The association of obesity with disease activity, functional ability and quality of life in early rheumatoid arthritis: data from the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study/Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network UK prospective cohorts.
AuthorWalsh, David A
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AbstractObjectives To examine associations between BMI and disease activity, functional ability and quality of life in RA. Methods Data from two consecutive, similarly designed UK multicentre RA inception cohorts were used: the Early RA Study (ERAS) and the Early RA Network (ERAN). Recruitment figures/median follow-up for the ERAS and ERAN were 1465/10 years (maximum 25 years), and 1236/6 years (maximum 10 years), respectively. Standard demographic and clinical variables were recorded at baseline and annually. Multilevel piecewise longitudinal models with a change point at 2 years were used with the 28-joint DAS (DAS28), ESR, HAQ and 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components as dependent variables. BMI was examined in separate models as both continuous and categorical variables (based on World Health Organization definitions) and up to 5 years from disease onset. Results BMI data from 2386 newly diagnosed RA patients (11 348 measures) showed an increase in BMI of 0.27 U annually (95% CI 0.21, 0.33). Baseline obesity was associated with a significant reduction in the odds of achieving a low year 2 DAS28 [OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.41, 0.650)]. At year 2, HAQ and SF-36 PCS scores were significantly worse but not at year 5 in patients obese at baseline. Obesity at year 2 was associated with higher DAS28 scores at year 2, but not at year 5, and also associated with significantly higher HAQ and SF-36 PCS scores at years 2 and 5. Conclusion Obesity prevalence is rising in early RA and associates with worse disease activity, function and health-related quality of life, with a significant negative impact on achieving a low DAS28. The data argue strongly for obesity management to become central to treatment strategies in RA.
CitationNikiphorou, E. et al. (2018) ‘The association of obesity with disease activity, functional ability and quality of life in early rheumatoid arthritis: data from the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study/Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network UK prospective cohorts’, Rheumatology (Oxford, England), 57(7), pp. 1194–1202
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Discordant inflammation and pain in early and established rheumatoid arthritis: Latent Class Analysis of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network and British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register data.Walsh, David A (McWilliams, D. F. et al. (2016) ‘Discordant inflammation and pain in early and established rheumatoid arthritis: Latent Class Analysis of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network and British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register data’, Arthritis Research & Therapy, 18, p. 295., 2016-12-13)ACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity is often measured using the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). We aimed to identify and independently verify subgroups of people with RA that may be discordant with respect to self-reported and objective disease state, with potentially different clinical needs. METHODS: Data were derived from three cohorts: (1) the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN) and the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR), (2) those commencing tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors and (3) those using non-biologic drugs. In latent class analysis, we used variables related to pain, central pain mechanisms or inflammation (pain, vitality, mental health, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, swollen joint count, tender joint count, visual analogue scale of general health). Clinically relevant outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Five, four and four latent classes were found in the ERAN, BSRBR TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively. The proportions of people assigned with >80% probability into latent classes were 76%, 58% and 72% in the ERAN, TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively. The latent classes displayed either concordance between measures indicative of mild, moderate or severe disease activity; discordantly worse patient-reported measures despite less markedly elevated inflammation; or discordantly less severe patient-reported measures despite elevated inflammation. Latent classes with discordantly worse patient-reported measures represented 12%, 40% and 21% of the ERAN, TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively; contained more females; and showed worse function. In those latent classes with worse scores at baseline, DAS28 and function improved over 1 year (p < 0.001 for all comparisons), and scores differed less at follow-up than at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Discordant latent classes can be identified in people with RA, and these findings are robust across three cohorts with varying disease duration and activity. These findings could be used to identify a sizeable subgroup of people with RA who might gain added benefit from pain management strategies.
Reductions in Radiographic Progression in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Over Twenty-Five Years: Changing Contribution From Rheumatoid Factor in Two Multicenter UK Inception CohortsWalsh, David A (Arthritis Care & Research, 2017-12)Objective: To assess the 5-year progression of erosions and joint space narrowing (JSN) and their associations with rheumatoid factor (RF) status in 2 large, multicenter, early rheumatoid arthritis cohorts, spanning 25 years. Methods: Radiographic joint damage was recorded using the Sharp/van der Heijde (SHS) method in the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (ERAS), 1986-2001, and the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN), 2002-2013. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression estimated changes in radiographic damage over 5 years, including erosions and JSN, separately. RF, along with age, sex, and baseline markers of disease activity were controlled for. Results: A total of 1,216 patients from ERAS and 446 from ERAN had radiographic data. Compared to ERAS, ERAN patients had a lower mean total SHS score at baseline (ERAN 6.2 versus ERAS 10.5; P < 0.001) and mean annual rate of change (ERAN 2.5 per year versus ERAS 6.9 per year; P < 0.001). Seventy-four percent of ERAS and 27% of ERAN patients progressed ≥5 units. Lower scores at baseline in ERAN were largely driven by reductions in JSN (ERAS 3.9 versus ERAN 1.2; P < 0.001), along with erosions (ERAS 1.9 versus ERAN 0.8; P < 0.001). RF was associated with greater progression in each cohort, but the absolute difference in mean annual rate of change for RF-positive patients was substantially higher for ERAS (RF positive 8.6 versus RF negative 5.1; P < 0.001), relative to ERAN (RF positive 2.0 versus RF negative 1.9; P = 0.855). Conclusion: Radiographic progression was shown to be significantly reduced between the 2 cohorts, and was associated with lower baseline damage and other factors, including changes in early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use. The impact of RF status as a prognostic marker of clinically meaningful change in radiographic progression has markedly diminished in the context of more modern treatment.
Nonserious Infections in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results From the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Rheumatoid ArthritisWalsh, David A (Arthritis & Rheumatology, 2021-10)Objective: To describe the frequency and predictors of nonserious infections (NSI) and compare incidence across biologic agents within the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Rheumatoid Arthritis (BSRBR-RA). Methods: The BSRBR-RA is a prospective observational cohort study. An NSI was defined as an infection that did not require hospitalization or intravenous therapy. Infections were captured from clinician questionnaires and patient diaries. Individuals were considered "at risk" from the date of initiation of biologic treatment for up to 3 years. Drug exposure was defined by agent: tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi), interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitor, B cell depletion (rituximab), or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) alone. A multiple-failure Cox model was used with multivariable adjustment. Missing data were addressed using multiple imputation. Results: There were 17,304 NSI in 8,145 patients, with an event rate of 27.0 per person per year (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 26.6-27.4). Increasing age, female sex, comorbidity burden, glucocorticoid therapy, higher Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, and higher Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index were associated with an increased risk of NSI. There was a significant reduction in NSI risk with csDMARDs compared to biologic treatments. Compared to TNFi, IL-6 inhibition and rituximab were associated with a higher NSI risk (adjusted hazard ratio 1.45 [95% CI 1.29-1.63] and adjusted hazard ratio 1.28 [95% CI 1.14-1.45], respectively), while the csDMARD cohort had a lower risk (adjusted hazard ratio 0.64 [95% CI 0.59-0.70]). Within the TNFi class, adalimumab was associated with a higher NSI risk than etanercept (adjusted hazard ratio 1.11 [95% CI 1.05-1.17]). Conclusion: NSI occur frequently in RA, and predictors mirror those reported with serious infections. All biologics are associated with a greater risk of NSI, with differences observed between agents. While unmeasured confounding must be considered, the magnitude of effect is large, and a relationship between NSI and targeted immunomodulatory therapy likely exists.