BACKGROUND: Emergency general surgery (EGS) patients account for more than one-third of admissions to hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) in England. The associated mortality of these patients has been quoted as approximately eight times higher than that of elective surgical admissions. This study used a modified Delphi approach to identify research priorities in EGS. The aim was to establish a research agenda using a formal consensus-based approach in an effort to identify questions relevant to EGS that could ultimately guide research to improve outcomes for this cohort. METHODS: Three rounds were conducted using an electronic questionnaire and involved health care professionals, research personnel, patients and their relatives. In the first round, stakeholders were invited to submit clinical research questions that they felt were priorities for future research. In rounds two and three, participants were asked to score individual questions in order of priority using a 5-point Likert scale. Between rounds, an expert panel analysed results before forwarding questions to subsequent rounds. RESULTS: Ninety-two EGS research questions were proposed in Phase 1. Following the first round of prioritisation, forty-seven questions progressed to the final phase. A final list of seventeen research questions were identified from the final round of prioritisation, categorised as condition-specific questions of high interest within general EGS, emergency colorectal surgery, non-technical and health services research. A broad range of research questions were identified including questions on peri-operative strategies, EGS outcomes in older patients, as well as non-technical and technical influences on EGS outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a consensus delivered framework that should determine the research agenda for future EGS projects. It may also assist setting priorities for research funding and multi-centre collaborative strategies within the academic clinical interest of EGS.
  • Posterolateral Corner Reconstruction of the Knee Using Gracilis Autograft and Biceps Femoris.

    Stragier, B; Geutjens, G
    We introduce our technique for posterolateral corner reconstruction, which is based on the principle described in Arciero's technique for anatomic reconstruction of lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and popliteofibular ligament (PFL) to gain static stability in varus strain and external rotation. This technique uses a doubled gracilis autograft to reconstruct the PFL and a split biceps tendon transfer to reconstruct the LCL. Using this technique an anatomical LCL and PFL reconstruction can be performed in combination with anterior cruciate ligament or posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction without contralateral graft harvest or allograft. The technique also enables an isolated reconstruction of LCL or PFL when required and can be performed to augment an acute repair.
  • Intraoperative robotic-assisted low anterior rectal resection performance assessment using procedure-specific binary metrics and a global rating scale.

    Tou, Samson
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the use of binary metric-based (proficiency-based progression; PBP) performance assessments and global evaluative assessment of robotic skills (GEARS) of a robotic-assisted low anterior rectal resection (RA-LAR) procedure. METHOD: A prospective study of video analysis of RA-LAR procedures was carried out using the PBP metrics with binary parameters previously developed, and GEARS. Recordings were collected from five novice surgeons (≤30 RA-LAR previously performed) and seven experienced surgeons (>30 RA-LAR previously performed). Two consultant colorectal surgeons were trained to be assessors in the use of PBP binary parameters to evaluate the procedure phases, surgical steps, errors, and critical errors in male and female patients and GEARS scores. Novice and experienced surgeons were categorized and assessed using PBP metrics and GEARS; mean scores obtained were compared for statistical purpose. Also, the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of these assessment tools was evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty unedited recordings of RA-LAR procedures were blindly assessed. Overall, using PBP metric-based assessment, a subgroup of experienced surgeons made more errors (20 versus 16, P = 0.158) and critical errors (9.2 versus 7.8, P = 0.417) than the novice group, although not significantly. However, during the critical phase of RA-LAR, experienced surgeons made significantly fewer errors than the novice group (95% CI of the difference, Lower = 0.104 - Upper = 5.155, df = 11.9, t = 2.23, p = 0.042), and a similar pattern was observed for critical errors. The PBP metric and GEARS assessment tools distinguished between the objectively assessed performance of experienced and novice colorectal surgeons performing RA-LAR (total error scores with PBP metrics, P = 0.019-0.008; GEARS scores, P = 0.029-0.025). GEARS demonstrated poor IRR (mean IRR 0.49) and weaker discrimination between groups (15-41 per cent difference). PBP binary metrics demonstrated good IRR (mean 0.94) and robust discrimination particularly for total error scores (58-64 per cent). CONCLUSIONS: PBP binary metrics seem to be useful for metric-based training for surgeons learning RA-LAR procedures.
  • Nonfreezing Cold Injury and Cold Intolerance in Paddlesport.

    Oakley, Ben; Johnson, Nicholas; Bainbridge, Chris
    INTRODUCTION: Nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) occurs when tissues are subjected to prolonged cooling that causes tissue damage, but not freezing. Long-term effects include cold intolerance, with allodynia, pain, or numbness of the affected limb. Those who participate in outdoor paddlesports are at particular risk. METHODS: This is an epidemiological study that aimed to determine the risk factors for paddlesport athletes developing NFCI and chronic cold intolerance in their hands. Secondary outcomes were to correlate cumulative cold exposure with the development of cold intolerance and to identify risk factors for developing NFCI or cold intolerance. Six hundred nine athletes responded to a survey distributed by their national governing body obtaining demographic and activity details, symptoms of NFCI, and a cold intolerance severity score (CISS). RESULTS: Twenty-three percent reported symptoms consistent with acute NFCI. The median CISS was 31 y (interquartile range 25-43 y), and 15% had a pathological CISS defined as >50. Females and individuals with Raynaud's phenomenon or migraines had a significantly higher CISS (P<0.05). Regression analysis found that females, smokers, and those with Raynaud's phenomenon or a previous nerve injury had a significantly higher risk of developing pathological cold intolerance (CISS >50). There was no correlation between cumulative cold exposure and CISS. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of paddlesport athletes undertaking activity in cold conditions have a pathological CISS or episodes consistent with NFCI. Cumulative cold exposure was not associated with a pathologically high CISS. The risk factors were female sex, smokers, and those suffering from either Raynaud's phenomenon or nerve injury.
  • The false dichotomy of surgical futility in the emergency laparotomy setting: scoping review.

    Tierney, Gillian
    BACKGROUND: Futile is defined as 'the fact of having no effect or of achieving nothing'. Futility in medicine has been defined through seven guiding principles, which in the context of emergency surgery, have been relatively unexplored. This scoping review aimed to identify key concepts around surgical futility as it relates to emergency laparotomy. METHODS: Using the Arksey and O'Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted. A search of the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, and Embase was performed up until 1 November 2021 to identify literature relevant to the topic of futility in emergency laparotomy. RESULTS: Three cohort studies were included in the analysis. A total of 105 157 patients were included, with 1114 patients reported as futile. All studies were recent (2019 to 2020) and focused on the principle of quantitative futility (assessment of the probability of death after surgery) within a timeline after surgery: two defining futility as death within 48 hours of surgery and one as death within 72 hours. In all cases this was derived from a survival histogram. Predictors of defined futile procedures included age, level of independence prior to admission, surgical pathology, serum creatinine, arterial lactate, and pH. CONCLUSION: There remains a paucity of research defining, exploring, and analysing futile surgery in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. With limited published work focusing on quantitative futility and the binary outcome of death, research is urgently needed to explore all principles of futility, including the wishes of patients and their families.
  • Epiploic Appendagitis in an Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Husain, Najam; Bhatia, Vilomi; Rahman, Muhammed
    Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is a rare and frequently overlooked cause of abdominal pain. EA within the sigmoid colon in a right-sided inguinal hernia is a rare entity with only a few cases reported. In this article, we present a case of an 80-year-old male with a palpable mass within an incarcerated right inguinal hernia. The patient underwent urgent surgical intervention due to incarceration and the operative findings were of a large indirect inguinoscrotal hernia containing sigmoid colon, with an inflamed epiploic appendage. The colon was reduced into the abdominal cavity and standard tension-free Lichtenstein repair was performed. EA should be a consideration in patients with an acute abdomen as well as those with a painful groin lump. CT is diagnostic; however, emergency surgery should not be delayed for a scan if the hernia is irreducible and tender.
  • Cervical arthroplasty in a professional kick-boxing fighter, 7 years follow-up.

    Klezl, Zdenek
    Spinal surgery in professional athletes is a topic of much discussion. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the standard procedure used by surgeons, and other techniques used to treat athletes includes foraminotomies, laminoplasties and total disc replacement. Total disc replacement is an unusual technique used to treat athletes in general and is becoming a more important issue in full contact sports. This case report illustrates a 34 years old professional fighter that suffered a cervical injury that evolved with cervical axial pain and irradiated pain and numbness. She was submitted to total disc replacement (TDR) at the C5-6 level, returning to competitive sports after and with a seven-year follow-up. To the date she remains symptom free and besides having an anterior foramen, the spine was able to keep movement at that level. TDR may be a safe and trustworthy technique when treating elite athletes.
  • Green Tea Extract Concurrent with an Oral Nutritional Supplement Acutely Enhances Muscle Microvascular Blood Flow without Altering Leg Glucose Uptake in Healthy Older Adults.

    Lund, Jonathan; Williams, John P (2021)
    Postprandial macro- and microvascular blood flow and metabolic dysfunction manifest with advancing age, so vascular transmuting interventions are desirable. In this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, we investigated the impact of the acute administration of green tea extract (GTE; containing ~500 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate) versus placebo (CON), alongside an oral nutritional supplement (ONS), on muscle macro- and microvascular, cerebral macrovascular (via ultrasound) and leg glucose/insulin metabolic responses (via arterialised/venous blood samples) in twelve healthy older adults (42% male, 74 ± 1 y). GTE increased m. vastus lateralis microvascular blood volume (MBV) at 180 and 240 min after ONS (baseline: 1.0 vs. 180 min: 1.11 ± 0.02 vs. 240 min: 1.08 ± 0.04, both p < 0.005), with MBV significantly higher than CON at 180 min (p < 0.05). Neither the ONS nor the GTE impacted m. tibialis anterior perfusion (p > 0.05). Leg blood flow and vascular conductance increased, and vascular resistance decreased similarly in both conditions (p < 0.05). Small non-significant increases in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation were observed in the GTE only and middle cerebral artery blood flow did not change in response to GTE or CON (p > 0.05). Glucose uptake increased with the GTE only (0 min: 0.03 ± 0.01 vs. 35 min: 0.11 ± 0.02 mmol/min/leg, p = 0.007); however, glucose area under the curve and insulin kinetics were similar between conditions (p > 0.05). Acute GTE supplementation enhances MBV beyond the effects of an oral mixed meal, but this improved perfusion does not translate to increased leg muscle glucose uptake in healthy older adults.
  • SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased risk of idiopathic acute pancreatitis but not pancreatic exocrine insufficiency or diabetes: long-term results of the COVIDPAN study.

    Awan, Altaf (BMJ, 2021)
    SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased risk of idiopathic acute pancreatitis but not pancreatic exocrine insufficiency or diabetes: long-term results of the COVIDPAN study.

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