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Anticholinergic drugs and risk of dementia: Time for action?Evidence suggests that the prescription of bladder anticholinergics is increasing. Recent studies have accentuated concerns about whether certain prescribed medications could increase risk of dementia, including anticholinergic drugs, and specifically anticholinergics used for bladder symptoms. Nevertheless, it can be difficult to draw together the evidence to review the case for possible causation. Recognising this issue in 1965, Bradford-Hill set out nine criteria to help assess whether evidence of a causal relationship could be inferred between a presumed cause and an observed effect. In this commentary, we explore the extent to which associations between anticholinergics and dementia satisfy the Bradford-Hill criteria and examine the potential implications. First, we look at studies that have examined the relationship between anticholinergic drugs with urological properties (bladder drugs) and the onset of dementia, and then present those studies which specifically focus on the cognitive effects of bladder drugs that affect muscarinic receptors in the brain versus the bladder on older people along with suggestions for future research. We also discuss the risks and benefits of these drugs for treating overactive bladder. If it can be shown that certain medications carry a specific risk of dementia, it is possible that initiatives to change prescribing could become a key tool in reducing the risk of dementia and may be easier to implement than some lifestyle changes.
Relationship between urinary nitrate concentrations and cognitive function in older adults: Findings from the NHANES surveyThis study evaluated the association of urinary nitrate concentrations with cognition in older subjects enrolled in the NHANES study. We also explored whether associations between urinary nitrate and cognition were modified by cardiovascular risk, vitamin D status and vitamin C intake. Two NHANES cycles were merged (2011-2012 and 2013-2014) and a total of 1,015 adults aged 60-80 (69.4 ± 0.3) years were included. Cognition was assessed using the Word List Learning, Word List Recall, Animal Fluency and the Digit Symbol Substitution tests. Urinary nitrate was analysed using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Urinary nitrate concentrations were not associated with cognitive performance on any of the cognitive tests. Associations were also not significant in subjects at greater risk for cognitive impairment (i.e. high cardiovascular risk and non-optimal vitamin D status). Longitudinal analyses are needed to explore the associations of urinary nitrate concentrations with dietary nitrate intake and cognitive function.
Review of Love your gusset: Making friends with your pelvic floorReviews the book, Love your gusset: Making friends with your pelvic floor by Grace Dorey (2007). This is a delightful little book for women of all ages with a most light-hearted but clear and concise approach to help women learn to love and to strengthen their pelvic floor. This book is for women of all ages. It invites them to look at their pelvic floor and shows them how with a few simple daily exercises 'their gussets can be transformed'. It is divided into six sections, which describe and discuss various issues and topics such as getting to know your gusset; strengthening your gusset; gussets and babies; sexual, continence and various other problems as well as sensible and healthy lifestyle advice in relation to your gusset. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Cognitive impairment after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)Purpose: It has been suggested that cognitive impairment may occur following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) operations due to the effects of anaesthesia or hyponatraemia or both. The aim of the study was to investigate whether TURP was associated with long-term memory complaints or cognitive impairment. Method. Patients who had received a TURP or transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TURT) in the previous 10 months were sent a questionnaire on memory problems and mood. Seventy-six TURP patients and 38 TURT patients returned the completed questionnaires. A sample of each patient group (30 TURP, 29 TURT) was assessed on standardized tests of cognitive abilities. Results: There was no significant difference between the TURP and TURT patients on the Everyday Memory Questionnaire completed by themselves or by a family member (p > 0.05). On formal cognitive testing there were no significant differences between the groups, except on the overall grading of the Kendrick Assessment Scales of Cognitive Ageing, in which TURP patients performed at a significantly lower level than TURT patients. Conclusions: The results suggest that patients are no more likely to complain of memory problems following a TURP than with any other operative procedure. There was a slight difference in cognitive abilities but this did not indicate significant impairment of cognitive function. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.