Recent Submissions

  • Effect of institution volume on mortality and outcomes in osteoporotic hip fracture care

    Johnson, NA (2022-01)
    Hospitals that treat more patients with osteoporotic hip fractures do not generally have better care outcomes than those that treat fewer hip fracture patients. Institutions that do look after more such patients tend, however, to more consistently perform relevant health assessments. INTRODUCTION: An inveterate link has been found between institution case volume and a wide range of clinical outcomes; for a host of medical and surgical conditions. Hip fracture patients, notwithstanding the significance of this injury, have largely been overlooked with regard to this important evaluation. METHODS: We used the UK National Hip Fracture database to determine the effect of institution hip fracture case volume on hip fracture healthcare outcomes in 2019. Using logistic regression for each healthcare outcome, we compared the best performing 50 units with the poorest performing 50 institutions to determine if the unit volume was associated with performance in each particular outcome. RESULTS: There were 175 institutions with included 67,673 patients involved. The number of hip fractures between units ranged from 86 to 952. Larger units tendered to perform health assessments more consistently and mobilise patients more expeditiously post-operatively. However, patients treated at large institutions did not have any shorter lengths of stay. With regard to most other outcomes there was no association between the unit number of cases and performance; notably mortality, compliance with best practice tariff, time to surgery, the proportion of eligible patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, length of stay delirium risk and pressure sore risk. CONCLUSIONS: There is no relationship between unit volume and the majority of health care outcomes. It would seem that larger institutions tend to perform better at parameters that are dependent upon personnel numbers. However, where the outcome is contingent, even partially, on physical infrastructure capacity, there was no difference between larger and smaller units.
  • Myositis, Osteomyelitis and a Parasymphyseal Stress Fracture in a Paediatric Patient

    Hind, Jamie; Ashwood, Neil (Cureus, 2021)
    Abstract The limping child and painful hip are common presentations in many paediatric emergency units. Typically caused by mild self-limiting events, less commonly, they may be implicated in one of a group of inflammatory myopathies, or myositis. Diagnosis of this condition can be extremely difficult, and is aided by thorough clinical assessment, radiological imaging, and extensive blood serum testing. Myositis with associated osteomyelitis and a pathological fracture is an incredibly rare finding, described in this case report in a seven-year-old child.
  • Limb length inequality (LLI) is a frequent and recurring issue after total hip arthroplasty (THA). It is often a source of patient dissatisfaction and litigation. This study reviewed the incidence of LLI in a UK District General Hospital in light of published evidence and identified the preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for LLI.

    Abouelela, Amr; Mubark, Islam; Mohamed, Nagy; Jayakumar, Nithish; Ashwood, Neil; Bindi, Frank (2021)
    Abstract: Methods This was a retrospective study involving 380 consecutive unilateral primary total hip replacements over a period of 12 months. Patient demographics, clinical, radiological, and operative details were collected from the National Joint Registry (NJR) database and hospital records. The limb length was measured radiologically [OrthoView WorkstationTM (Materialise UK, Southampton, UK)], pre- and postoperatively, by two authors. They assessed the vertical distance between the intra-acetabular teardrop line and the medial apex of the lesser trochanters. After excluding complex primary, revision cases, tilted X-rays, and hip replacement for trauma patients, 338 cases were included in the final analysis. ResultsThe mean postoperative LLI was 2.7 mm with a standard deviation (SD) of 6.56 mm. Only 5.3% of patients had LLI >15 mm. None of the studied variables showed a statistically significant correlation with LLI. Even with the apparent difference in the mean LLI between templating and not templating before surgery (2.19 vs. 3.53), the p-value was 0.06, which was below the level of statistical significance. There was a weakly positive Pearson correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of lengthening of the limb. Conclusion The cause of LLI after THA is multifactorial. No single factor can be singled out as the most significant contributor to this complication.
  • Two-Stage Primary Arthroplasty in the Infected Native Knee: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.

    Mishra, Arya; Singh, Harvinder; Cockshott, S; Tambe, Amol (2021)
    INTRODUCTION: The knee is the commonest native joint to develop an infection. A two-stage primary knee replacement, with an interim stage of debridement and cement spacer application, modelled after two-stage revision for periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) has been reported for the management of chronic infections. AIMS: To systematically review the literature to find the infection-free survival and outcomes of this operation and explore its indications. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were followed for this review. A systematic search of 4 online databases was conducted on 9/8/2020. After reviewing 226 abstracts and applying our selection criteria, 10 papers were selected for full-text review, and 9 included in the final synthesis. RESULTS: On pooled analysis, an infection-free survival of 95.6% (CI 94.7-96.4) was found at 2 years in 139 knees, which was unchanged over the remainder of the follow-up (Mean 3.9 years). The complication rate after final implantation was 6% in those that did not develop reinfection. The mean pooled Knee Society Score (KSS) and KSS Function score among 70 patients (4 papers) was 83.4 (80.1-89.0) and 76.8 (71.5-78.0), respectively. The mean range of motion among 82 patients (6 papers) was more than 100°. CONCLUSIONS: Two-stage primary knee replacement is a safe, effective and reliable procedure with good results in the short to medium term. Further studies are required to lay down precise indications and cost-effectiveness of this procedure, in comparison to other strategies for chronic infection. All joint registries should develop methods to identify patients undergoing two-stage procedures, to understand their long-term survival and outcomes.
  • Morphometric measurements can improve prediction of progressive vertebral deformity following vertebral damage.

    Annesley-Williams, DJ
    PURPOSE: A damaged vertebral body can exhibit accelerated 'creep' under constant load, leading to progressive vertebral deformity. However, the risk of this happening is not easy to predict in clinical practice. The present cadaveric study aimed to identify morphometric measurements in a damaged vertebral body that can predict a susceptibility to accelerated creep. METHODS: A total of 27 vertebral trabeculae samples cored from five cadaveric spines (3 male, 2 female, aged 36 to 73 (mean 57) years) were mechanically tested to establish the relationship between bone damage and residual strain. Compression testing of 28 human spinal motion segments (three vertebrae and intervening soft tissues) dissected from 14 cadaveric spines (10 male, 4 female, aged 67 to 92 (mean 80) years) showed how the rate of creep of a damaged vertebral body increases with increasing "damage intensity" in its trabecular bone. Damage intensity was calculated from vertebral body residual strain following initial compressive overload using the relationship established in the compression test of trabecular bone samples. RESULTS: Calculations from trabecular bone samples showed a strong nonlinear relationship between residual strain and trabecular bone damage intensity (R2 = 0.78, P < 0.001). In damaged vertebral bodies, damage intensity was then related to vertebral creep rate (R2 = 0.39, P = 0.001). This procedure enabled accelerated vertebral body creep to be predicted from morphological changes (residual strains) in the damaged vertebra. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that morphometric measurements obtained from fractured vertebrae can be used to quantify vertebral damage and hence to predict progressive vertebral deformity.
  • A systematic review of total arthroplasty and arthrodesis for end-stage hallux rigidus: A biomechanical perspective.

    Rajan, Rowan; Mishra, Arya
    BACKGROUND: Both arthrodesis and total arthroplasty are acceptable surgical options for end stage hallux rigidus without significant angular deformity. Total arthroplasty preserves first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) motion, which may help restore a more physiological gait pattern. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there a difference in the findings of gait studies after 1st MTPJ total arthroplasty or arthrodesis for end-stage hallux rigidus? METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were followed to conduct a systematic review of literature for studies reporting gait analysis after the above procedures. Predetermined criteria were used to select papers and evaluated the findings of kinematic (spatial-temporal and dynamic motion), kinetic and foot pressure (pedobarographic) studies. RESULTS: 12 titles were short-listed for synthesis. There was 1 randomized controlled trial comparing the two procedures. Among the remaining cohort studies, 5 reported on total arthroplasty and 6 on arthrodesis of the 1st MTPJ. Due to significant heterogeneity, a narrative synthesis was undertaken. No studies in the arthroplasty group reported spatial-temporal or kinetic parameters. Only 2 papers, 1 in each group, recorded motion within the foot. One of them showed preserved dynamic motion at the 1st MTPJ after total arthroplasty. Pedobarographic studies had discordant findings in studies within both groups regarding restoration of weight bearing through the medial forefoot and the pulp of the great toe during gait. CONCLUSION: Currently available studies are heterogenous and report inconsistent findings, which do not convincingly answer our research question. Prospective comparative studies with a large sample size, using standardized methodology in accredited laboratories with detailed reporting of kinetic, kinematic and pedobarographic components of gait analysis are required in order to draw concrete conclusions.
  • Minimum five-year outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty using a trabecular metal glenoid base plate

    Kankanalu, P; Borton, Zakk; Morgan, Marie; Cresswell, Timothy; Espag, Marius; Tambe, Amol; Clark, D (2021-08)
    AIMS: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) using trabecular metal (TM)-backed glenoid implants has been introduced with the aim to increase implant survival. Only short-term reports on the outcomes of TM-RTSA have been published to date. We aim to present the seven-year survival of TM-backed glenoid implants along with minimum five-year clinical and radiological outcomes. METHODS: All consecutive elective RTSAs performed at a single centre between November 2008 and October 2014 were reviewed. Patients who had primary TM-RTSA for rotator cuff arthropathy and osteoarthritis with deficient cuff were included. A total of 190 shoulders in 168 patients (41 male, 127 female) were identified for inclusion at a mean of 7.27 years (SD 1.4) from surgery. The primary outcome was survival of the implant with all-cause revision and aseptic glenoid loosening as endpoints. Secondary outcomes were clinical, radiological, and patient-related outcomes with a five-year minimum follow-up. RESULTS: The implant was revised in ten shoulders (5.2%) with a median time to revision of 21.2 months (interquartile range (IQR) 9.9 to 41.8). The Kaplan-Meier survivorship estimate at seven years was 95.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 91.7 to 98; 35 RTSAs at risk) for aseptic mechanical failure of the glenoid and 94.8% (95% CI 77.5 to 96.3; 35 RTSAs at risk) for all-cause revision. Minimum five-year clinical and radiological outcomes were available for 103 and 98 RTSAs respectively with a median follow-up time of six years (IQR 5.2 to 7.0). Median postoperative Oxford Shoulder Score was 38 (IQR 31 to 45); median Constant and Murley score was 60 (IQR 47.5 to 70); median forward flexion 115° (IQR 100° to 125°); median abduction 95° (IQR 80° to 120°); and external rotation 25° (IQR 15° to 40°) Scapular notching was seen in 62 RTSAs (63.2%). CONCLUSION: We present the largest and longest-term series of TM-backed glenoid implants demonstrating 94.8% all-cause survivorship at seven years. Specifically pertaining to glenoid loosening, survival of the implant increased to 95.9%. In addition, we report satisfactory minimum five-year clinical and radiological outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(8):1333-1338.
  • Cocoa Flavanols Adjuvant to an Oral Nutritional Supplement Acutely Enhances Nutritive Flow in Skeletal Muscle without Altering Leg Glucose Uptake Kinetics in Older Adults.

    Sian, Tanver; Lund, Jonathan; Williams, John P
    Ageing is associated with postprandial muscle vascular and metabolic dysfunction, suggesting vascular modifying interventions may be of benefit. Reflecting this, we investigated the impact of acute cocoa flavanol (450-500 mg) intake (versus placebo control) on vascular (via ultrasound) and glucose/insulin metabolic responses (via arterialised/venous blood samples and ELISA) to an oral nutritional supplement (ONS) in twelve healthy older adults (50% male, 72 ± 4 years), in a crossover design study. The cocoa condition displayed significant increases in m. vastus lateralis microvascular blood volume (MBV) in response to feeding at 180 and 240-min after ONS consumption (baseline: 1.00 vs. 180 min: 1.09 ± 0.03, p = 0.05; 240 min: 1.13 ± 0.04, p = 0.002), with MBV at these timepoints significantly higher than in the control condition (p < 0.05). In addition, there was a trend (p = 0.058) for MBV in m. tibialis anterior to increase in response to ONS in the cocoa condition only. Leg blood flow and vascular conductance increased, and vascular resistance decreased in response to ONS (p < 0.05), but these responses were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). Similarly, glucose uptake and insulin increased in response to ONS (p < 0.05) comparably between conditions (p > 0.05). Thus, acute cocoa flavanol supplementation can potentiate oral feeding-induced increases in MBV in older adults, but this improvement does not relay to muscle glucose uptake.
  • The flail elbow: Every surgeon's nightmare.

    Kumar, Sachin; Mishra, Arya; Tambe, Amol
    A flail elbow joint has an excessive or abnormal degree of mobility resulting in loss of function. Such a situation can arise from structural damage or loss of neuromuscular control. Structural damage may be in terms of loss of integrity of bony, ligamentous, or both components, and this is commonly caused by trauma, failed arthroplasty, infections - either in the native joint or associated with the above, or inflammatory arthritides. Arm paralysis from any cause may also leads to a loss of muscle control making the elbow flail. The management of the condition varies according to etiology; and concurrent issues like infection and instability need to be addressed in addition to the structural problems. Treatment can be non-surgical with the use of orthotics to support the elbow, and maybe more appropriate in certain circumstances. Surgical treatment can involve fixation, repair or reconstruction. Often the deficiency is not amenable to these methods and arthroplasty has to be considered. The situation becomes more fraught in case of failure of arthroplasty and/or infection, where reconstruction can be challenging. In this review we have considered diverse clinical scenarios that fall under this broad umbrella, with a focus on those encountered commonly in practice.
  • Multidisciplinary approach to L3/L4 lumbar disc prolapse masquerading as focal limb myositis-a radiological challenge.

    Saini, Ramandeep; Hurry, Daniel; Singh, Rasvin; Dapaah, Andrew; Sharma, Chetna; Calthorpe, D; Jain, Virendra; Kothari, Ravi
    Prolapsed intervertebral discs are commonly associated with back ache and sciatica. Management is often conservative with analgesia and physiotherapy. Nerve root injections and discectomy procedures are used where conservative measures fail. Majority of patients present with symptoms of pain and motor weakness; however, a few can present as focal myositis of lower limb muscles in the distribution of radiculopathy. MRI scans of limbs are rarely done in these cases but if done can confound the radiologist. Our case report emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary approach for a L3 nerve radiculopathy with confounding clinical presentation of focal lower limb myositis of unknown etiology.
  • Spontaneous Early Intraprosthetic Dislocation of 22 mm Skirted Femoral Head in Dual Mobility Hip Prosthesis: A Case Report.

    Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Kotecha, Amit; Mulay, Sanjay; Ashwood, Neil
    INTRODUCTION: There is a trend for increasing use of dual mobility hip designs for both primary and revision hip arthroplasty settings. It provides dual articular surfaces along with increased jump distance to increase the stability of construct. However, this design has some unique complications of its own which surgeons should be aware of especially intraprosthetic dislocation (IPD). CASE REPORT: A 76-year-old lady presented to clinic with painful hip hemiarthroplasty after fracture neck of femur. She underwent revision surgery with dual mobility uncemented acetabular cup and femoral stem was retained as it was well fixed. She was mobilizing well and around 5 weeks post her surgery, developed pain in hip region and difficulty in weight-bearing. Radiographs showed eccentric position of femoral neck in the socket. A diagnosis of IPD was established and revision surgery was planned. Intraoperatively, metal head had dislocated from the polyethylene head and both components were resting in the acetabular socket. No macroscopic erosion of acetabulum was noticed. The polyethylene component and femoral head were retrieved. With previous failed dual mobility, decision was made to achieve stability with larger head size and lipped liner posteriorly. CONCLUSION: IPD is a rare occurrence and unique complication to dual mobility implants. This report highlights that patients can have IPD without fall or trauma.
  • Protocol for surgical and non-surgical treatment for metacarpal shaft fractures in adults: an observational feasibility study.

    Bainbridge, Chris
    INTRODUCTION: Metacarpal shaft fractures (MSF) are common traumatic hand injuries that usually affect young people of working age. They place a significant burden on healthcare resources and society; however, there is a lack of evidence to guide their treatment. Identifying the most beneficial and cost-efficient treatment will ensure optimisation of care and provide economic value for the National Health Service. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial comparing surgical and non-surgical treatment for MSF in adults. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre prospective cohort study, with a nested qualitative study consisting of patient interviews and focus groups, and an embedded factorial randomised substudy evaluating the use of text messages to maximise data collection and participant retention. The outcomes of interest include eligibility, recruitment and retention rates, completion of follow-up, evaluation of primary outcome measures, calculation of the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for selected outcome measures and establishing the feasibility of data collection methods and appropriate time-points for use in a future trial. Data will be captured using a secure online data management system. Data analyses will be descriptive and a thematic inductive analysis will be used for qualitative data. Minimum clinically important effects for each patient-reported outcome measure will be estimated using anchor-based responsiveness statistics and distribution-based methods. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has received ethical approval from the Research Ethics Committee and the Health Research Authority (REC reference 20/EE/0124). Results will be made available to patients, clinicians, researchers and the funder via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Social media platforms, local media and feedback from the Patient Advisory Group will be used to maximise circulation of findings to patients and the public. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13922779.
  • Microfracture Technique for Chronic Unstable Osteochondral Defect of Knee: Case Report

    Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Ashwood, Neil; Bindi, Frank; Hayward, Keith; Galanopoulos, llias (2021-02)
    Osteochondral fractures of the medial femoral condyle of the knee can be diagnostically and therapeutically challenging. Various techniques of osteochondral defect treatment include fixation, abrasion chondroplasty, drilling, microfracture, autografts, allografts and chondrocyte transplantation. A 37-year-old man presented with persistent left knee pain of about six months duration. Concomitant symptoms included swelling, several episodes of locking and clicking, and a sense of instability especially in walking downstairs. MRI scan revealed an unstable osteochondral lesion about 2 cm in diameter involving the medial femoral condyle. The patient underwent arthroscopic removal of the fragment and microfracturing of the defect on the medial femoral condyle. Postoperatively, he was treated with non-weight bearing for six weeks along with quadriceps strengthening and range of motion (ROM) exercises. The final outcome was good as the patient has returned to his previous activities. Microfracture technique is quite effective with regard to the improvement of daily activities with a favorable impact on pain relief and overall satisfactory functional results.
  • Musculoskeletal Attendances to a Minor Injury Department During a Pandemic

    Dowell, Richard; Ashwood, Neil (2021-02)
    Introduction: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became a public health emergency of international concern, countries across the globe began to instate strict social distancing restrictions or “lockdowns”. During these times emergency departments in the United Kingdom (UK) recorded a significant drop in patients attending when compared to the same months of previous years. Attendances related to musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma also saw a significant drop in numbers Objective: The purpose of this retrospective audit was to investigate patterns of injuries attending during the pandemic and more specifically during times of lockdown. Method: Retrospective audit data was collected from an electronic medical record system (MediTech V6) during the time period of the first lockdown in the UK. Data was collected for patients attending the emergency department at the Queens Hospital Burton site of the University Hospitals of Derby and Burton National Health Service (NHS) Trust. Presenting complaints were recorded for the entire emergency department, and diagnosis on discharge and activity status was recorded for minor injuries only. This data was then compared to the same date from 2019. Results: Overall attendances in the emergency department decreased by 45.42% during the first lockdown when compared to the same time period in 2019. MSK problems also saw a significant drop as back pain decreased by 58.88%, neck pain fell by 78.52% and limb problems decreased by 59.74%. When comparing data from the minor injury department, limb problems decreased by 20.45%. The number of soft tissue injuries decreased by 24.05% and fractures decreased by 7.96%. Conclusion: Attendances in the emergency department were greatly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially during the first lockdown. The rates of fractures and soft tissue injuries within the minors’ area of the emergency department were also reduced but not at the same rate as the overall attendance. A large number of fractures and soft tissue injuries still presented to the emergency department despite reduced national activity. These attendances may be as a result of the increased rate of Do It Yourself (DIY)-related injuries and altered patient/social behaviour due to lockdown, social distancing, and seasons/weather. Further research would be required to investigate the changing patterns of behaviour especially as we enter a second wave of cases.
  • Mid-long term survivorship of the cemented, semi-constrained "Discovery" total elbow arthroplasty

    Borton, Zakk; Prasad, Ganesh; Konstantopoulos, Georgios; Morgan, Marie; Cresswell, Timothy; Espag, Marius; Tambe, Amol; Clark, David (2021-01)
    Background: The incidence of total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is increasing and improved understanding of elbow kinematics and biomaterials have driven advances in implant design. In modern practice, cemented semi-constrained devices are most frequently utilized. The Discovery TEA has demonstrated promising early results, though there is a paucity of follow-up studies and no dedicated mid-long term series. We therefore present the longest, most complete such study to date. Methods: A prospectively maintained local joint registry was interrogated to yield a consecutive series of Discovery TEA performed at a single non-design center. Minimum follow-up was set at 5 years. Revision procedures and TEA performed for acute trauma were excluded. Primary outcome was survivorship of the implant. Secondary outcomes included clinical, radiographic, and patient-reported outcomes. Results: Sixty-seven TEAs in 58 patients were identified for inclusion at a mean 98.5(+/-20.4) months from surgery. Four (6%) were lost to follow-up and implant survival censored accordingly. The implant was revised in 14 cases (20.9%). Implant survivorship was 76.8% at 119 months by the Kaplan-Meier method. There was a significant difference in survival between dominant and non-dominant elbows (Breslow test p=0.012), with elbow dominance conferring a 4.5-fold increased risk of revision (relative risk 4.5 [95% CI 1.1-18.5]). Pooled clinical outcomes (70.9% follow-up at minimum 60 and median 77.8 months) are also presented. Conclusions: We present the longest-term and most complete single-center follow-up study of the Discovery TEA to date. Further long-term survival studies are required to elucidate the performance of this implant compared to more established designs. We have also demonstrated differences in implant survivorship due to hand dominance for the first time.
  • Predicting the Behaviour of Humeral Shaft Fractures: An Independent Validation Study of the Radiographic Union Score for HUmeral Fractures (RUSHU) and Value of Assessing Fracture Mobility

    Dekker, Andrew; Tambe, Amol; Clark, David (2021-01)
    Objectives: To externally validate the Radiographic Union Score for Humeral fractures (RUSHU) and to quantify the predictive relationship of fracture motion on physical examination to non-union. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Single institutional centre (University teaching hospital). Patients: 92 consecutive patients undergoing non-operative treatment of a diaphyseal humeral shaft fracture were identified over a 4-year period. The average age of the population was 62 years and 42% of the cohort was male. Intervention: Clinical examination for fracture stability was routinely performed on patients by the treating physicians. Radiographic assessment of fracture callus (RUSHU score) at 6-weeks was retrospectively determined. Patients were followed up until union. Main outcome measurements: Stability was graded as motion at the fracture site or the humerus moving as a single functional unit. Results: Fractures with RUSHU score ≤7 were 14 times more likely to proceed to non-union at 6-months (78% sensitivity, 80% specificity). The time to union was 49 weeks for a RUSHU score of ≤7 versus 16 weeks for a RUSHU score of ≥8. The number of operations needed to avoid one non-union was 1.7. Fractures mobile at 6-weeks were 6.5 times more likely to proceed to non-union at 6-months (77% specificity, 67% sensitivity). Mobile fractures had a longer time to union (41 weeks) than non-mobile fractures (17 weeks). Conclusion: The RUSHU score and clinical assessment of fracture mobility are effective and valid tools in identifying patients at risk of developing non-union of humeral shaft fractures and can enhance early decision making in fracture management.
  • Prospective Study Showing Results of Large-Diameter Femoral Heads After Cementless Total Hip Replacement

    Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Hind, Jamie; Ashwood, Neil (2021-01)
    Introduction: Large-diameter femoral heads (≥36 mm) were introduced to decrease instability and improve the range of motion of the hip. We hypothesized regarding the clinical outcome and complications (dislocation, implant survivorship, and functional scores) following total hip replacement (THR) surgery in an Indian population who have smaller acetabulum compared to the western population. Methodology: A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital from November 2011 to July 2013. A total of 70 patients with hip pathology were operated by a senior surgeon for THR using the anterolateral approach. The Harris Hip Scores were recorded pre and postoperatively in all patients. Postoperatively, radiographs were taken to check for evidence of implant loosening or osteolysis. The patients were followed up till a mean follow-up of 86.52 months (range: 74 to 108 months) in our cohort. Detailed clinical and radiographic results were available for 59 patients, while six died (three died of myocardial infarction (MI), two had cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and one patient died of pulmonary embolism) and five patients were lost to follow-up. Results: Of the 59 hips, majority (76%) had acetabular inclination of 46-55 degrees. Ninety percent of the stems were in the central position and 10% were in the varus position. The average preoperative Harris Hip Score was 38.8 ± 5.7 (range: 24-46), which increased to 90.4 ± 7.3 (range: 78-94) at the last follow-up. A total of six patients died (four died of MI and two of CVA) and two patients had infection which was treated with antibiotics. Three cases of dislocation were observed; one following a fall one year after surgery and revision total hip arthroplasty was done and two cases while getting up from the bed which were managed with closed reduction and abduction brace for six weeks. Two cases of periprosthetic fracture were observed which were managed with plating. Conclusion: Lower dislocation rate and better range of movement reinforces the advantage of large-diameter femoral head during THR in the Indian population.
  • Sub-Axial Cervical Facet Dislocation: A Review of Current Concepts

    Mubark, Islam; Abouelela, Amr; Hassan, Mohammed; Ashwood, Neil (2021-01)
    Cervical facet dislocation is a serious injury that carries risks of short- and long-term morbidity. The optimal management of these injuries remains controversial with the ongoing debate regarding indications and requirements for closed reduction, timing, type of surgical approach and method of fixation. This review gives an update on the relevant anatomy, classification systems for sub-axial cervical facet dislocation and an overview of the current concepts regarding their management, including surgical approaches and the choice of implants.
  • The acute management of ankle fractures (Augment) study: A prospective trainee led national collaborative audit of the Boast 12 guidelines

    Davies-Jones, Gareth; Latif, Javed (2021-01)
    Background: Ankle fractures are one of the most common fractures in adults aged 20-65 years. The British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) and British Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (BOFAS) jointly produced Standards for Trauma (BOAST) BOAST 12, with the aim of reducing morbidity by standardising care of these injuries. The primary aim of the AUGMENT study was to determine the extent and clinical effect of variation from BOAST 12. Methods: AUGMENT was a multi-centre prospective trainee led audit of consecutive patients presenting with an ankle fracture within a four-week period. Data were collected on patient demographics, comorbidities, management and 12-week outcome. The BOAST 12 standards were divided into four subgroups; documentation, imaging, management and follow-up. Percentage compliance with each subgroup was analysed. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine impact of overall compliance on likelihood of discharge in follow-up period. Findings: 971 patients were included across 52 sites. The overall rate of BOAST 12 compliance was 41.7%. Variations in practice were observed in clinical documentation, especially of neurovascular status, (40.7%) and VTE assessment (61.5%). Patient management compliance with all 16 of the BOAST 12 standards was associated with a higher rate of discharge during the 12-week follow-up period (p = 0.005). Conclusion: AUGMENT has demonstrated that the management of ankle fractures is variable across the UK. Over half of patients had aspects of their care that were not BOAST 12 compliant. When compliance was observed, it was associated with earlier discharge from orthopaedic care.
  • Communication With Patients Before an Operation: Their Preferences on Method of Communication

    Al Ghunimat, Abdallah; Hind, Jamie; Abouelela, Amr; Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Lacon, Andrew; Ashwood, Neil (2020-11)
    Background: With the constantly evolving communication technologies, it is essential for all healthcare professionals to try utilising various methods in communicating with patients. This will lead to better healthcare outcomes and patient satisfaction. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare a patient’s preference to various communication methods regarding their appointments and to evaluate if we’re giving our patients an appropriate notice period prior to their operation. Methods: A questionnaire was given to 111 patients who underwent elective orthopaedic procedures. Results: Factors like age and gender affect the choice of communication method. Traditional letters still have a role or an older population aged 65 and over. However, younger patients showed higher preference for other communication methods such as phone calls, texts, and e-mails. Gender also had a role in choosing a preference where male patients chose a range of options whilst female patients preferred phone calls. Most patients stated they received an appropriate notice period, with 88% of patients stating they would like to be notified one-two weeks prior to their operation. Conclusion: More research needs to be conducted into using text messages and e-mails in communicating with elective surgical patients, in addition to implementing newer technologies like mobile phone applications and secure online messaging portals, as this has the potential to reshape the communication process with our patients and lead to better health outcomes and patient satisfaction.

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