Recent Submissions

  • Scoping review: Evidence for long-term follow-up and monitoring in shoulder and elbow arthroplasty

    Tambe, Amol
    AIMS: Long-term follow-up and monitoring of asymptomatic shoulder and elbow arthroplasty remains contentious, with a wide spectrum of non-evidence-based mechanisms used. This scoping review aims to outline related evidence, thereby informing research requirements. METHODS: Studies relevant to shoulder and elbow arthroplasty follow-up, surveillance and time-related failure were included. The review included randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and economic studies indexed in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CDSR and Cochrane CENTRAL since 1 January 2012. In addition, all registry studies, follow-up studies, cohort studies and case reports indexed in MEDLINE since 1 January 2020 were included. The screening was undertaken by two reviewers. Key characteristics of each study were described, alongside a narrative review. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were included. We were unable to identify evidence that long-term follow-up and monitoring of asymptomatic shoulder and elbow arthroplasty identifies failure or leads to a revision that is of reduced patient morbidity and cost. In addition, no evidence was apparent to inform whether patients will self-present with a failing implant. Several surveillance mechanisms were identified. CONCLUSION: This scoping review highlights the paucity of evidence related to long-term follow-up and monitoring of shoulder and elbow arthroplasty, and the need for high-quality data to inform the development of evidence-based care pathways.
  • Physiotherapist-led exercise versus usual care (waiting-list) control for patients awaiting rotator cuff repair surgery: A pilot randomised controlled trial (POWER).

    Beckhelling, Jacqueline; Davis, Daniel; Pitt, Lisa
    BACKGROUND: Once a decision to undergo rotator cuff repair surgery is made, patients are placed on the waiting list. It can take weeks or months to receive surgery. There has been a call to move from waiting lists to 'preparation' lists to better prepare patients for surgery and to ensure it remains an appropriate treatment option for them. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, as measured by recruitment rates, treatment fidelity and follow-up rates, of a future multi-centre randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of undertaking a physiotherapist-led exercise programme while waiting for surgery versus usual care (waiting-list control). DESIGN: Two-arm, multi-centre pilot randomised controlled trial with feasibility objectives in six NHS hospitals in England. METHOD: Adults (n = 76) awaiting rotator cuff repair surgery were recruited and randomly allocated to a programme of physiotherapist-led exercise (n = 38) or usual care control (n = 38). RESULTS: Of 302 eligible patients, 76 (25%) were randomised. Of 38 participants randomised to physiotherapist-led exercise, 28 (74%) received the exercise programme as intended. 51/76 (67%) Shoulder Pain and Disability Index questionnaires were returned at 6-months. Of 76 participants, 32 had not received surgery after 6-months (42%). Of those 32, 20 were allocated to physiotherapist-led exercise; 12 to usual care control. CONCLUSIONS: A future multi-centre randomised controlled trial is feasible but would require planning for variable recruitment rates between sites, measures to improve treatment fidelity and opportunity for surgical exit, and optimisation of follow-up. A fully powered, randomised controlled trial is now needed to robustly inform clinical decision-making.
  • Comparison between intra-articular injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, PRP and placebo for thumb base osteoarthritis: A frequentist network meta-analysis.

    Johnson, Nick
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current evidence for the use of intra-articular injections for thumb base osteoarthritis (TBOA) is equivocal. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma. METHODS: A Frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted comparing outcomes at short (≤3 months) and medium-term (>3-12 months) time points. RESULTS: Data from 7 RCTs and 1 non-RCT (446 patients) were collected, consisting of corticosteroids (n = 7), hyaluronic acid (n = 7), platelet-rich plasma (n = 2) and placebo (n = 2). At the short-term time point, no intra-articular injection demonstrated superiority over placebo at reducing pain. At the medium-term time point, superiority of platelet-rich plasma at reducing pain over placebo and corticosteroids was seen following sensitivity analysis (RCTs only) (SMD -1.48 95 % CI -2.71; -0.25). No injection proved superior at improving function at short or medium-term time points. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, despite the promising result for platelet-rich plasma, the evidence quality was limited to two studies only justifying the need for further and larger methodologically robust trials investigating corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma vs each other and placebo.
  • The Pathogenesis of Chiari Malformation and Syringomyelia: A Case Report and Systematic Review of Current Theories

    Ashwood, Neil
    We report a case of a 42-year-old female presenting with left axillary pain radiating down the arm and weakness in the ipsilateral hand. Specialist examinations of neurological and musculoskeletal systems were insignificant. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole spine and brain revealed cerebellar tonsillar herniation of 9-10mm indicating a Chiari type 1 malformation and a large tubular T2 high-intensity lesion in the cervical cord, extending from the C2/3-disc level down to C6/C7 as well as a similar but smaller lesion behind the bodies of C7 and T1. Both lesions were consistent with syringomyelia. Surgical intervention was deemed inappropriate, and she was treated with three months of physiotherapy. Regular follow-up for two years showed gradual symptom resolution, syrinx shrinkage, and no further complications arising secondary to Chiari type 1 malformation. Chiari malformation is an anatomical anomaly of the cranio-cervical junction. It is often incidentally found on MRI, but although asymptomatic in the population, complications associated with the condition such as syringomyelia are a common initial presentation. The relationship between Chiari malformation, particularly Chiari type 1 malformation, and syringomyelia is close with the majority of patients often presenting with idiopathic syringomyelia also found to have a Chiari type 1 malformation. Considerable discussion about the pathogenic mechanisms for syringomyelia development in Chiari malformation is recognized and advancing continually.
  • Does long-term follow-up and monitoring of primary shoulder arthroplasty identify failing implants requiring revision?

    Dover, Caroline; Walstow, Katherine; Pitt, Lisa; Morgan, Marie; Espag, Marius; Clark, David; Tambe, Amol
    BACKGROUND: Published scoping review has identified evidence paucity related to long-term follow-up of shoulder arthroplasty. We aim to report effectiveness of elective primary shoulder arthroplasty surveillance in identifying failing implants requiring revision. METHODS: Analysis of a prospective database recording shoulder arthroplasty and subsequent follow-up surveillance in a shoulder unit. Shoulder arthroplasty were performed by 4 fellowship-trained shoulder surgeons for accepted elective indications including the use of anatomic arthroplasty in arthritic shoulders with intact rotator cuff and a reverse prosthesis being utilized in rotator cuff deficient shoulders and rotator cuff competent arthritic shoulders when deemed preferable by the treating surgeon. All shoulder arthroplasty implants utilized had achieved a minimum 7A Orthopaedic Data Evaluation Panel (ODEP) rating. Included shoulder arthroplasty were performed 01/05/2004-31/12/2021 with minimum 1-year follow-up. Surveillance program involves specialist physiotherapist review at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 15-years postoperatively including clinical examination, outcome scoring and radiographs. Patient-initiated review occurred between timepoints if a patient requested assessment due to symptoms. Outcome measures include ratio of failing implants identified by surveillance and patient-initiated review, with number of surveillance reviews offered and proportion that identified a failing implant requiring revision calculated. RESULTS: 1002 elective primary shoulder arthroplasty with minimum 1-year follow-up were performed (547 reverse total shoulder arthroplasty [rTSA], 234 anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty [aTSA], 221 hemiarthroplasty [HA]). 238 patients died prior to 31/12/2022 resulting in 4019 surveillance appointments offered. 38 prostheses required revision ≥ 1-year postoperatively (6 rTSA, 9 aTSA, 23 HA) with surveillance identifying requirement in 53% (33% rTSA, 56% aTSA, 57% HA) and patient-initiated review in 47%. Mean years from implantation to revision was 5.2 (2.7 rTSA, 3.6 aTSA, 6.6 HA). Revision indications included rotator cuff failure (56% aTSR, 43% HA) and glenoid erosion (57% HA). CONCLUSION: This is the first series reporting effectiveness of shoulder arthroplasty surveillance in identifying implants requiring revision. Surveillance identified over half of implants requiring revision though only 0.5% of appointments identified revision requirement. Surveillance enrolment may influence patient-initiated review utilization therefore similar studies utilizing only patient-initiated follow-up would help inform recommendations.
  • The incidence and severity of diabetic hand infection presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Morris, H; Gillott, E.; Bainbridge, Chris; Johnson, Nicholas
    No abstract available.
  • Hip fractures in the older adult: orthopaedic and geriatric shared care model in Southland, New Zealand-a 5-year follow-up study.

    Morris, H
    BACKGROUND: Neck of femur fractures are common with associated high morbidity and mortality rates. National standards include provision of orthogeriatric care to any patient with a hip fracture. This study assessed the outcomes at 5 years following implementation of a collaborative orthogeriatric service at Southland Hospital in 2012. METHODS: Retrospective data were collected for patients aged 65 years and older admitted with a fragility hip fracture. Data were collated for 2011 (preimplementation) and 2017 (postimplementation). Demographic data and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores were recorded to ensure comparability of the patient groups. Length of stay, postoperative complications and 30-day and 1-year mortality were assessed. RESULTS: 74 admissions with mean age at surgery of 84.2 years in 2011 and 107 admissions with mean age of 82.6 years in 2017. There was a higher proportion of ASA 2 and ASA 3 patients in 2017 compared with 2011 (p=0.036). The median length of stay in the orthopaedic ward was unchanged in the two cohorts but there was a shorter median length of stay by 6.5 days and mean length of stay by 11 days in 2017 in the rehabilitation ward (p<0.001 for both median and mean). Through logistic regression controlling for age, sex and ASA score, there was a reduction in the odds of having a complication by 12% (p<0.001). The study was too small to undertake statistical testing to calculate significant difference in overall 30-day and 1-year mortality between the groups. CONCLUSION: The orthogeriatric service has reduced the frequency of complications and length of stay on the rehabilitation ward 5 years following implementation.
  • To plate, or not to plate? A systematic review of functional outcomes and complications of plate fixation in patellar fractures.

    Ilo, Kevin
    PURPOSE: Poor outcomes and high complication and reoperation rates have been reported with tension-band wiring (TBW) in the management of patellar fractures and particularly the comminuted ones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional outcomes and complication rates of patellar fractures managed with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with a plate. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMCare, CINAHL, AMED and HMIC were searched, and the PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent reviewers extracted the data from the included studies and assessed them for the risk of bias. RESULTS: Plating of patellar fractures is associated with satisfactory range of movement (ROM) and postoperative function and low pain levels. We found a 10.44% complication rate and a low reoperation rate. Reoperations were mainly performed for metalwork removal. CONCLUSION: ORIF with plating of patellar fractures is a safe alternative in the management of patellar fractures and may be associated with a lower complication and reoperation rate compared to TBW. Future randomized prospective studies are needed to validated the results of the present systematic review.
  • The Impact of Surgeon Speciality Interest on Outcomes of Emergency Laparotomy in IBD

    Tierney, Gillian; Bunce, J; Doleman, Brett; Lund, Jonathan
    Introduction Emergency laparotomy may be required in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). NELA is the largest prospectively maintained database of adult emergency laparotomies in England and Wales and includes clinical urgency of the cases. The impact of surgeon subspeciality on outcomes after emergency laparotomy for IBD is unclear. We have investigated this association, according to the degree of urgency in IBD emergency laparotomy, including the effect of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Methods Adults with IBD in the NELA database between 2013 and 2016 were included. Surgeon subspeciality was colorectal or non-colorectal. Urgencies are ‘Immediate’, ‘2–6 h’, ‘6–18 h’ and ’18–24 h’. Logistic regression was used to investigate in-patient mortality and post-operative length of stay (LOS). Results There was significantly reduced mortality and LOS in IBD patients who were operated on by a colorectal surgeon in the least urgent category of emergency laparotomies; Mortality adjusted OR 2.99 (CI 1.2–7.8) P = 0.025, LOS IRR 1.18 (CI 1.02–1.4) P = 0.025. This association was not seen in more urgent categories. Colorectal surgeons were more likely to use MIS, P \0.001, and MIS was associated with decreased LOS in the least urgent cohort, P \0.001, but not in the other urgencies. Conclusions We found improved outcomes in the least urgent cohort of IBD emergency laparotomies when operated on by a colorectal surgeon in comparison to a non-colorectal general surgeon. In the most urgent cases, there was no benefit in the operation being performed by a colorectal surgeon. Further work on characterising IBD emergencies by urgency would be of value
  • Arthroscopic Capsular Shrinkage Is Safe and Effective in the Treatment of Midcarpal Instability in a Pediatric Population: A Single-Center Experience of 51 Cases.

    Wharton, RMH; Lindau, Tommy
    Objective  Treatment of palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) remains controversial and children can develop PMCI from asymptomatic hypermobility. Recently, case series have been published regarding the use of arthroscopic thermal shrinkage of the capsule in adults. Reports of the use of the technique in children and adolescents are rare, and there are no published case series. Methods  In a tertiary hand centre for children's hand and wrist conditions, 51 patients were treated with arthroscopy for PMCI between 2014 and 2021. Eighteen out of 51 patients carried additional diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) or a congenital arthritis. Data were collected including range of movement, visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and with load, and grip strength. Data was used to determine the safety and efficacy of this treatment in paediatric and adolescent patients. Results  Mean follow-up was 11.9 months. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications were recorded. Range of movement was preserved postoperatively. In all groups VAS scores at rest and with load improved. Those who underwent arthroscopic capsular shrinkage (ACS) had significantly greater improvement in VAS with load, compared with those who underwent arthroscopic synovectomy alone ( p  = 0.04). Comparing those treated with underlying JIA versus those without, there was no difference in postoperative range of movement, but there was significantly greater improvement for the non-JIA group in terms of both VAS at rest ( p  = 0.02) and VAS with load ( p  = 0.02). Those with JIA and hypermobility stabilized postoperatively, and those with JIA with signs of early carpal collapse and no hypermobility achieved improved range of movement, in terms of flexion ( p  = 0.02), extension ( p  = 0.03), and radial deviation ( p  = 0.01). Conclusion  ACS is a well-tolerated, safe, and effective procedure for PMCI in children and adolescents. It improves pain and instability at rest and with load, and offers benefit over open synovectomy alone. This is the first case series describing the usefulness of the procedure in children and adolescents, and demonstrates effective use of the technique in experienced hands in a specialist centre. Level of Evidence  This is a Level IV study.
  • Artificial Intelligence; a Pragmatic Approach to Implementation in Medicine, a Review of the literature and a Survey of Local Practice in Midlands in UK

    Capes, Neil; Sarhan, Islam; Ashwood, Neil; Dekker, Andrew
    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for clinical pathway management and decision making is believed to improve clinical care and has been used to improve pathways for treatment in most medical disciplines. Methods: A literature review was undertaken to identify the hurdles and steps required to introduce supported clinical decision-making using AI within hospitals. This was supported by a survey of local hospital practice within the Mid lands of the United Kingdom to see what systems had been introduced and were functioning effectively. Results: It is unclear how to practically im plement systems using AI within medicine easily. Algorithmic medicine based on a set of rules calculated from data only takes a clinician so far to deliver patient centred optimal treatment. AI facilitates a clinician’s ability to as similate data from disparate sources and can help with some of the analysis and decision making. However, learning remains organic and the subtleties of difference between patients, care providers who exhibit non-verbal commu nication for instance make it difficult for an AI to capture all the pertinent information required to make the correct clinical decision for any given individual. Hence it assists rather than controls any process in clinical practice. It also must continually renew and adapt considering changes in practise and trends as the goalposts change to meet fluctuations in re sources and workload. Precision surgery is benefiting from robotic-assisted surgery in parts driven by AI and being used in 80% of trusts locally. Con clusion: The use of AI in clinical practice remains patchy with it being adopted where research groups have studied a more effective method of How to cite this paper: Capes, N., Patel, H., Sarhan, I., Ashwood, N., Dekker, A. and Shehata, R. (2023) Artificial Intelligence; a Pragmatic Approach to Implementation in Medicine, a Review of the literature and a Survey of Local Practice in Midlands in UK. International Journal of Intelligence Science, 13, 63-79. Received: June 18, 2023 Accepted: July 24, 2023 Published: July 31, 2023 Copyright © 2023 by author(s) and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0). Open Access N. Capes et al. DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2023.133005 64 International Journal of Intelligence Science monitoring or treatment. The use of robotic-assisted surgery on the other hand has been more rapid as the precision of treatment that this provides appears attractive in improving clinical care.
  • Strategies for fixation of periprosthetic fragility fractures of the neck of femur below a well-functioning hip resurfacing arthroplasty: A case-series

    Kerr, Nicholas; Quah, Conal; Lewis, James
    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal Hip Resurfacing (HR) was performed in many young individuals as it conserved bone stock and had low wear rates, before it became less popular due to the detection of Adverse Reactions to Metal Debris. As such, many patients in the community have well-functioning HRs and as they age, the incidence of fragility fractures of the neck of femur around the existing implant is expected to increase. These fractures are amenable to surgical fixation as adequate bone stock remains in the head of the femur and the implants are well fixed. CASE-SERIES: We present a series of six cases which were treated by fixation using locked plates (3), dynamic hip screws (2) and cephalo-medullary nail (1). Four cases achieved clinical and radiographic union with good function. One case had a delayed union, though union was finally achieved at 23 months. One case had an early failure necessitating revision to a Total Hip Replacement after 6 weeks. DISCUSSION: We highlight the geometrical principles of placing fixation devices under an HR femoral component. We have also conducted a literature search and present details of all case reports to date. CONCLUSION: Fragility per-trochanteric fractures under a well-fixed HR with good baseline function are amenable to fixation using a variety of methods including large screw devices that are commonly used in this location. Locked plates including variable angle locking designs should be kept available if needed.
  • Daratumumab, bortezomib and dexamethasone at first relapse for patients with multiple myeloma: A real-world multicentre UK retrospective analysis

    Al-Kaisi, Firas
    Daratumumab, bortezomib and dexamethasone (DVd) is approved for patients with relapsed multiple myeloma following the CASTOR phase 3 clinical trial. This retrospective multicentre analysis assesses the overall response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) in routine clinical practice for patients at first relapse treated with DVd incorporating weekly bortezomib. Data were collected from 296 sequential patients treated across 15 UK centres. After a median follow-up of 21 months, the ORR was 82% (26% partial response, 56% very good partial response or better) and the median PFS was 16 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 12-20 months]. Results were similar regardless of prior lenalidomide exposure. The median time to next treatment was 20 months (95% CI 15-25 months) and the estimated overall survival at two years was 74%. Patients with high-risk features (by cytogenetics, International Staging System or extramedullary disease) and those treated within 18 months of initiation of progression-free treatment, or within 12 months of autologous stem cell transplant, had significantly inferior outcomes. The grade 2 and 3 peripheral neuropathy rate was 7%. DVd with weekly bortezomib was effective in a heterogenous real-world population at first relapse with a low rate of peripheral neuropathy. However, high-risk patients had inferior outcomes and should be considered for alternative treatments.
  • Implementing an internal audit to change practice: Current evidence and review of patient outcomes enabled transition to the relative motion extension approach in the postoperative management of zones IV-VI extensor tendon repairs

    Pilbeam, Kirk; Johnson, N (2023-06)
    BACKGROUND: Evidence supports use of the relative motion extension (RME) approach following extensor tendon repairs in zones V-VI yielding good or excellent outcomes. PURPOSE: To demonstrate how a 3-year internal audit and regular review of emerging evidence guided our change in practice from our longstanding use of the Norwich Regimen to the RME approach using implementation research methods. We compared the outcomes of both approaches prior to the formal adoption of the RME approach. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical audit. METHODS: A prospective audit of all consecutive adult finger extensor tendon repairs in zones IV-VII rehabilitated in our tertiary public health hand centre was undertaken between November 2014 and December 2017. Each audit year, outcomes were reviewed regarding the Norwich regimen and the RME early active motion approaches. As new evidence emerged, adjustments were made to our audit protocol for the RME approach. Discharge measurements of the range of motion of the affected and contralateral fingers and complications were recorded. RESULTS: During the 3-year audit, data was available on 79 patients (56 RME group including 59 fingers with 71 tendon repairs; 23 Norwich group including 28 fingers with 34 tendon repairs) with simple (n = 68) and complex (n = 11) finger extensor tendon zones IV-VI repairs (no zone VII presented during this time). Over time, the practice pattern shifted from the Norwich Regimen approach to the RME approach (and with the use of the RME plus [n = 33] and RME only [n = 23] approaches utilized). All approaches yielded similar good to excellent outcomes per total active motion and Miller's classification, with no tendon ruptures or need for secondary surgery. CONCLUSIONS: An internal audit of practice provided the necessary information regarding implementation to support a shift in hand therapy practice and to gain therapist or surgeon confidence in adopting the RME approach as another option for the rehabilitation of zone IV-VI finger extensor tendon repairs.
  • Cauda equina syndrome after use of dural sealant in revision lumbar decompression surgery.

    Askar, M; Gakhar, Harinder
    OBJECTIVE: We report a case of cauda equina syndrome related to the use of fibrin glue dural sealant "TISSEEL". BACKGROUND: Incidental durotomy (ID) is not uncommon in revision spinal surgery. Augmentation of the dural repair after primary closure is gaining popularity. The use of dural sealants is not risk-free. METHOD: A 65-year old man who underwent revision lumbar decompression surgery developed postoperative cauda equina syndrome. He had urinary retention, bilateral leg pain and perianal numbness on the third postoperative day. We believe this complication was related to the use of fibrin glue to manage an ID. RESULT: After the urgent surgical removal of the fibrin glue patch, the patient fully recovered with no residual neurological deficit. CONCLUSION: Cauda equina syndrome development is a potential complication after the use of fibrin glue to augment intraoperative ID. Surgeons should be aware of this potential risk so it can be managed in a timely fashion.
  • Radiographic Circularity of Capitellum and Its Relation to the Range of Motion

    Ashwood, Neil (2023-05)
    Background: The shape of the capitellum has been traditionally described in anatomy books as part of a sphere. Alteration in the capitellar morphology following pathologies such as fractures, osteochondrosis, and degenerative arthritis has been associated with less optimum functional results. Aim: To define the relationship between the sphericity of the capitellar morphology as measured on trauma series plain radiographs and the elbow range of motion. Methods: 40 patients were included in the study. All patients recruited from the upper limb clinics presented with non-elbow joint-related complaints. The elbow range of motion was measured using a standardized technique. Digital anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of patients’ elbows were used to measure capitellar circularity using the ImageJ processing program and circularity calculation equation. Correlation analyses were conducted be tween the degree of capitellar sphericity and elbow range of motion. Results: The results of measurements from the anteroposterior radiographs showed a positive correlation between increased circularity and an increase in the range of flexion, pronation, and supination. The range of extension decreased with the increased circularity of the capitellum. This trend was repeated with measures of lateral radiographs but was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Native capitellar circularity has an impact on the elbow range of mo tion. This should be put into consideration when dealing with pathologies that affect capitellar morphology.
  • Anterior Distal Tibial Guided Growth for recurrent equinus deformity in idiopathic Congenital Talipes Equinovarus treated with the Ponseti method.

    Shrestha, J; Rajan, R (2023-03)
    INTRODUCTION: Distal Anterior Tibial Guided Growth has been shown to be useful to correct recurrent equinus deformity after open surgical release for Congenital Talipes Equinovarus. This has not been evaluated in a recurrence after use of the Ponseti method, where soft tissue releases are currently understood as the mainstay of treatment. METHODS: Patients with recurrence of equinus component of CTEV, who underwent DATGG with at least 6-month follow-up were identified retrospectively. The criteria for performing this procedure were (1) equinus not correctable to neutral passively (2) the feeling of a bony block to dorsiflexion clinically as evidenced by a supple Achilles' tendon at maximum dorsiflexion and (3)a finding of a flat-top talus radiologically. Successful treatment was defined by the achievement of heel strike on observation of gait. Details of the index procedure including concurrent procedures, any complications and their treatment, past and subsequent treatment episodes were retrieved from electronic patient records. Pre-op and last available post-op X-rays were evaluated for change in the anterior distal tibial angle and for flat-top talus deformity. RESULTS: We identified 22 feet in 16 patients, with an average follow-up was 25 (8.8-47.3) months. The mean aDTA changed from 88.9 (82.3-94.5) to 77.0 (65.0-83.9) degrees, which was statistically significant (p < 0.0001) using the Paired t-test. Clinically, 17 feet (77 %) obtained a plantigrade foot with a normal heel strike. Complications were identified in 5 feet and include staple migration, oversized staple, superficial infection, iatrogenic varus deformity. Recurrence after completed treatment was noted in one foot. CONCLUSION: This procedure should form a part of the armamentarium of procedures for treating equinus component of CTEV recurrences even in feet not treated previously by open procedures. When used in patients without significant surgical scarring it helps to address bony and soft-tissue factors, leading to effective treatment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV.
  • Radiation Exposure during Dynamic Hip Screw Fixation: A Comparative Study

    Ashwood, Neil (Elsevier, 2023-03)
    Background: The safe amount of radiation permissible during the fixation of neck or femur fractures has long been studied. Factors including surgeons’ experience have been highlighted. We aimed in this study to compare different factors for quality and safety improvement. Methods: It was a retrospective study, including all patients who had undergone a standard DHS fixation between January 2018 to June 2019 for the inter-trochanteric neck of femur fractures. Two groups were stratified; (Group A) had the procedure performed by a specialist non-consultant surgeon (NCG) and (Group B) by an established consultant (CG). The Dose Area Product (DAP) and the duration of radiation exposure were recorded. Results: Over a period of 18 months, 91 cases were included with a mean age of 82 years old. The mean weight was 62 kg. 42 patients had complex fractures, and 49 patients had simple fractures. 12% of patients were ASA II, 70% of cases were ASA III and 18% of the patients were ASA IV. The mean DAP for group A was 345.131 CGYCM2 (SD 273.65) and for group B 234.63 CGYCM2 (SD 165.30). The time of exposure was 8.6 sec and 13.16 sec in groups B and A respectively. Conclusion: The data collected from this study were comparable to others. The amount of radiation exposure was of difference related to the decision-making intra- operatively. Other factors were not statistically significant.

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