Recent Submissions

  • The Use of Fluoroscan in Hand Clinic During the Covid Pandemic to Optimise Conservative Treatment

    Ashwood, Neil
    Introduction The study assessed the use of Fluoroscan (Hologic, Inc., Marlborough, MA) in hand clinic as advised by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) during the COVID-19 pandemic to facilitate treatment of fractures requiring manipulation and reduce admissions to evaluate if this should be embedded in practice permanently. Method Eighty-three wrist and hand fractures requiring manipulation were identified between April 2020 and March 2021. Demographics, mechanism of injury, timing of intervention, radiological outcome, further intervention and functional assessment by QuickDASH scoring were recorded. Results Sixty-eight cases were manipulated within the first week of fracture, simple pain control measures were used, and dose area product (DAP) averaged 1.3 Gy cm2 well below the dose limit set by the trust. Satisfactory fracture reduction was achieved in 59 cases avoiding admission. Further surgical intervention was offered to 24 patients: five re-manipulated while 19 had operation, all with a good functional outcome. Conclusion Fluoroscan use in fracture clinics achieved effective fracture control in 77% of cases. The use of Fluoroscan avoided admissions for surgery during the pandemic and lengthy clinic visits, four out of five did not need admission.
  • Comparing an optimised physiotherapy treatment package with usual physiotherapy care for people with tennis elbow - protocol for the OPTimisE pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    Bateman, Marcus
    BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy is recommended for people with tennis elbow, but whilst a wide array of treatments is available, the optimal approach remains uncertain. We have therefore recently developed an optimised physiotherapy treatment package for tennis elbow based on a synthesis of the evidence, patient input and clinical consensus. It consists of detailed advice and education, a structured progressive exercise programme and provision of a counter-force elbow brace. Here, we report the protocol for our multicentre pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) designed to (a) examine the feasibility of our optimised physiotherapy treatment package and (b) to pilot trial processes for a future fully powered RCT to test clinical and cost-effectiveness compared with usual physiotherapy treatment. METHODS: A multicentre pilot and feasibility RCT will be conducted across three sites in England, recruiting up to 50 patients (or for a maximum of 12 months). Participants with tennis elbow, identified from physiotherapy clinic waiting lists and general practice surgeries, will be randomly allocated to receive the optimised physiotherapy treatment package or usual physiotherapy care. Analysis will focus on feasibility measures including consent rate, intervention fidelity, follow-up rate and outcome completion rate. A nested qualitative study will explore the acceptability of the study processes and patient and physiotherapist experiences of the new optimised intervention. DISCUSSION: This study will determine the feasibility of a new optimised physiotherapy treatment package for people with tennis elbow and pilot the processes for a future fully powered RCT. In the longer term, this treatment package may provide superior clinical outcomes for patients, in terms of pain and quality of life, and be more cost-effective for the health service. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with the ISRCTN database 19/7/2021, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN64444585.
  • One-year outcome of surgery compared with immobilization in a cast for adults with an undisplaced or minimally displaced scaphoid fracture : a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Johnson, NA
    AIMS: There has been an increasing use of early operative fixation for scaphoid fractures, despite uncertain evidence. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate up-to-date evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing the effectiveness of the operative and nonoperative treatment of undisplaced and minimally displaced (≤ 2 mm displacement) scaphoid fractures. METHODS: A systematic review of seven databases was performed from the dates of their inception until the end of March 2021 to identify eligible RCTs. Reference lists of the included studies were screened. No language restrictions were applied. The primary outcome was the patient-reported outcome measure of wrist function at 12 months after injury. A meta-analysis was performed for function, pain, range of motion, grip strength, and union. Complications were reported narratively. RESULTS: Seven RCTs were included. There was no significant difference in function between the groups at 12 months (Hedges' g 0.15 (95% confidence interval -0.02 to 0.32); p = 0.082). The complication rate was higher in the operative group and involved more serious complications. CONCLUSION: We found no difference in functional outcome at 12 months for fractures of the waist of the scaphoid with ≤ 2 mm displacement treated operatively or nonoperatively. The complication rate was higher with operative treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):953-962.
  • The role of resistance exercise training for improving cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Doleman, Brett; Lund, Jonathan; Toft, Suzanne
    BACKGROUND: Declines in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscle mass are both associated with advancing age and each of these declines is associated with worse health outcomes. Resistance exercise training (RET) has previously been shown to improve muscle mass and function in the older population. If RET is also able to improve CRF, as it has been shown to do in younger populations, it has the potential to improve multiple health outcomes in the expanding older population. METHODS: This systematic review aimed to identify the role of RET for improving CRF in healthy older adults. A search across CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and EMCARE databases was conducted with meta-analysis performed on eligible papers to identify improvements in established CRF parameters (VO2 peak, aerobic threshold (AT), 6-minute walking distance test (6MWT) following RET intervention. Main eligibility criteria included older adults (aged over 60), healthy cohorts (disease-specific cohorts were excluded) and RET intervention. RESULTS: Thirty-seven eligible studies were identified. Meta-analysis revealed a significant improvement in VO2 peak (MD 1.89 ml/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.57 ml/kg/min), AT (MD 1.27 ml/kg/min; 95% CI 0.44-2.09 ml/kg/min) and 6MWT (MD 30.89; 95% CI 26.7-35.08) in RET interventions less than 24 weeks. There was no difference in VO2 peak or 6MWT in interventions longer than 24 weeks. DISCUSSION: This systematic review adds to a growing body of evidence supporting the implementation of RET in the older population for improving whole-body health, particularly in time-limited timeframes.
  • Equipment-free, unsupervised high intensity interval training elicits significant improvements in the physiological resilience of older adults.

    Doleman, Brett
    BACKGROUND: Reduced cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent risk factor for dependency, cognitive impairment and premature mortality. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a proven time-efficient stimulus for improving both CRF and other facets of cardiometabolic health also known to decline with advancing age. However, the efficacy of equipment-free, unsupervised HIIT to improve the physiological resilience of older adults is not known. METHODS: Thirty independent, community-dwelling older adults (71(SD: 5) years) were randomised to 4 weeks (12 sessions) equipment-free, supervised (in the laboratory (L-HIIT)) or unsupervised (at home (H-HIIT)) HIIT, or a no-intervention control (CON). HIIT involved 5, 1-minute intervals of a bodyweight exercise each interspersed with 90-seconds recovery. CRF, exercise tolerance, blood pressure (BP), body composition, muscle architecture, circulating lipids and glucose tolerance were assessed at baseline and after the intervention period. RESULTS: When compared to the control group, both HIIT protocols improved the primary outcome of CRF ((via anaerobic threshold) mean difference, L-HIIT: +2.27, H-HIIT: +2.29, both p < 0.01) in addition to exercise tolerance, systolic BP, total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and m. vastus lateralis pennation angle, to the same extent. There was no improvement in these parameters in CON. There was no change in diastolic BP, glucose tolerance, whole-body composition or HDL cholesterol in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that short-term, time-efficient, equipment-free, HIIT is able to elicit improvements in the CRF of older adults irrespective of supervision status. Unsupervised HIIT may offer a novel approach to improve the physiological resilience of older adults, combating age-associated physiological decline, the rise of inactivity and the additional challenges currently posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov and coded: NCT03473990 .
  • Oxidized zirconium versus cobalt-chrome femoral heads in total hip arthroplasty: a multicentre prospective randomized controlled trial with ten years' follow-up.

    Stephen, Arthur; Hutchinson, James; Haddad, Fares
    AIMS: This study reports the ten-year wear rates, incidence of osteolysis, clinical outcomes, and complications of a multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing oxidized zirconium (OxZr) versus cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral heads with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liners in total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: Patients undergoing primary THA were recruited from four institutions and prospectively allocated to the following treatment groups: Group A, CoCr femoral head with XLPE liner; Group B, OxZr femoral head with XLPE liner; and Group C, OxZr femoral head with UHMWPE liner. All study patients and assessors recording outcomes were blinded to the treatment groups. The outcomes of 262 study patients were analyzed at ten years' follow-up. RESULTS: Patients in Group C were associated with increased mean liner wear rates compared to patients in Group A (0.133 mm/yr (SD 0.21) vs 0.031 mm/yr (SD 0.07), respectively; p < 0.001) and Group B (0.133 mm/yr (SD 0.21) vs 0.022 mm/yr (SD 0.05), respectively; p < 0.001) at ten years' follow-up. Patients in Group C were also associated with increased risk of osteolysis and aseptic loosening requiring revision surgery, compared with patients in Group A (7/133 vs 0/133, respectively; p = 0.007) and Group B (7/133 vs 0/135, respectively; p = 0.007). There was a non-statistically significant trend towards increased mean liner wear rates in Group A compared with Group B (0.031 mm/yr (SD 0.07) vs 0.022 mm/yr (SD 0.05), respectively; p = 0.128). All three groups were statistically comparable preoperatively and at ten years' follow-up when measuring normalized Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (p = 0.410), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (p = 0.465 mental, p = 0.713 physical), and pain scale scores (p = 0.451). CONCLUSION: The use of UHMWPE was associated with progressively increased annual liner wear rates after THA compared to XLPE. At ten years' follow-up, the group receiving UHMWPE demonstrated an increased incidence of osteolysis and aseptic loosening requiring revision surgery compared to XLPE. Femoral heads composed of OxZr were associated with trend towards reduced wear rates compared to CoCr, but this did not reach statistical significance and did not translate to any differences in osteolysis, functional outcomes, or revision surgery between the two femoral head components.
  • How Do Orthopaedic Patients Prefer to Be Contacted During a Pandemic?

    Fellows, David; Hind, Jamie; Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Amara, Veda; Ashwood, Neil
    Introduction: Communication with patients is a vital part of the surgical pathway, and when done effectively, it can greatly improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction and reduce canceled appointments. Different forms of communication work well for different patient demographics, and it is important to optimize communication techniques. We designed a study to review the communication preferences of orthopedic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by asking patients who were due to undergo orthopedic procedures to answer a questionnaire on their communication preferences, the reminder notice period for appointments, and safety and satisfaction ratings during the COVID-19 pandemic.Results:Communication method preferences are influenced by patient factors such as gender and age. Phone calls were the most popular communication method throughout all patient groups, with 61% selecting it as their preference. Younger patients preferred multiple communication methods of phone calls, texts, and emails, whereas the older group had a stronger preference for letters. Letters were more popular among females (28% compared to 10% of males), whereas males had a stronger preference for other communication methods. The majority of patients said they would not have liked a letter prior to their clinic appointment (65%). Of those who indicated a preferred notice period, 73% would have liked five days or less notice prior to their clinic appointment, while 65% would have liked 10-14 days notice prior to their surgery. The average safety rating was 55%. The overall satisfaction rating with the communication process was 71.7%. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed patient feelings towards healthcare and, as a result, changed the way healthcare is delivered. Communication method preferences among trauma and orthopedic patients vary and depend on factors such as gender and age. If healthcare departments can optimize their communication processes, they will improve their patient outcomes and enhance their resources.
  • A comparative analysis of multidimensional computerized adaptive testing for the DASH and QuickDASH scores in Dupuytren's disease.

    Russell, Peter
    The QuickDASH is a short-form version of the DASH questionnaire, the most widely used patient-reported outcome measure in hand surgery. Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) can produce shorter and more precise testing than static short forms, like QuickDASH. We used DASH responses from 507 patients with Dupuytren's disease to develop a MCAT. The algorithm was evaluated in a Monte Carlo simulation, where the standard error of measurement (SEm) of scores obtained from the 11-item QuickDASH was compared with scores obtained from an MCAT that could administer up to 11 items from the full 30-item DASH. The MCAT asked a mean of 8.51 items (SD 2.93) and 265/1000 simulated respondents needed to complete ≤five items. Median SEms were better for DASH MCAT: 0.299 (hand function) and 0.256 (sensory symptoms) versus 0.320 and 0.290, respectively, for QuickDASH. Our study showed that the DASH MCAT can produce more precise DASH measurement than the QuickDASH, from fewer items.
  • Effect of institution volume on mortality and outcomes in osteoporotic hip fracture care

    Johnson, NA (2022-01)
    Hospitals that treat more patients with osteoporotic hip fractures do not generally have better care outcomes than those that treat fewer hip fracture patients. Institutions that do look after more such patients tend, however, to more consistently perform relevant health assessments. INTRODUCTION: An inveterate link has been found between institution case volume and a wide range of clinical outcomes; for a host of medical and surgical conditions. Hip fracture patients, notwithstanding the significance of this injury, have largely been overlooked with regard to this important evaluation. METHODS: We used the UK National Hip Fracture database to determine the effect of institution hip fracture case volume on hip fracture healthcare outcomes in 2019. Using logistic regression for each healthcare outcome, we compared the best performing 50 units with the poorest performing 50 institutions to determine if the unit volume was associated with performance in each particular outcome. RESULTS: There were 175 institutions with included 67,673 patients involved. The number of hip fractures between units ranged from 86 to 952. Larger units tendered to perform health assessments more consistently and mobilise patients more expeditiously post-operatively. However, patients treated at large institutions did not have any shorter lengths of stay. With regard to most other outcomes there was no association between the unit number of cases and performance; notably mortality, compliance with best practice tariff, time to surgery, the proportion of eligible patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, length of stay delirium risk and pressure sore risk. CONCLUSIONS: There is no relationship between unit volume and the majority of health care outcomes. It would seem that larger institutions tend to perform better at parameters that are dependent upon personnel numbers. However, where the outcome is contingent, even partially, on physical infrastructure capacity, there was no difference between larger and smaller units.
  • Myositis, Osteomyelitis and a Parasymphyseal Stress Fracture in a Paediatric Patient

    Hind, Jamie; Ashwood, Neil (Cureus, 2021)
    Abstract The limping child and painful hip are common presentations in many paediatric emergency units. Typically caused by mild self-limiting events, less commonly, they may be implicated in one of a group of inflammatory myopathies, or myositis. Diagnosis of this condition can be extremely difficult, and is aided by thorough clinical assessment, radiological imaging, and extensive blood serum testing. Myositis with associated osteomyelitis and a pathological fracture is an incredibly rare finding, described in this case report in a seven-year-old child.
  • Limb length inequality (LLI) is a frequent and recurring issue after total hip arthroplasty (THA). It is often a source of patient dissatisfaction and litigation. This study reviewed the incidence of LLI in a UK District General Hospital in light of published evidence and identified the preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for LLI.

    Abouelela, Amr; Mubark, Islam; Mohamed, Nagy; Jayakumar, Nithish; Ashwood, Neil; Bindi, Frank (2021)
    Abstract: Methods This was a retrospective study involving 380 consecutive unilateral primary total hip replacements over a period of 12 months. Patient demographics, clinical, radiological, and operative details were collected from the National Joint Registry (NJR) database and hospital records. The limb length was measured radiologically [OrthoView WorkstationTM (Materialise UK, Southampton, UK)], pre- and postoperatively, by two authors. They assessed the vertical distance between the intra-acetabular teardrop line and the medial apex of the lesser trochanters. After excluding complex primary, revision cases, tilted X-rays, and hip replacement for trauma patients, 338 cases were included in the final analysis. ResultsThe mean postoperative LLI was 2.7 mm with a standard deviation (SD) of 6.56 mm. Only 5.3% of patients had LLI >15 mm. None of the studied variables showed a statistically significant correlation with LLI. Even with the apparent difference in the mean LLI between templating and not templating before surgery (2.19 vs. 3.53), the p-value was 0.06, which was below the level of statistical significance. There was a weakly positive Pearson correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of lengthening of the limb. Conclusion The cause of LLI after THA is multifactorial. No single factor can be singled out as the most significant contributor to this complication.
  • Two-Stage Primary Arthroplasty in the Infected Native Knee: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.

    Mishra, Arya; Singh, Harvinder; Cockshott, S; Tambe, Amol (2021)
    INTRODUCTION: The knee is the commonest native joint to develop an infection. A two-stage primary knee replacement, with an interim stage of debridement and cement spacer application, modelled after two-stage revision for periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) has been reported for the management of chronic infections. AIMS: To systematically review the literature to find the infection-free survival and outcomes of this operation and explore its indications. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were followed for this review. A systematic search of 4 online databases was conducted on 9/8/2020. After reviewing 226 abstracts and applying our selection criteria, 10 papers were selected for full-text review, and 9 included in the final synthesis. RESULTS: On pooled analysis, an infection-free survival of 95.6% (CI 94.7-96.4) was found at 2 years in 139 knees, which was unchanged over the remainder of the follow-up (Mean 3.9 years). The complication rate after final implantation was 6% in those that did not develop reinfection. The mean pooled Knee Society Score (KSS) and KSS Function score among 70 patients (4 papers) was 83.4 (80.1-89.0) and 76.8 (71.5-78.0), respectively. The mean range of motion among 82 patients (6 papers) was more than 100°. CONCLUSIONS: Two-stage primary knee replacement is a safe, effective and reliable procedure with good results in the short to medium term. Further studies are required to lay down precise indications and cost-effectiveness of this procedure, in comparison to other strategies for chronic infection. All joint registries should develop methods to identify patients undergoing two-stage procedures, to understand their long-term survival and outcomes.
  • Morphometric measurements can improve prediction of progressive vertebral deformity following vertebral damage.

    Annesley-Williams, DJ
    PURPOSE: A damaged vertebral body can exhibit accelerated 'creep' under constant load, leading to progressive vertebral deformity. However, the risk of this happening is not easy to predict in clinical practice. The present cadaveric study aimed to identify morphometric measurements in a damaged vertebral body that can predict a susceptibility to accelerated creep. METHODS: A total of 27 vertebral trabeculae samples cored from five cadaveric spines (3 male, 2 female, aged 36 to 73 (mean 57) years) were mechanically tested to establish the relationship between bone damage and residual strain. Compression testing of 28 human spinal motion segments (three vertebrae and intervening soft tissues) dissected from 14 cadaveric spines (10 male, 4 female, aged 67 to 92 (mean 80) years) showed how the rate of creep of a damaged vertebral body increases with increasing "damage intensity" in its trabecular bone. Damage intensity was calculated from vertebral body residual strain following initial compressive overload using the relationship established in the compression test of trabecular bone samples. RESULTS: Calculations from trabecular bone samples showed a strong nonlinear relationship between residual strain and trabecular bone damage intensity (R2 = 0.78, P < 0.001). In damaged vertebral bodies, damage intensity was then related to vertebral creep rate (R2 = 0.39, P = 0.001). This procedure enabled accelerated vertebral body creep to be predicted from morphological changes (residual strains) in the damaged vertebra. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that morphometric measurements obtained from fractured vertebrae can be used to quantify vertebral damage and hence to predict progressive vertebral deformity.
  • A systematic review of total arthroplasty and arthrodesis for end-stage hallux rigidus: A biomechanical perspective.

    Rajan, Rowan; Mishra, Arya
    BACKGROUND: Both arthrodesis and total arthroplasty are acceptable surgical options for end stage hallux rigidus without significant angular deformity. Total arthroplasty preserves first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) motion, which may help restore a more physiological gait pattern. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there a difference in the findings of gait studies after 1st MTPJ total arthroplasty or arthrodesis for end-stage hallux rigidus? METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were followed to conduct a systematic review of literature for studies reporting gait analysis after the above procedures. Predetermined criteria were used to select papers and evaluated the findings of kinematic (spatial-temporal and dynamic motion), kinetic and foot pressure (pedobarographic) studies. RESULTS: 12 titles were short-listed for synthesis. There was 1 randomized controlled trial comparing the two procedures. Among the remaining cohort studies, 5 reported on total arthroplasty and 6 on arthrodesis of the 1st MTPJ. Due to significant heterogeneity, a narrative synthesis was undertaken. No studies in the arthroplasty group reported spatial-temporal or kinetic parameters. Only 2 papers, 1 in each group, recorded motion within the foot. One of them showed preserved dynamic motion at the 1st MTPJ after total arthroplasty. Pedobarographic studies had discordant findings in studies within both groups regarding restoration of weight bearing through the medial forefoot and the pulp of the great toe during gait. CONCLUSION: Currently available studies are heterogenous and report inconsistent findings, which do not convincingly answer our research question. Prospective comparative studies with a large sample size, using standardized methodology in accredited laboratories with detailed reporting of kinetic, kinematic and pedobarographic components of gait analysis are required in order to draw concrete conclusions.
  • Minimum five-year outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty using a trabecular metal glenoid base plate

    Kankanalu, P; Borton, Zakk; Morgan, Marie; Cresswell, Timothy; Espag, Marius; Tambe, Amol; Clark, D (2021-08)
    AIMS: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) using trabecular metal (TM)-backed glenoid implants has been introduced with the aim to increase implant survival. Only short-term reports on the outcomes of TM-RTSA have been published to date. We aim to present the seven-year survival of TM-backed glenoid implants along with minimum five-year clinical and radiological outcomes. METHODS: All consecutive elective RTSAs performed at a single centre between November 2008 and October 2014 were reviewed. Patients who had primary TM-RTSA for rotator cuff arthropathy and osteoarthritis with deficient cuff were included. A total of 190 shoulders in 168 patients (41 male, 127 female) were identified for inclusion at a mean of 7.27 years (SD 1.4) from surgery. The primary outcome was survival of the implant with all-cause revision and aseptic glenoid loosening as endpoints. Secondary outcomes were clinical, radiological, and patient-related outcomes with a five-year minimum follow-up. RESULTS: The implant was revised in ten shoulders (5.2%) with a median time to revision of 21.2 months (interquartile range (IQR) 9.9 to 41.8). The Kaplan-Meier survivorship estimate at seven years was 95.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 91.7 to 98; 35 RTSAs at risk) for aseptic mechanical failure of the glenoid and 94.8% (95% CI 77.5 to 96.3; 35 RTSAs at risk) for all-cause revision. Minimum five-year clinical and radiological outcomes were available for 103 and 98 RTSAs respectively with a median follow-up time of six years (IQR 5.2 to 7.0). Median postoperative Oxford Shoulder Score was 38 (IQR 31 to 45); median Constant and Murley score was 60 (IQR 47.5 to 70); median forward flexion 115° (IQR 100° to 125°); median abduction 95° (IQR 80° to 120°); and external rotation 25° (IQR 15° to 40°) Scapular notching was seen in 62 RTSAs (63.2%). CONCLUSION: We present the largest and longest-term series of TM-backed glenoid implants demonstrating 94.8% all-cause survivorship at seven years. Specifically pertaining to glenoid loosening, survival of the implant increased to 95.9%. In addition, we report satisfactory minimum five-year clinical and radiological outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(8):1333-1338.
  • Cocoa Flavanols Adjuvant to an Oral Nutritional Supplement Acutely Enhances Nutritive Flow in Skeletal Muscle without Altering Leg Glucose Uptake Kinetics in Older Adults.

    Sian, Tanver; Lund, Jonathan; Williams, John P
    Ageing is associated with postprandial muscle vascular and metabolic dysfunction, suggesting vascular modifying interventions may be of benefit. Reflecting this, we investigated the impact of acute cocoa flavanol (450-500 mg) intake (versus placebo control) on vascular (via ultrasound) and glucose/insulin metabolic responses (via arterialised/venous blood samples and ELISA) to an oral nutritional supplement (ONS) in twelve healthy older adults (50% male, 72 ± 4 years), in a crossover design study. The cocoa condition displayed significant increases in m. vastus lateralis microvascular blood volume (MBV) in response to feeding at 180 and 240-min after ONS consumption (baseline: 1.00 vs. 180 min: 1.09 ± 0.03, p = 0.05; 240 min: 1.13 ± 0.04, p = 0.002), with MBV at these timepoints significantly higher than in the control condition (p < 0.05). In addition, there was a trend (p = 0.058) for MBV in m. tibialis anterior to increase in response to ONS in the cocoa condition only. Leg blood flow and vascular conductance increased, and vascular resistance decreased in response to ONS (p < 0.05), but these responses were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). Similarly, glucose uptake and insulin increased in response to ONS (p < 0.05) comparably between conditions (p > 0.05). Thus, acute cocoa flavanol supplementation can potentiate oral feeding-induced increases in MBV in older adults, but this improvement does not relay to muscle glucose uptake.
  • The flail elbow: Every surgeon's nightmare.

    Kumar, Sachin; Mishra, Arya; Tambe, Amol
    A flail elbow joint has an excessive or abnormal degree of mobility resulting in loss of function. Such a situation can arise from structural damage or loss of neuromuscular control. Structural damage may be in terms of loss of integrity of bony, ligamentous, or both components, and this is commonly caused by trauma, failed arthroplasty, infections - either in the native joint or associated with the above, or inflammatory arthritides. Arm paralysis from any cause may also leads to a loss of muscle control making the elbow flail. The management of the condition varies according to etiology; and concurrent issues like infection and instability need to be addressed in addition to the structural problems. Treatment can be non-surgical with the use of orthotics to support the elbow, and maybe more appropriate in certain circumstances. Surgical treatment can involve fixation, repair or reconstruction. Often the deficiency is not amenable to these methods and arthroplasty has to be considered. The situation becomes more fraught in case of failure of arthroplasty and/or infection, where reconstruction can be challenging. In this review we have considered diverse clinical scenarios that fall under this broad umbrella, with a focus on those encountered commonly in practice.
  • Multidisciplinary approach to L3/L4 lumbar disc prolapse masquerading as focal limb myositis-a radiological challenge.

    Saini, Ramandeep; Hurry, Daniel; Singh, Rasvin; Dapaah, Andrew; Sharma, Chetna; Calthorpe, D; Jain, Virendra; Kothari, Ravi
    Prolapsed intervertebral discs are commonly associated with back ache and sciatica. Management is often conservative with analgesia and physiotherapy. Nerve root injections and discectomy procedures are used where conservative measures fail. Majority of patients present with symptoms of pain and motor weakness; however, a few can present as focal myositis of lower limb muscles in the distribution of radiculopathy. MRI scans of limbs are rarely done in these cases but if done can confound the radiologist. Our case report emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary approach for a L3 nerve radiculopathy with confounding clinical presentation of focal lower limb myositis of unknown etiology.
  • Spontaneous Early Intraprosthetic Dislocation of 22 mm Skirted Femoral Head in Dual Mobility Hip Prosthesis: A Case Report.

    Sidhu, Gur Aziz; Kotecha, Amit; Mulay, Sanjay; Ashwood, Neil
    INTRODUCTION: There is a trend for increasing use of dual mobility hip designs for both primary and revision hip arthroplasty settings. It provides dual articular surfaces along with increased jump distance to increase the stability of construct. However, this design has some unique complications of its own which surgeons should be aware of especially intraprosthetic dislocation (IPD). CASE REPORT: A 76-year-old lady presented to clinic with painful hip hemiarthroplasty after fracture neck of femur. She underwent revision surgery with dual mobility uncemented acetabular cup and femoral stem was retained as it was well fixed. She was mobilizing well and around 5 weeks post her surgery, developed pain in hip region and difficulty in weight-bearing. Radiographs showed eccentric position of femoral neck in the socket. A diagnosis of IPD was established and revision surgery was planned. Intraoperatively, metal head had dislocated from the polyethylene head and both components were resting in the acetabular socket. No macroscopic erosion of acetabulum was noticed. The polyethylene component and femoral head were retrieved. With previous failed dual mobility, decision was made to achieve stability with larger head size and lipped liner posteriorly. CONCLUSION: IPD is a rare occurrence and unique complication to dual mobility implants. This report highlights that patients can have IPD without fall or trauma.
  • Protocol for surgical and non-surgical treatment for metacarpal shaft fractures in adults: an observational feasibility study.

    Bainbridge, Chris
    INTRODUCTION: Metacarpal shaft fractures (MSF) are common traumatic hand injuries that usually affect young people of working age. They place a significant burden on healthcare resources and society; however, there is a lack of evidence to guide their treatment. Identifying the most beneficial and cost-efficient treatment will ensure optimisation of care and provide economic value for the National Health Service. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial comparing surgical and non-surgical treatment for MSF in adults. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre prospective cohort study, with a nested qualitative study consisting of patient interviews and focus groups, and an embedded factorial randomised substudy evaluating the use of text messages to maximise data collection and participant retention. The outcomes of interest include eligibility, recruitment and retention rates, completion of follow-up, evaluation of primary outcome measures, calculation of the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for selected outcome measures and establishing the feasibility of data collection methods and appropriate time-points for use in a future trial. Data will be captured using a secure online data management system. Data analyses will be descriptive and a thematic inductive analysis will be used for qualitative data. Minimum clinically important effects for each patient-reported outcome measure will be estimated using anchor-based responsiveness statistics and distribution-based methods. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has received ethical approval from the Research Ethics Committee and the Health Research Authority (REC reference 20/EE/0124). Results will be made available to patients, clinicians, researchers and the funder via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Social media platforms, local media and feedback from the Patient Advisory Group will be used to maximise circulation of findings to patients and the public. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13922779.

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