• Distal radio-ulnar joint instability in children and adolescents after wrist trauma.

      Lindau, Tommy (2014-07)
      This study retrospectively evaluated the medical records and radiographs of patients younger than aged 25 that were referred for a second opinion due to ulnar-sided wrist pain and persistent distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint instability. We identified 85 patients with a major wrist trauma before the age of 18. Median age at trauma was 14 years. Median time between trauma and diagnosis of DRUJ instability was 3 years. Sixty-seven patients (79%) had sustained a fracture at the initial trauma. The two most common skeletal injuries related to the DRUJ instability were Salter-Harris type II fractures (24%) and distal radius fractures (19%). In 19 patients (22%), the secondary DRUJ instability was caused by malunion or growth arrest. Eighteen patients (21%) had no fracture; in spite of this, they presented with subsequent symptomatic DRUJ instability. Fourteen of these 18 patients had a triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear, confirmed by arthroscopy, open surgery, or magnetic resonance imaging. In conclusion, late DRUJ instability due to wrist fractures or isolated TFCC tears was found to be common in children and adolescents.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
    • Scarf osteotomy in the management of symptomatic adolescent hallux valgus.

      Farrar, NG; Duncan, Nicholas; Ahmed, N; Rajan, Rohan (2012-06)
      PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the utility of the scarf osteotomy in the management of symptomatic adolescent hallux valgus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a case series of 29 patients (39 feet) with a mean follow up of 38.6 months (range 6-60 months). The mean age at the time of surgery was 14.1 years (range 10-17 years). American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores were collected at final follow up, along with a rating of the overall satisfaction. Any complications were recorded. Pre- and post-surgical radiographic angles were measured and analysed using the Student's t-test. The angles measured were the hallux valgus angle (HVA), the inter-metatarsal angle (IMA) and the distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). A second surgeon independently reviewed the angles in order to assess the inter-rater reliability using the Pearson product moment correlation. RESULTS: The mean AOFAS score at final follow up was 94.2 (range 54-100). Of all patients, 93 % were either satisfied or very satisfied with their final outcome. One patient has been listed for revision surgery after symptomatic recurrence at 3 years follow up. The pre-operative HVA, IMA and DMAA were 34.8°, 15.9° and 16.0°, respectively. The post-operative values were 16.3°, 8.8° and 9.2°, respectively (p < 0.001 for each). Pearson's r coefficient values demonstrated good inter-rater reliability of measurement. CONCLUSION: We have presented the results of the largest case series of scarf osteotomies for adolescent hallux valgus reported in the literature up to now, as far as we are aware. AOFAS scores at final follow up are comparable to the smaller studies previously reported and provide evidence that good outcomes and high levels of patient satisfaction can be achieved. Early follow up demonstrates a low level of symptomatic recurrence, but longer term data are still required.