Recent Submissions

  • Atraumatic Isolated Peroneal Compartment Syndrome

    Ashwood, Neil
    26-year-old male presented with leg lateral aspect pain with numbness over foot dorsum lateral aspect for 6 hours after rugby training with no trauma. Slight peroneal compartment tightness with negative stretch test. Creatine kinase 4659U/L. Peroneal compartment discomfort was worsening, fasciotomy of all leg compartments was done with only lateral peroneal compartment affected. Sensory changes in presentation highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion. One could use biochemical mark ers aiding decision making on borderline situations, however we advise decompression in these cases. Although the patient had uneventful postoperative recovery, having ICP monitoring equipment or MRI would prevent overzealous opening of posterior compartment.
  • A Rare Presentation of Myositis Ossificans in a Diabetic Individual

    Hind, Jamie; Prabodhinee, Dhiren Jogiya; Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Suryawanshi, Suraj; Amara, Veda; Ashwood, Neil
    Introduction: Myositis ossificans (MO) is a disease with self-limiting, benign ossifying lesions. MO traumatica is most common cause and occurs after blunt trauma to muscle tissue and the most common site of occurrence is the anterior thigh often developing after an intramuscular hematoma. The pathophysiology of MO is not well understood. The association of myositis and diabetes is quite rare.Case Report: A 57-year-old male presented with a discharging ulcer on the right lateral lower leg. A radiograph was carried out to ascertain the degree of bone involvement. However, the X-ray showed calcifications. Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray imaging were used to exclude malignant disorders such as osteomyelitis or osteosarcoma. The diagnosis of myositis ossificans was confirmed with MRI. As the patient had a background of diabetes, this could have led to MO as a result of the macrovascular complication of a discharging ulcer; hence, diabetes could be considered a risk factor for the disease. Conclusion:The reader may appreciate that diabetic patients may present with MO and that repeated discharging ulcers may imitate the effects of physical trauma on calcifications. The specific take home message is that regardless of the apparent rarity of a disease and subversion to typical clinical presentation, it should still be considered. Furthermore, the exclusion of severe and malignant diseases which benign diseases may mimic is of utmost importance to correctly manage patients.
  • Rupture of the Tibialis Posterior Tendon With Associated Bimalleolar Ankle Fracture.

    Clarke, D
    The acute traumatic rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon in association with closed ankle fractures is rare and often under-recognised. If recognised early, outcomes can be excellent. There are 28 known cases in the literature, and we report two further cases associated with bimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation. A 49-year-old presented with valgus deformity at the ankle joint and global tenderness following a work injury as a mechanic. A plain radiograph showed a displaced oblique comminuted fracture of the lateral malleolus with valgus angulation at a syndesmosis, with significant talar shift. The patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a seven-hole, one-third tubular plate and screws. A 35-year-old involved in a motorcycle collision with a car presented with swollen left ankle and valgus deformity. Plain radiographs revealed bimalleolar fracture subluxation. Closed reduction was unsuccessful and hence direct medial approach demonstrated a complete rupture of the posterior tendon. The medial malleolus was fixed using lag screws and washers. The tendon was repaired using the modified Kessler technique in both cases. The tibialis posterior plays a significant role in foot and ankle biomechanics due to its broad tendinous insertion. Acute traumatic rupture is rare, as it is protected due to its deep-seated anatomic location within the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Preoperative diagnosis of this injury is challenging and hence this diagnosis is often made intraoperatively. In both cases, there was a retraction of the proximal end beyond incision margins, and this can make tendon rupture difficult to identify intraoperatively as well. Upon identification, assessment of the tendon for degenerative changes was key to deciding upon suitability for primary repair. Despite its rarity, a high index of suspicion should be maintained in fracture dislocation of the ankle joint, especially when the mechanism is known to be pronation-external rotation.
  • Management of self-harm injuries: a review of the evidence and guidance

    Oakley, Ben; O'Brien, M; Bainbridge, Chris; Johnson, Nick
  • Role of Wrist Arthroscopy in Juvenile Inflammatory Arthritis.

    Lindau, Tommy
    Background and Purposes  The wrist is the fourth most common joint to be involved in juvenile inflammatory arthritis (JIA), which is a common rheumatological condition affecting children. Wrist arthroscopy is well established in rheumatoid arthritis, but remains unexplored in JIA. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of wrist arthroscopy in JIA, with focus on those who are refractory to medical management. Methods  This is a prospective observational study, including consecutive patients with JIA undergoing arthroscopy between January 2016 and December 2020. Those over the age of 18 years and those with other rheumatological diagnoses were excluded. Data including pre-, intra-, and postoperative variables, demographics, and patient-reported outcomes were collated and are reported using standard measures. Results  A total of 15 patients underwent arthroscopy ( n  = 20 wrists). Synovitis was noted in all wrists on arthroscopy and synovectomy was performed in all cases. Other procedures were performed as indicated during the procedure. The median follow-up duration was 11.3 (interquartile range [IQR] 8.1-24.2) months. Median reduction of 4 (IQR 2.25-6) points on the Visual Analogue Score for pain on loading was noted postoperatively. Grip strength was improved in n  = 11/20 wrists and functional improvement was noted in n  = 18/20 wrists. Restriction of range of motion was achieved with a shrinkage procedure in patients with hypermobile joints. There were no postoperative complications, and no patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusion  In experienced hands, wrist arthroscopy is feasible, safe, and efficacious in the management of JIA, among patients who are refractory to medical management. Level of Evidence  This is a Level II study.
  • Atraumatic Isolated Peroneal Compartment

    Mohamed, Nagy; Ashwood, Neil
    Abstract 26-year-old male presented with leg lateral aspect pain with numbness over foot dorsum lateral aspect for 6 hours after rugby training with no trauma. Slight peroneal compartment tightness with negative stretch test. Creatine kinase 4659U/L. Peroneal compartment discomfort was worsening, fasciotomy of all leg compartments was done with only lateral peroneal compartment affected. Sensory changes in pres entation highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion. One could use biochemical mark ers aiding decision making on borderline situations, however we advise decompression in these cases. Although the patient had uneventful postoperative recovery, having ICP monitoring equipment or MRI would prevent overzealous opening of posterior compartment.
  • Results of Wedgeless Distal Femoral Osteotomy for the Treatment of Genu Valgus Deformity

    Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Mubarak, Islam; Alwadiya, Ahmed; Mohamed, Nagy; Ashwood, Neil
    Abstract Introduction: Coronal plane knee deformities are common disorders affecting adolescents. Valgus deformities (tibiofemoral angle (TFA) > 12-15 degrees and intermalleolar distance (IMD) > 10 cm) often require corrective osteotomy and a wedgeless "V" distal femoral osteotomy is a good treatment option for such deformities. Materials and methods: Thirty adolescent patients (13-17 years) with valgus deformities were included. Patients with severe collateral ligament instability, subluxation, and sagittal plane deformity > 15 degrees or genu valgum due to tibial deformity were excluded. Preoperative clinical (Bostman's knee score, IMD, and knee-flexion test) and radiological evaluations were done. The surgery (wedgeless distal femoral V osteotomy) was performed and stabilized with two Kirschner wires (K-wires). Postoperative clinical and radiological parameters were recorded including complications. Results: The preoperative TFA was 20.23 ± 3.63 degrees, which reduced to 5.5 ± 0.73 at six months postoperatively. The preoperative IMD was 12.45 ± 2.2 cm, which reduced to 1.63 ± 0.32 cm at six months. The mean mechanical axis deviation (MAD) and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA) were recorded as 2.8 ± 0.39 and 87.7 ± 0.83, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant from preoperative values. The Bostman score was 26.2 ± 1.79 at three months and 29.47 ± 0.9 at six months. The complications included infection in two patients, a hypertrophic scar in one patient, and common peroneal neuropraxia in one patient. Conclusion: Wedgeless distal femoral osteotomy with K-wire fixation is a viable option for correction of genu valgus deformity with potential advantages of minimal blood loss, no leg length discrepancy, non-rigid fixation, and early union as compared to other treatment options.
  • Effect of institution volume on mortality and outcomes in osteoporotic hip fracture care.

    Johnson, NA
    Hospitals that treat more patients with osteoporotic hip fractures do not generally have better care outcomes than those that treat fewer hip fracture patients. Institutions that do look after more such patients tend, however, to more consistently perform relevant health assessments. INTRODUCTION: An inveterate link has been found between institution case volume and a wide range of clinical outcomes; for a host of medical and surgical conditions. Hip fracture patients, notwithstanding the significance of this injury, have largely been overlooked with regard to this important evaluation. METHODS: We used the UK National Hip Fracture database to determine the effect of institution hip fracture case volume on hip fracture healthcare outcomes in 2019. Using logistic regression for each healthcare outcome, we compared the best performing 50 units with the poorest performing 50 institutions to determine if the unit volume was associated with performance in each particular outcome. RESULTS: There were 175 institutions with included 67,673 patients involved. The number of hip fractures between units ranged from 86 to 952. Larger units tendered to perform health assessments more consistently and mobilise patients more expeditiously post-operatively. However, patients treated at large institutions did not have any shorter lengths of stay. With regard to most other outcomes there was no association between the unit number of cases and performance; notably mortality, compliance with best practice tariff, time to surgery, the proportion of eligible patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, length of stay delirium risk and pressure sore risk. CONCLUSIONS: There is no relationship between unit volume and the majority of health care outcomes. It would seem that larger institutions tend to perform better at parameters that are dependent upon personnel numbers. However, where the outcome is contingent, even partially, on physical infrastructure capacity, there was no difference between larger and smaller units.
  • Low re-dislocation rate following Bereiter trochleoplasty for recurrent patellar instability with severe trochlear dysplasia.

    Ng, J; Broomfield, John; Barbosa, Francisco; Bhangoo, Navjot; Geutjens, Guido
    PURPOSE: Trochlear dysplasia is an independent risk factor for recurrent patellar instability with evidence demonstrating its presence in up to 85% of patients with patellar instability. Severe trochlear dysplasia can be treated with trochleoplasty to improve engagement of the patella in the trochlear groove and prevent future dislocations. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome of Bereiter trochleoplasty in patients with recurrent patellar instability and severe trochlear dysplasia. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of all trochleoplasties performed in our institution from 2008-2019. All clinical records and pre-operative MRI scans were reviewed to assess for trochlear dysplasia, tibial tuberosity to trochlear groove distance (TTTG) and patella height using patella trochlear index (PTI). Trochlear dysplasia was classified using Dejour classification. Incidence of re-dislocation, infection, arthrofibrosis, chondral necrosis and re-operation were recorded. All patients were invited to complete a post-operative visual analog score for pain (VAS-P) and Banff Patella Instability Instrument (BPII). RESULTS: Fifty-eight trochleoplasties were performed in fifty patients during this period. All trochleoplasties were combined with additional procedures. 93% had concomitant medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstructions and 47% had tibial tuberosity transfer. The mean follow-up period was 36.8 months. The rate of dislocation and arthrofibrosis were 5% each. There were no chondral necrosis or nonunion. The mean post-operative BPII was 58.4 and VAS-P was 30.4. CONCLUSIONS: Bereiter trochleoplasty, often combined with MPFL reconstruction and/or tibial tuberosity transfer results in low re-dislocation and complication rate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
  • Time Frame to Surgery from Presentation of Ankle Fractures and the Impact of the BOAST Standards, do we meet the BOAST Guidelines?

    Al Wadiya, Ahmed; Ashwood, Neil
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance with the BOAST guidelines for early fixation on the day or day after ankle fractures in the age group of 60 years old or less when the ankle mortise is unstable. Method: This retrospective study reviewed all the ankle fractures that were admitted for ankle fixation in 2015-2016, pre BOAST standard, and following it in 2018- 2019. The inclusion and exclusion criteria used in the standard were then applied. Results: In 2018-19, 44 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 18 males with an average age of 39.3 and 26 females with an average age of 42.2. Twenty-nine ankles (66%) were fixed on the day or day after injury while 5 ankles (11%) had the surgery within 48 hours. In 2015-16, 37 patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria, 21 males with an average age of 37.8 years, 16 females with an average age of 42.1 years. Twenty-one ankles (56.7%) were fixed on the day or day after injury. While 8 ankles (21.6%) had the surgery within 48 hours. Conclusion: Most of the ankle fractures requiring surgery, who presented to our trust, were fixed within 48 hours accounting for 77% of cases in 2018-19 versus 79% in 2015-16 with no statistically significant difference in our practice between pre and post BOAST guidelines publishing. The rest of cases had delayed fixation mainly due to the surrounding soft tissue swelling.
  • An algorithmic approach to shoulder pathology

    Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Ashwood, Neil
    Abstract: Introduction: Shoulder pain is a common presentation in both hospitals and the community. Shoulder pain can result from a number of different pathologies and to manage the shoulder pain, an accurate diagnosis is needed. Method: An accurate diagnosis can often be made following a detailed history and examination. Investigations, such as imaging and blood tests may also be required. In this study, we provide an algorithmic approach to shoulder pain that can be used in the clinical setting. Summary: This algorithm can be used in hospitals and the community to help identify and manage the different causes of shoulder pain. Keywords: Algorithm, diagnosis, management, shoulder.
  • The Use of Fluoroscan in Hand Clinic During the Covid Pandemic to Optimise Conservative Treatment

    Ashwood, Neil
    Introduction The study assessed the use of Fluoroscan (Hologic, Inc., Marlborough, MA) in hand clinic as advised by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) during the COVID-19 pandemic to facilitate treatment of fractures requiring manipulation and reduce admissions to evaluate if this should be embedded in practice permanently. Method Eighty-three wrist and hand fractures requiring manipulation were identified between April 2020 and March 2021. Demographics, mechanism of injury, timing of intervention, radiological outcome, further intervention and functional assessment by QuickDASH scoring were recorded. Results Sixty-eight cases were manipulated within the first week of fracture, simple pain control measures were used, and dose area product (DAP) averaged 1.3 Gy cm2 well below the dose limit set by the trust. Satisfactory fracture reduction was achieved in 59 cases avoiding admission. Further surgical intervention was offered to 24 patients: five re-manipulated while 19 had operation, all with a good functional outcome. Conclusion Fluoroscan use in fracture clinics achieved effective fracture control in 77% of cases. The use of Fluoroscan avoided admissions for surgery during the pandemic and lengthy clinic visits, four out of five did not need admission.
  • Emergency Laparotomy and Enterotomy for Small Bowel Obstruction Following the Ingestion of a Removable Partial Denture (RPD)

    Hind, Jamie; Kitsis, Christos; Ashwood, Neil
    Swallowing foreign bodies are surprisingly common. They rarely cause harm. Those that do because harm can result in serious consequences. We report a rare case where a denture was ingested and resulted in small bowel obstruction, requiring urgent surgical intervention. A patient swallowed his denture whilst eating his food. He attended hospital with mild bloating and had an X-ray which failed to identify any foreign body but identified areas of dilated bowel. A CT scan identified the foreign body and recognized it was impacted, causing small bowel obstruction. The patient required urgent surgery. Small bowel obstruction following the ingestion of a foreign body is extremely rare. The reason it occurred in this patient is because the material of the foreign body which embedded into the mucosa of the small bowel. This should have been detected on the initial X-ray; however, it wasn’t until the patient had a CT scan of his abdomen when the extent of his condition was established. With an ageing population and an increase of dentures and partial dentures, it may be that the presentation becomes more common in the future. This report highlights the importance of early identification and managing these patients.
  • The Use of Fluoroscan in Hand Clinic During the Covid Pandemic to Optimise Conservative Treatment

    Ashwood, Neil
    Introduction The study assessed the use of Fluoroscan (Hologic, Inc., Marlborough, MA) in hand clinic as advised by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) during the COVID-19 pandemic to facilitate treatment of fractures requiring manipulation and reduce admissions to evaluate if this should be embedded in practice permanently. Method Eighty-three wrist and hand fractures requiring manipulation were identified between April 2020 and March 2021. Demographics, mechanism of injury, timing of intervention, radiological outcome, further intervention and functional assessment by QuickDASH scoring were recorded. Results Sixty-eight cases were manipulated within the first week of fracture, simple pain control measures were used, and dose area product (DAP) averaged 1.3 Gy cm2 well below the dose limit set by the trust. Satisfactory fracture reduction was achieved in 59 cases avoiding admission. Further surgical intervention was offered to 24 patients: five re-manipulated while 19 had operation, all with a good functional outcome. Conclusion Fluoroscan use in fracture clinics achieved effective fracture control in 77% of cases. The use of Fluoroscan avoided admissions for surgery during the pandemic and lengthy clinic visits, four out of five did not need admission.
  • Comparing an optimised physiotherapy treatment package with usual physiotherapy care for people with tennis elbow - protocol for the OPTimisE pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    Bateman, Marcus
    BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy is recommended for people with tennis elbow, but whilst a wide array of treatments is available, the optimal approach remains uncertain. We have therefore recently developed an optimised physiotherapy treatment package for tennis elbow based on a synthesis of the evidence, patient input and clinical consensus. It consists of detailed advice and education, a structured progressive exercise programme and provision of a counter-force elbow brace. Here, we report the protocol for our multicentre pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) designed to (a) examine the feasibility of our optimised physiotherapy treatment package and (b) to pilot trial processes for a future fully powered RCT to test clinical and cost-effectiveness compared with usual physiotherapy treatment. METHODS: A multicentre pilot and feasibility RCT will be conducted across three sites in England, recruiting up to 50 patients (or for a maximum of 12 months). Participants with tennis elbow, identified from physiotherapy clinic waiting lists and general practice surgeries, will be randomly allocated to receive the optimised physiotherapy treatment package or usual physiotherapy care. Analysis will focus on feasibility measures including consent rate, intervention fidelity, follow-up rate and outcome completion rate. A nested qualitative study will explore the acceptability of the study processes and patient and physiotherapist experiences of the new optimised intervention. DISCUSSION: This study will determine the feasibility of a new optimised physiotherapy treatment package for people with tennis elbow and pilot the processes for a future fully powered RCT. In the longer term, this treatment package may provide superior clinical outcomes for patients, in terms of pain and quality of life, and be more cost-effective for the health service. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with the ISRCTN database 19/7/2021, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN64444585.
  • One-year outcome of surgery compared with immobilization in a cast for adults with an undisplaced or minimally displaced scaphoid fracture : a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Johnson, NA
    AIMS: There has been an increasing use of early operative fixation for scaphoid fractures, despite uncertain evidence. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate up-to-date evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing the effectiveness of the operative and nonoperative treatment of undisplaced and minimally displaced (≤ 2 mm displacement) scaphoid fractures. METHODS: A systematic review of seven databases was performed from the dates of their inception until the end of March 2021 to identify eligible RCTs. Reference lists of the included studies were screened. No language restrictions were applied. The primary outcome was the patient-reported outcome measure of wrist function at 12 months after injury. A meta-analysis was performed for function, pain, range of motion, grip strength, and union. Complications were reported narratively. RESULTS: Seven RCTs were included. There was no significant difference in function between the groups at 12 months (Hedges' g 0.15 (95% confidence interval -0.02 to 0.32); p = 0.082). The complication rate was higher in the operative group and involved more serious complications. CONCLUSION: We found no difference in functional outcome at 12 months for fractures of the waist of the scaphoid with ≤ 2 mm displacement treated operatively or nonoperatively. The complication rate was higher with operative treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):953-962.
  • The role of resistance exercise training for improving cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Doleman, Brett; Lund, Jonathan; Toft, Suzanne
    BACKGROUND: Declines in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscle mass are both associated with advancing age and each of these declines is associated with worse health outcomes. Resistance exercise training (RET) has previously been shown to improve muscle mass and function in the older population. If RET is also able to improve CRF, as it has been shown to do in younger populations, it has the potential to improve multiple health outcomes in the expanding older population. METHODS: This systematic review aimed to identify the role of RET for improving CRF in healthy older adults. A search across CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and EMCARE databases was conducted with meta-analysis performed on eligible papers to identify improvements in established CRF parameters (VO2 peak, aerobic threshold (AT), 6-minute walking distance test (6MWT) following RET intervention. Main eligibility criteria included older adults (aged over 60), healthy cohorts (disease-specific cohorts were excluded) and RET intervention. RESULTS: Thirty-seven eligible studies were identified. Meta-analysis revealed a significant improvement in VO2 peak (MD 1.89 ml/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.57 ml/kg/min), AT (MD 1.27 ml/kg/min; 95% CI 0.44-2.09 ml/kg/min) and 6MWT (MD 30.89; 95% CI 26.7-35.08) in RET interventions less than 24 weeks. There was no difference in VO2 peak or 6MWT in interventions longer than 24 weeks. DISCUSSION: This systematic review adds to a growing body of evidence supporting the implementation of RET in the older population for improving whole-body health, particularly in time-limited timeframes.
  • Equipment-free, unsupervised high intensity interval training elicits significant improvements in the physiological resilience of older adults.

    Doleman, Brett
    BACKGROUND: Reduced cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent risk factor for dependency, cognitive impairment and premature mortality. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a proven time-efficient stimulus for improving both CRF and other facets of cardiometabolic health also known to decline with advancing age. However, the efficacy of equipment-free, unsupervised HIIT to improve the physiological resilience of older adults is not known. METHODS: Thirty independent, community-dwelling older adults (71(SD: 5) years) were randomised to 4 weeks (12 sessions) equipment-free, supervised (in the laboratory (L-HIIT)) or unsupervised (at home (H-HIIT)) HIIT, or a no-intervention control (CON). HIIT involved 5, 1-minute intervals of a bodyweight exercise each interspersed with 90-seconds recovery. CRF, exercise tolerance, blood pressure (BP), body composition, muscle architecture, circulating lipids and glucose tolerance were assessed at baseline and after the intervention period. RESULTS: When compared to the control group, both HIIT protocols improved the primary outcome of CRF ((via anaerobic threshold) mean difference, L-HIIT: +2.27, H-HIIT: +2.29, both p < 0.01) in addition to exercise tolerance, systolic BP, total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and m. vastus lateralis pennation angle, to the same extent. There was no improvement in these parameters in CON. There was no change in diastolic BP, glucose tolerance, whole-body composition or HDL cholesterol in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that short-term, time-efficient, equipment-free, HIIT is able to elicit improvements in the CRF of older adults irrespective of supervision status. Unsupervised HIIT may offer a novel approach to improve the physiological resilience of older adults, combating age-associated physiological decline, the rise of inactivity and the additional challenges currently posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov and coded: NCT03473990 .
  • Oxidized zirconium versus cobalt-chrome femoral heads in total hip arthroplasty: a multicentre prospective randomized controlled trial with ten years' follow-up.

    Stephen, Arthur; Hutchinson, James; Haddad, Fares
    AIMS: This study reports the ten-year wear rates, incidence of osteolysis, clinical outcomes, and complications of a multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing oxidized zirconium (OxZr) versus cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral heads with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liners in total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: Patients undergoing primary THA were recruited from four institutions and prospectively allocated to the following treatment groups: Group A, CoCr femoral head with XLPE liner; Group B, OxZr femoral head with XLPE liner; and Group C, OxZr femoral head with UHMWPE liner. All study patients and assessors recording outcomes were blinded to the treatment groups. The outcomes of 262 study patients were analyzed at ten years' follow-up. RESULTS: Patients in Group C were associated with increased mean liner wear rates compared to patients in Group A (0.133 mm/yr (SD 0.21) vs 0.031 mm/yr (SD 0.07), respectively; p < 0.001) and Group B (0.133 mm/yr (SD 0.21) vs 0.022 mm/yr (SD 0.05), respectively; p < 0.001) at ten years' follow-up. Patients in Group C were also associated with increased risk of osteolysis and aseptic loosening requiring revision surgery, compared with patients in Group A (7/133 vs 0/133, respectively; p = 0.007) and Group B (7/133 vs 0/135, respectively; p = 0.007). There was a non-statistically significant trend towards increased mean liner wear rates in Group A compared with Group B (0.031 mm/yr (SD 0.07) vs 0.022 mm/yr (SD 0.05), respectively; p = 0.128). All three groups were statistically comparable preoperatively and at ten years' follow-up when measuring normalized Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (p = 0.410), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (p = 0.465 mental, p = 0.713 physical), and pain scale scores (p = 0.451). CONCLUSION: The use of UHMWPE was associated with progressively increased annual liner wear rates after THA compared to XLPE. At ten years' follow-up, the group receiving UHMWPE demonstrated an increased incidence of osteolysis and aseptic loosening requiring revision surgery compared to XLPE. Femoral heads composed of OxZr were associated with trend towards reduced wear rates compared to CoCr, but this did not reach statistical significance and did not translate to any differences in osteolysis, functional outcomes, or revision surgery between the two femoral head components.
  • How Do Orthopaedic Patients Prefer to Be Contacted During a Pandemic?

    Fellows, David; Hind, Jamie; Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Amara, Veda; Ashwood, Neil
    Introduction: Communication with patients is a vital part of the surgical pathway, and when done effectively, it can greatly improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction and reduce canceled appointments. Different forms of communication work well for different patient demographics, and it is important to optimize communication techniques. We designed a study to review the communication preferences of orthopedic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by asking patients who were due to undergo orthopedic procedures to answer a questionnaire on their communication preferences, the reminder notice period for appointments, and safety and satisfaction ratings during the COVID-19 pandemic.Results:Communication method preferences are influenced by patient factors such as gender and age. Phone calls were the most popular communication method throughout all patient groups, with 61% selecting it as their preference. Younger patients preferred multiple communication methods of phone calls, texts, and emails, whereas the older group had a stronger preference for letters. Letters were more popular among females (28% compared to 10% of males), whereas males had a stronger preference for other communication methods. The majority of patients said they would not have liked a letter prior to their clinic appointment (65%). Of those who indicated a preferred notice period, 73% would have liked five days or less notice prior to their clinic appointment, while 65% would have liked 10-14 days notice prior to their surgery. The average safety rating was 55%. The overall satisfaction rating with the communication process was 71.7%. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed patient feelings towards healthcare and, as a result, changed the way healthcare is delivered. Communication method preferences among trauma and orthopedic patients vary and depend on factors such as gender and age. If healthcare departments can optimize their communication processes, they will improve their patient outcomes and enhance their resources.

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