Recent Submissions

  • Are dental-related psychological variables important for dental attendance in China? A cross-sectional study

    Topcu, Gogem (2021)
    OBJECTIVEDental services are expanding in China, yet there is little evidence available on the dental-related psychological factors contributing to the uptake of dental services. Our study explored whether beliefs, anxiety, and cognitions significantly differ across different levels of attendance, and whether dental-related psychological variables can independently predict dental attendance in Chinese adults. We also explored the extent to which cognitions and beliefs relate to attendance as a function of dental anxiety.METHODIn our cross-sectional study 480 adult participants in China completed a questionnaire including dental attendance and measures of dental-related psychological variables (dental cognitions, beliefs, anxiety, and fear of dental pain).RESULTSOnly 25.8% of participants visited the dentist regularly. There was a significant difference for all dental-related psychological variables (p < 0.001), across all three levels of dental attendance (never; irregularly or regularly attend). Thus, fear of dental pain and dental anxiety are higher, and cognitions and beliefs are more negative, for those who have less favorable dental service utilization. All these variables, except fear of dental pain, were also independent predictors of dental attendance (p < 0.05). Moreover, how individuals think, and what they believe, about the dentist (and the dental context) were only partially explained through dental anxiety. Thus, beliefs (β = 0.579, SE = 0.035, p < 0.001) and cognitions (β = 0.594, SE = 0.045, p < 0.001) are impacting on dental attendance, mostly independent of whether the individual is anxious.CONCLUSIONOur preliminary findings show dental-related psychological factors are related to dental attendance and these should be explored further in a larger sample.
  • "I don't want to take buprenorphine for the rest of my life": Acceptance and commitment therapy for a client struggling to reduce low-dose buprenorphine (a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design)

    Prity, Beth; Tickle, Anna C. (2021)
    The misuse of substances is often maintained by both physical and psychological factors. Opioid-substitution medications manage physical aspects of addiction; however, difficulties with emotional regulation and avoidance perpetuate continued substance misuse. In the UK, individuals who misuse substances are often excluded from mental health services, meaning these underlying difficulties are not addressed. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) seeks to reduce emotional avoidance. A hermeneutic single-case efficacy design was used to evaluate the effects of ACT within drugs and alcohol service. Quantitative and qualitative data was critically analysed to understand factors involved in identified changes. Analysis recognised the client progressed towards two of three of their goals, related to motivation and anxiety. Their psychological flexibility also increased. ACT processes played a key role in this; however, the therapeutic relationship and psychopharmacological factors were also noted. Study limitations and clinical and research implications are discussed.
  • Nutritional interventions in older people with COVID-19: an overview of the evidence

    Archer, Elizabeth (2021)
    Older people are a high-risk group for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because of a range of factors, including age-related changes in anatomical pulmonary and muscle function, decreased immunity and increased inflammation. These factors partly explain why older people with COVID-19 experience more severe symptoms and higher mortality than younger adults and are more likely to require nutritional support. Furthermore, there is an association between suboptimal nutritional status and poorer recovery from COVID-19. Therefore, nutritional interventions are an important aspect of care for older people with COVID-19. All members of the multidisciplinary team, including dietitians and nurses, need to assess, treat and prevent nutritional deficiencies in older people with COVID-19. This literature review provides an overview of the evidence regarding the role of nutritional interventions in the treatment of, and recovery from, COVID-19 in older people.
  • Sarcopenic obesity is associated with telomere shortening: findings from the NHANES 1999-2002

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2021)
    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is characterised by the concurrent presence of sarcopenia and excess adiposity. Telomere shortening has been associated with sarcopenia and obesity alone but the association between SO and telomere length (TL) has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate SO and TL in an adult population. Data were from 5397 individuals (mean age = 44.7 years, 51.3% male) enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body composition (BC) was assessed by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Two models were used to assess SO: a BC model including four phenotypes derived from the combination of high or low adiposity and muscle mass; and, a truncal fat mass to appendicular skeletal mass ratio (TrFM/ASM). TL was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and expressed as base pairs. The mean TL, relative to the reference DNA, was calculated and expressed as the mean T/S ratio. A General Linear Model was applied to determine associations between TL for SO. In adjusted analysis, only individuals with SO, defined as the presence of high adiposity-low muscle mass (four-phenotype model), had significantly shorter telomeres (p = 0.05) than the reference group (i.e. low adiposity-high muscle mass), with a mean T/S ratio of 1.02 (95%CI: 0.98–1.05) compared to 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01–1.09), respectively. TrFM/ASM was not associated with TL. Preliminary findings suggest that sarcopenia and obesity may act synergistically to shorten telomeres.
  • Does knowledge of liver fibrosis affect high-risk drinking behaviour (KLIFAD)? protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial

    Jones, Katy A.; Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan (2021)
    INTRODUCTIONHeavy drinkers in contact with alcohol services do not routinely have access to testing to establish the severity of potential liver disease. Transient elastography by FibroScan can provide this information. A recent systematic review suggested providing feedback to patients based on markers of liver injury can be an effective way to reduce harmful alcohol intake. This randomised control trial (RCT) aims to establish the feasibility of conducting a larger national trial to test the effectiveness of FibroScan advice and Alcohol Recovery Video Stories (ARVS) in changing high-risk drinking behaviour in community alcohol services common to UK practice.METHODS AND ANALYSISThis feasibility trial consists of three work packages (WP). WP1: To draft a standardised script for FibroScan operators to deliver liver disease-specific advice to eligible participants having FibroScan. WP2: To create a video library of ARVS for use in the feasibility RCT (WP3). WP3: To test the feasibility of the trial design, including the FibroScan script and video stories developed in WP1 and WP2 in a one-to-one individual randomised trial in community alcohol services. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted at 6 months follow-up for qualitative evaluation. Outcomes will be measures of the feasibility of conducting a larger RCT. These outcomes will relate to: participant recruitment and follow-up, intervention delivery, including the use of the Knowledge of LIver Fibrosis Affects Drinking trial FibroScan scripts and videos, clinical outcomes, and the acceptability and experience of the intervention and trial-related procedures. Data analysis will primarily be descriptive to address the feasibility aims of the trial. All proposed analyses will be documented in a Statistical Analysis Plan.ETHICS AND DISSEMINATIONThis trial received favourable ethical approval from the West of Scotland Research Ethics Service (WoSRES) on 20 January 2021, REC reference: 20/WS/0179. Results will be submitted for publication to a peer-reviewed journal.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERISRCTN16922410.
  • Single session and short-term exercise for mental health promotion in tertiary students: A scoping review

    Carter, Tim (2021)
    Exercise can improve mental health; however many tertiary students do not reach recommended levels of weekly engagement. Short-term exercise may be more achievable for tertiary students to engage in to promote mental health, particularly during times of high stress. The current scoping review aimed to provide an overview of controlled trials testing the effect of short-term (single bout and up to 3 weeks) exercise across mental health domains, both at rest and in response to an experimentally manipulated laboratory stress task, in tertiary students. The search was conducted using 'Evidence Finder,' a database of published and systematic reviews and controlled trials of interventions in the youth mental health field. A total of 14 trials meet inclusion criteria, six measured mental health symptoms in response to an experimentally manipulated laboratory stress task and the remaining eight measured mental health symptoms. We found that short-term exercise interventions appeared to reduce anxiety like symptoms and anxiety sensitivity and buffered against a drop in mood following an experimentally manipulated laboratory stress task. There was limited available evidence testing the impacts of exercise on depression like symptoms and other mental health mental health domains, suggesting further work is required. Universities should consider implementing methods to increase student knowledge about the relationship between physical exercise and mental health and student access to exercise facilities.
  • Mediterranean diet and cognitive function: From methodology to mechanisms of action

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2021)
    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), rich in minimally processed plant foods and fish, has been widely recognized to be one of the healthiest diets. Data from multiple randomized clinical trials have demonstrated its powerful effect against oxidative stress, inflammation and the development and progression of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic conditions that play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The protecting effects of the MedDiet against cognitive decline have been investigated in several observational and experimental studies. Data from observational studies suggest that the MedDiet may represent an effective dietary strategy for the early prevention of dementia, although these findings require further substantiation in clinical trials which have so far produced inconclusive results. Moreover, as we discuss in this review, accumulating data emphasizes the importance of: 1) maintaining an optimal nutritional and metabolic status for the promotion of healthy cognitive aging, and 2) implementing cognition-sparing dietary and lifestyle interventions during early time-sensitive windows before the pathological cascades turn into an irreversible state. In summary, components of the MedDiet pattern, such as essential fatty acids, polyphenols and vitamins, have been associated with reduced oxidative stress and the current evidence from observational studies seems to assign to the MedDiet a beneficial role in promoting brain health; however, results from clinical trials have been inconsistent. While we advocate for longitudinal analyses and for larger and longer clinical trials to be conducted, we assert our interim support to the use of the MedDiet as a protective dietary intervention for cognitive function based on its proven cardiovascular and metabolic benefits.
  • Motivation and willingness to increase physical activity for dementia risk reduction: Cross-Sectional UK survey with people aged 50 and over

    Jones, Katy A.; Orrell, Martin (2021)
    METHODSAttitudes to increasing physical activity to reduce risk of dementia were assessed in a national online survey promoted via online forums and public adverts. The Motivation to Change Behaviour for Dementia Risk Reduction (MOCHAD-10) scale examined motivation for lifestyle change. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of willingness and motivation to increase physical activity.RESULTSData from 3,948 individuals showed most people were moderately/very physically active (80%). People more likely to be physically active had better health and education, were older, male, and had a partner. People willing to increase physical activity (73%) were more likely to be younger, non-White, underweight, had better health and lifestyles, and had experience caring for someone with dementia. People with higher levels of motivation to change lifestyle (MOCHAD-10 subscales) were more likely to be female, younger, in poorer physical/mental health, had lower perceived mental activity, and were a carer for someone with dementia.CONCLUSIONMen and those with better health status were more physically active. Those who exercised less and those who were more motivated to increase physical activity were not necessarily able to be physically active. Multisectoral public health strategies should seek to use the high motivation levels among this group to mitigate the barriers related to physical activity for dementia risk reduction.
  • Improving smoking cessation support for people with multiple sclerosis: A qualitative analysis of clinicians' views and current practice

    das Nair, Roshan (2021)
    Introduction Smoking is a key modifiable risk factor in multiple sclerosis (MS). MS healthcare providers have a central role informing people of the deleterious effects of smoking on MS progression and promote smoking cessation, yet there is limited information about smoking cessation and support provided by these providers. This study aimed to gain an understanding of MS healthcare providers current practices, barriers and facilitators related to providing smoking cessation support for people with MS. Methods A total of 13 MS nurses and 6 neurologists working in public and private MS clinics across Australia were recruited through professional networks and MS organisations. Telephone interviews were conducted, transcribed and evaluated using framework analysis. Results MS nurses and neurologists reported that they routinely assess smoking status of people with MS at initial appointments and less regularly also at follow-up appointments. Clinicians considered it important to provide information about smoking impact on MS health outcomes and advise to cease smoking, but the content and delivery varies. Beyond this, some clinicians offer referral for smoking cessation support, while others stated this was not their responsibility, especially in light of competing priorities. Many were unsure about referral pathways and options, requiring more information, training and resources. Conclusion Results of this research indicate that there is potential to improve support for MS clinicians to promote smoking cessation among people with MS. Smoking cessation support may include tailored patient resources, clinician training and stronger collaboration with smoking cessation service providers.
  • Therapeutic community work with people who have sexually offended: Responding to developments in research and practice

    Jones, Lawrence F. (2021)
    Purpose This paper aims to review the clinical approach adopted in prison-based therapeutic communities (TCs) for working with residents who have committed sexual offences. It reviews recent research and practice developments and explores the implications for TCs. Design/methodology/approach This paper describes a “think tank” review process which explores and reviews practice. This paper discusses the current approach adopted by TCs when working with those who have sexually offended and explores changes in clinical approach which could be considered in the light of current developments. Findings This paper explores the implications for TCs of the recent research and wider practice developments in interventions for those who have sexually offended. Practical implications This paper presents clinical options for working with those who deny their offence and undertaking victim empathy and offence disclosure work. It makes recommendations regarding staff training and support. It also discusses the strengths of the TC approach and how these can be built upon. Social implications This paper makes recommendations concerning how practice could be improved which promotes safety and public protection and enhances resident well-being. Originality/value There has been no recent review of TC clinical practice for working with those who have sexually offended.
  • How accurate and effective are screening tools and subsequent interventions for intimate partner violence in non-high-risk settings (IPV)? A rapid review

    McGarry, Julie (2021)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to estimate the accuracy and effectiveness of screening tools and subsequent interventions in the detection and treatment of intimate partner violence (IPV) in non-high-risk settings (defined here as those in which routine IPV screening does not take place in the UK, such as in general practice). Design/methodology/approach Rapid review as defined by Grant and Booth - it is used under time or financial constraint to assess what is known using systematic review methods. Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Cochrane Library databases to May 2019 were searched for "intimate partner violence" and synonyms plus terms related to screening and interventions. A Medline update was performed in August 2020. Data were extracted with the help of a predesigned tool and were synthesised to answer the two study aims. Data were mixed quantitative and qualitative. Findings The search yielded 10 relevant papers on screening (6 on accuracy and 4 on effectiveness) and 13 on intervention. These showed evidence of the effectiveness of simple screening tools and of subsequent interventions. However, the evidence was insufficient to support a change in UK guidelines which currently do not recommend their use outside of current high-risk environments. Originality/value Clinicians outside of high-risk areas should consider the use of some IPV screening tools and interventions but only within research protocols to gather further evidence.
  • Physical health monitoring in antipsychotic depot clinic

    Davies, Rebecca; Priya, Anu; Bhogal, Hardev; Omodara, Adesola; Mittal, Shweta (2021)
    Aims A service evaluation project to look at if annual bloods, ECG, physical examination, and medical review was completed within the last year for patients attending anti-psychotic depot clinic at Bassetlaw mental health services in Nottinghamshire HealthCare NHS Foundation Trust. Method Electronic notes were examined in October 2020 for 25 patients who attend anti-psychotic depot clinic to ascertain if medical review and physical examination had been completed along with annual bloods and ECG. Result Out of 25 patients attending depot clinic in 2020 at Bassetlaw Hospital, 21 had all their blood tests done, 1 patient had refused bloods and 2 patients did not have blood tests done. ECG was completed for 3 patients at Bassetlaw hospital and 8 patients had it requested from primary care with 2 patients refusing to have ECG done. For 12 patients there was no evidence of ECG being requested or completed. 8 patients had physical examination completed and rest 17 patients did not have the physical examination completed including due to refusal. Out of 25, only 14 patients had a medical review conducted. Conclusion Patients who attend depot clinic may have an allocated community psychiatric nurse (CPN) or get reviewed by medics in outpatient clinics and would usually have their blood tests, physical health examination and ECGs requested and monitored by them. Patients who do not have any allocated CPN or medic tend to miss out on blood tests and ECG. General Practitioners are expected to complete physical health checks for patients who do not have CPN or regular outpatient review. The results of these investigations may not always be received in depot clinic, hence there is no documentation on electronic RIO system. When these patients disengage from the depot clinic, it is often very difficult to track them. As a follow-up from this service evaluation, all depot clinic patients will be allocated a key worker/CPN. This will ensure that they have a responsible person to facilitate annual checks. This will be reviewed in a years' time to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention.
  • Acute psychotic presentation in syphilis-the great imitator is back

    Katshu, Mohammad Z. (2021)
    In the late 19th and the early 20th century, general paresis of the insane, as it was known historically, or neurosyphilis was a common cause of new-onset psychosis. Symptomatic neurosyphilis was reported in 10-20% patients with syphilis (Singh & Romanowski 1999). The widespread use of penicillin resulted in a marked reduction in syphilis (Kim 1965). Towards the end of the 20th century, syphilis was considered a rare disease and its relevance in clinical training and practice in general, and in neuropsychiatric settings in particular, diminished (Ropper 2019). Unfortunately, there has been a global resurgence of syphilis over the past decade. In England, between 2010 and 2019, the number of newly diagnosed syphilis patients increased from 2646 to 7982 (Mitchell et al. 2020). A similar increase from 45844 to 115045 was observed in the USA between 2010 and 2018 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2019). Despite these increasing numbers, the clinical interest in syphilis, known for its protean manifestations earning the name of the 'great imitator', remains low.
  • Barriers and motivators for tobacco smoking cessation in people with multiple sclerosis

    das Nair, Roshan (2021)
    INTRODUCTIONSmoking is a key modifiable risk factor for health outcomes of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Little evidence exists on whether the information and support needs of people with MS who smoke are met. This study aimed to explore knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about smoking and quitting, and quitting support needs in Australian people with MS.METHODSCurrent and recent smokers were recruited for phone interviews through social media and newsletters. Interview data were analysed in NVivo using framework analysis.RESULTSWe interviewed 25 people with MS (20 current and five recent smokers). Many participants had little knowledge about the risks of smoking on MS progression. Some reported perceived benefits from smoking on MS symptoms, while others perceived smoking worsening their symptoms. Similarly, quitting was believed to have health benefits, but concerns about withdrawal symptoms and the impact on MS symptoms and relapses were common. Participants reported ambivalence discussing smoking with clinicians; some wanting more information and support, while also feeling shame or guilt. Many participants were asked about their smoking status by MS clinicians, however, the provision of evidence-based information, and referrals to quitting support services was very infrequent. General practitioners were often found helpful and supportive, but participants gave more weight to quit advice from MS clinicians.CONCLUSIONOur results are the first to indicate that smoking cessation needs of Australian people with MS are not met. These findings should be confirmed in a larger sample, but there is potential to investigate whether implementing routine provision of brief advice in MS care, as a coordinated effort between MS researchers, practitioners, consumer advocates and behavioural intervention services, may meet these needs. Further, developing targeted resources and training quit counsellors to provide appropriate information and support specific to people with MS may improve smoking cessation success in people with MS.
  • Safety of antidepressants in a primary care cohort of adults with obesity and depression

    Morriss, Richard K. (2021)
    BACKGROUNDObesity, depressive disorders and antidepressant drugs are associated with increased mortality, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fractures and falls. We explored outcomes associated with the most commonly prescribed antidepressants in overweight or obese people with depression.METHODS AND FINDINGSWe identified a cohort of overweight or obese adults (≥18 years) in primary care from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, linked with hospital and mortality data, between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2016 who developed incident depression to January 2019. Cox proportional hazards models and 99% confidence intervals were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for mortality, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and falls/fractures associated with exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic (TCA)/other, combination antidepressants, citalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, amitriptyline and mirtazapine, adjusting for potential confounding variables. In 519,513 adults, 32,350 (9.2 per 1,000 years) displayed incident depression and 21,436 (66.3%) were prescribed ≥1 antidepressant. Compared with no antidepressants, all antidepressant classes were associated with increased relative risks of cardiovascular disorders [SSRI HR: 1.32 (1.14-1.53), TCA/Other HR: 1.26 (1.01-1.58)], and diabetes (any type) [SSRI HR: 1.28 (1.10-1.49), TCA/Other: 1.52 (1.19-1.94)]. All commonly prescribed antidepressants except citalopram were associated with increased mortality compared with no antidepressants. However, prescription ≥1 year of ≥40mg citalopram was associated with increased mortality and falls/fractures and ≥1 year 100mg sertraline with increased falls/fractures.CONCLUSIONSIn overweight/obese people with depression, antidepressants may be overall and differentially associated with increased risks of some adverse outcomes. Further research is required to exclude indication bias and residual confounding.
  • Mediterranean diet and the hallmarks of ageing

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2021)
    Ageing is a multifactorial process associated with reduced function and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Recently, nine cellular and molecular hallmarks of ageing have been identified, which characterise the ageing process, and collectively, may be key determinants of the ageing trajectory. These include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intercellular communication. Healthier dietary patterns reduce the risk of age-related diseases and increase longevity and may influence positively one or more of these hallmarks. The Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) is a plant-based eating pattern that was typical of countries such as Greece, Spain, and Italy pre-globalisation of the food system and which is associated with better health during ageing. Here we review the potential effects of a MedDiet on each of the nine hallmarks of ageing, and provide evidence that the MedDiet as a whole, or individual elements of this dietary pattern, may influence each hallmark positively-effects which may contribute to the beneficial effects of this dietary pattern on age-related disease risk and longevity. We also highlight potential avenues for future research.
  • Feasibility and acceptability of a multi-domain intervention to increase Mediterranean diet adherence and physical activity in older UK adults at risk of dementia: protocol for the MedEx-UK randomised controlled trial

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2021)
    INTRODUCTION: Dementia prevalence continues to increase, and effective interventions are needed to prevent, delay or slow its progression. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and increased physical activity (PA) have been proposed as strategies to facilitate healthy brain ageing and reduce dementia risk. However, to date, there have been no dementia prevention trials in the UK focussed on combined dietary and PA interventions. This study aims to: (1) assess feasibility and acceptability of a theory-underpinned digital and group-based intervention for dementia risk reduction in an 'at risk' UK cohort; (2) evaluate behaviour change responses to the intervention; and, (3) provide information on cognitive, neurological, vascular and physiological outcomes to inform the design of a follow-on, full-scale efficacy trial. METHODS: One hundred and eight participants aged 55 to 74 years with a QRISK2 score of ≥10% will be recruited to take part in this 24-week multi-site study. Participants will be randomised into three parallel arms: (1) Control; (2) MedDiet; and, (3) MedDiet+PA. The study will evaluate a personalised website, group session and food delivery intervention to increase MedDiet adherence and PA in older adults at risk of dementia. Diet and PA will be monitored prior to, during and following the intervention. Feasibility, acceptability and hypothesised mediators will be assessed in addition to measures of cognitive function, brain structure/perfusion (MRI), vascular function and metabolic markers (blood, urine and faecal) prior to, and following, the intervention. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide insights into the feasibility, acceptability and mechanism of effect of a multi-domain intervention focussed on the MedDiet alone and PA for dementia risk reduction in an 'at risk' UK cohort. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received NHS REC and HRA approval (18/NI/0191). Findings will be disseminated via conference presentations, public lectures, and peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS: NCT03673722.
  • Spousal role expectations and marital conflict: Perspectives of men and women

    McGarry, Julie (2020)
    Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects millions of people across the world and is associated with a significant impact on physical and mental health of the victim. IPV often takes place within the context of marriage, where gender role expectations can play an important part in shaping attitudes towards it. While there is much research carried out to understand the phenomenon of IPV, little relates to how a husband and wife's accounts of spousal role expectations of each other contribute to marital conflict. The issue of IPV within marriage is highly sensitive, particularly in a patriarchy such as Pakistan. The aim of this unique study was to explore the perspective of Pakistani men and women about a husband and wife's role expectations and how fulfillment of such spousal role expectations impacts on marital conflict, and thereby IPV. Using the community setting, data for this qualitative study were collected through 41 individual interviews, including 20 from Pakistan and 21 from the UK. The findings are presented in two main themes, each containing two subthemes. The theme "provider and protector" relates to the role expectations from a husband, whereas "caretaker and household manager" relates to the role expectations of a wife. Overall, husbands and wives have numerous expectations of each other, and these expectations are shaped by gender role attitudes alongside cultural and societal norms. Unmet expectations and deviation of behavior from the perceived norms can result in the development of marital conflict which can escalate to IPV. The significance of this study lies in understanding spousal role expectations from the perspectives of husbands and wives and how unmet expectations contribute to marital conflict and IPV is important for health care professionals within family health contexts. This article provides a detailed insight of this largely hidden phenomena.
  • Poor reporting of physical activity and exercise interventions in youth mental health trials: A brief report

    Carter, Tim (2020)
    AIMTo describe the quality and completeness of the description and reporting of physical activity and exercise interventions delivered to young people to promote mental health or treat mental illness.METHODSWe conducted a series of scoping reviews identifying 64 controlled trials of physical activity and exercise interventions delivered to young people. We extracted: intervention characteristics, personnel and delivery format, the intensity, duration, frequency and type of physical activity or exercise.RESULTSThere was limited reporting of intervention details across studies; 52% did not provide information to confidently assess intervention intensity, 29% did not state who delivered the intervention, and 44% did not specify the intervention delivery format.CONCLUSIONSWe recommend that authors adhere to the CONSORT reporting requirements and its intervention reporting extensions, (a) the Template for Intervention Description and Replication, (b) Consensus for Exercise Reporting Template and (c) as part of this, detail the frequency, intensity, time and type of physical activity recommendations and prescriptions. Without this, future trials are unable to replicate and extend previous work to support or disconfirm existing knowledge, leading to research waste and diminishing translation and implementation potential.
  • What are the risk factors for malnutrition in older-aged institutionalized adults?

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2020)
    Malnutrition is common in older adults and is associated with functional impairment, reduced quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the association between health (including depression), physical functioning, disability and cognitive decline, and risk of malnutrition. Participants were recruited from nursing homes in Italy and completed a detailed multidimensional geriatric evaluation. All the data analyses were completed using Stata Version 15.1. The study included 246 participants with an age range of 50 to 102 (80.4 ± 10.5). The sample was characterised by a high degree of cognitive and functional impairment, disability, and poor health and nutritional status (according to Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), 38.2% were at risk for malnutrition and 19.5% were malnourished). Using a stepwise linear regression model, age (B = −0.043, SE = 0.016, p = 0.010), depression (B = −0.133, SE = 0.052, p = 0.011), disability (B = 0.517, SE = 0.068, p < 0.001), and physical performance (B = −0.191, SE = 0.095, p = 0.045) remained significantly associated with the malnutrition risk in the final model (adjusted R-squared = 0.298). The logistic regression model incorporating age, depression, disability, and physical performance was found to have high discriminative accuracy (AUC = 0.747; 95%CI: 0.686 to 0.808) for predicting the risk of malnutrition. The results of the study confirm the need to assess nutritional status and to investigate the presence of risk factors associated with malnutrition in order to achieve effective prevention and plan a better intervention strategy. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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