• Lymph node ratio versus number of affected lymph nodes as predictors of survival for resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

      Peacock, Oliver; Awan, Altaf (2012-04)
      BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the prognostic significance of the lymph node ratio (LNR) with the absolute number of affected lymph nodes for resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Data were collected from 84 patients who had undergone pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma over a 10-year period. Patients were categorized into four groups according to the absolute LNR (0, 0-0.199, 0.2-0.299, > or =0.3). Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the prognostic effect. RESULTS: An LNR of > or =0.2 (median survival 8.1 vs. 35.7 months with LNR < 0.2; p < 0.001) and > or =0.3 (median survival 5.9 vs. 29.6 months with LNR < 0.3; p < 0.001), tumor size (p < 0.017), positive resection margin (p < 0.001), and nodal involvement (p < 0.001) were found to be significant prognostic markers following univariate analysis. Following multivariate analysis, only LNR at both levels [> or =0.2 (p = 0.05; HR 1.8) and LNR of > or =0.3 (p = 0.01; HR 2.7)] were independent predictors of a poor outcome. The number of lymph nodes examined had no effect on overall survival in either node-positive patients (p = 0.339) or node-negative patients (p = 0.473). CONCLUSIONS: The LNR represents a stronger independent prognostic indicator than the absolute number of affected lymph nodes in patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
    • Preoperative hematologic markers as independent predictors of prognosis in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: neutrophil-lymphocyte versus platelet-lymphocyte ratio.

      Peacock, Oliver (2010-08)
      BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the preoperative hematologic markers, the platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), or the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ratio are significant prognostic indicators in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A total of 84 patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma over a 10-year period were identified from a retrospectively maintained database. RESULTS: The preoperative NLR was found to be a significant prognostic marker (P = .023), whereas PLR had no significant relationship with survival (P = .642) using univariate Cox survival analysis. The median overall survival in patients with an NLR of < or =3.0 (n = 55) was 13.7, 17.0 months in those with an NLR of 3.0 to 4.0 (n = 17) and 5.9 months in patients with a value of >4.0 (n = 12) (log rank, P = .016). The NLR retained its significance on multivariate analysis (P = .039) along with resection margin status (P = .001). CONCLUSION: The preoperative NLR represents a significant independent prognostic indicator in patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, whereas PLR does not.
    • Selective oestrogen receptor antagonists inhibit oesophageal cancer cell proliferation in vitro.

      Al-Khyatt, Waleed; Iftikhar, Syed (2018-02)
      BACKGROUND: Oestrogen receptors (ER) have a well-established role to the initiation, progression and regulation of responses to treatment of breast, prostate, and lung cancers. Previous data indicates altered ER expression in oesophageal cancers (OC). However the role of ER subtypes and ER specific inhibitors in the regulation of OC progression remains unclear. This study sought to assess levels of ERα and ERβ in OC. The effects of highly selective ER antagonists on cell proliferation and apoptosis in two OC adenocarcinoma cell lines was also studied. METHODS: ERα and ERβ expression profiling in paired normal oesophageal mucosa and tumour tissues (n = 34; adenocarcinoma n = 28; squamous cell carcinoma n = 6) was performed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Correlation between levels of ER with the clinico-pathological features for OC was determined. The effect of selective ER antagonists on proliferation of OE33 and OE19 OC cell lines was studied. RESULTS: ERα and ERβ mRNA expression was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in tumour tissues relative to their paired normal mucosa and correlated inversely with survival outcome (p < 0.05). Upregulation of ERα mRNA correlated with higher pathological T-stage (p < 0.05) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05) while ERβ mRNA upregulation correlated with positive vascular invasion (p < 0.05). A significant concentration-dependent inhibition of proliferation in OE33 and OE19 cell lines was induced by a highly-selective ERα antagonist (MPP) and an ERβ specific antagonist (PHTPP) (p < 0.05). Moreover, anti-oestrogens induced cell death through stimulation of apoptotic caspase activity. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the ER system is involved in OC progression and thus may provide a novel target for the treatment of OC.