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  • Narrow-band imaging for the diagnosis of nonerosive reflux disease: An international, multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    Beg, Sabina; Fateen, Waleed; Sami, Sarmed S.; Ragunath, Krish
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We examined the accuracy of narrow-band imaging (NBI) findings in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) patients compared with control subjects and the impact of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy on these mucosal changes in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. METHODS: NERD patients (typical symptoms using a validated GERD questionnaire, absence of erosive esophagitis, and abnormal 48-hour pH study) and control subjects underwent high-definition white-light endoscopy followed by NBI and biopsy sampling of the distal esophagus. Then, NERD patients were randomized to esomeprazole 40 mg/day or placebo for 8 weeks, followed by repeat endoscopy. The presence of distal esophageal mucosal changes on NBI were recorded at baseline and after treatment: intrapapillary capillary loops (IPCLs; number, dilation, and tortuosity), microerosions, increased vascularity, columnar islands, and ridge/villous pattern (RVP) above the squamocolumnar junction. RESULTS: Of 122 screened, 21 NERD and 21 control subjects were identified (mean age, 49.5 +/- 14.6 years; 62% men; and 85% white). The combination of IPCL tortuosity, RVP, and microerosions (62% vs 19%, P Copyright © 2022 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Consensus on connected hearing health technologies and service delivery models in the UK: A Delphi review

    Ferguson, M. A. (2022)
    OBJECTIVE: To develop a consensus among hearing healthcare professionals in the UK on connected hearing health technologies and service delivery models. DESIGN: A three-round, electronic Delphi review was developed using a participatory-design approach. This included ten open-ended questions (round one) that informed 69 Likert-scaled statements (rounds two and three). STUDY SAMPLE: An expert panel of 34 hearing health professionals representing all geographic regions of the UK from either the publicly funded National Health Service (n=22) or independent sector (n=12). RESULT(S): The majority of statements (61%) showed >=80% consensus, highlighting that there was broad agreement amongst professionals on connected hearing health technologies. For example, there was consensus that adults who report communication difficulties and have no medical contraindications would be ideal candidates. Furthermore, it was unanimously agreed that connected technologies could result in delays in diagnosis of treatable medical conditions, as well as result in inadequate amplification. Overall, the expert panel concurred that connected technologies could serve as "gateway products" that lead to earlier hearing aid uptake. CONCLUSION(S): This Delphi review identified overarching areas of agreement that may serve as a blueprint for future implementation of connected hearing health technologies through either conventional or new service delivery models in the UK.
  • Cogmed training does not generalize to real-world benefits for adult hearing aid users: Results of a blinded, active-controlled randomized trial

    Ferguson, M. A. (2022)
    Objectives: Performance on working memory tasks is positively associated with speech-in-noise perception performance, particularly where auditory inputs are degraded. It is suggested that interventions designed to improve working memory capacity may improve domain-general working memory performance for people with hearing loss, to benefit their real-world listening. We examined whether a 5-week training program that primarily targets the storage component of working memory (Cogmed RM, adaptive) could improve cognition, speech-in-noise perception and self-reported hearing in a randomized controlled trial of adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate hearing loss, compared with an active control (Cogmed RM, nonadaptive) group of adults from the same population. Design(s): A preregistered randomized controlled trial of 57 adult hearing aid users (n = 27 experimental, n = 30 active control), recruited from a dedicated database of research volunteers, examined on-task learning and generalized improvements in measures of trained and untrained cognition, untrained speech-in-noise perception and self-reported hearing abilities, pre- to post-training. Participants and the outcome assessor were both blinded to intervention allocation. Retention of training-related improvements was examined at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Result(s): Per-protocol analyses showed improvements in trained tasks (Cogmed Index Improvement) that transferred to improvements in a trained working memory task tested outside of the training software (Backward Digit Span) and a small improvement in self-reported hearing ability (Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, Initial Disability subscale). Both of these improvements were maintained 6-month post-training. There was no transfer of learning shown to untrained measures of cognition (working memory or attention), speech-in-noise perception, or self-reported hearing in everyday life. An assessment of individual differences showed that participants with better baseline working memory performance achieved greater learning on the trained tasks. Post-training performance for untrained outcomes was largely predicted by individuals' pretraining performance on those measures. Conclusion(s): Despite significant on-task learning, generalized improvements of working memory training in this trial were limited to (a) improvements for a trained working memory task tested outside of the training software and (b) a small improvement in self-reported hearing ability for those in the experimental group, compared with active controls. We found no evidence to suggest that training which primarily targets storage aspects of working memory can result in domain-general improvements that benefit everyday communication for adult hearing aid users. These findings are consistent with a significant body of evidence showing that Cogmed training only improves performance for tasks that resemble Cogmed training. Future research should focus on the benefits of interventions that enhance cognition in the context in which it is employed within everyday communication, such as training that targets dynamic aspects of cognitive control important for successful speech-in-noise perception. Copyright © 2022 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.
  • Community seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents in England, 2019-2021

    Turner, David P. J. (2022)
    Objective To understand community seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents. This is vital to understanding the susceptibility of this cohort to COVID-19 and to inform public health policy for disease control such as immunisation. Design We conducted a community-based cross-sectional seroprevalence study in participants aged 0-18 years old recruiting from seven regions in England between October 2019 and June 2021 and collecting extensive demographic and symptom data. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins using Roche assays processed at UK Health Security Agency laboratories. Prevalence estimates were calculated for six time periods and were standardised by age group, ethnicity and National Health Service region. Results Post-first wave (June-August 2020), the (anti-spike IgG) adjusted seroprevalence was 5.2%, varying from 0.9% (participants 10-14 years old) to 9.5% (participants 5-9 years old). By April-June 2021, this had increased to 19.9%, varying from 13.9% (participants 0-4 years old) to 32.7% (participants 15-18 years old). Minority ethnic groups had higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity than white participants (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.0), after adjusting for sex, age, region, time period, deprivation and urban/rural geography. In children Copyright © 2022 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
  • Attitudes towards the integration of smoking cessation into lung cancer screening in the United Kingdom: A qualitative study of individuals eligible to attend

    Baldwin, David (2022)
    INTRODUCTION: There is limited research exploring how smoking cessation treatment should be implemented into lung cancer screening in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to understand attitudes and preferences regarding the integration of smoking cessation support within lung cancer screening from the perspective of those eligible. METHODS: Thirty-one lung cancer screening eligible individuals aged 55-80 years with current or former smoking histories were recruited using community outreach and social media. Two focus groups (three participants each) and 25 individual telephone interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using the framework approach to thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were generated: (1) bringing lung cancer closer to home, where screening was viewed as providing an opportunity to motivate smoking cessation, depending on perceived personal risk and screening result; (2) a sensitive approach to cessation with the uptake of cessation support considered to be largely dependent on screening practitioners' communication style and expectations of stigma and (3) creating an equitable service that focuses on ease of access as a key determinant of uptake, where integrating cessation within the screening appointment may sustain increased quit motivation and prevent loss to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of smoking cessation into lung cancer screening was viewed positively by those eligible to attend. Screening appointments providing personalized lung health information may increase cessation motivation. Services should proactively support participants with possible fatalistic views regarding risk and decreased cessation motivation upon receiving a good screening result. To increase engagement in cessation, services need to be person-centred. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: This study has included patient and public involvement throughout, including input regarding study design, research materials, recruitment strategies and research summaries. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Effect of priming interval on reactogenicity, peak immunological response, and waning after homologous and heterologous COVID-19 vaccine schedules: Exploratory analyses of Com-COV, a randomised control trial

    Turner, David P. J. (2022)
    BACKGROUND: Priming COVID-19 vaccine schedules have been deployed at variable intervals globally, which might influence immune persistence and the relative importance of third-dose booster programmes. Here, we report exploratory analyses from the Com-COV trial, assessing the effect of 4-week versus 12-week priming intervals on reactogenicity and the persistence of immune response up to 6 months after homologous and heterologous priming schedules using the vaccines BNT162b2 (tozinameran, Pfizer/BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca). METHODS: Com-COV was a participant-masked, randomised immunogenicity trial. For these exploratory analyses, we used the trial's general cohort, in which adults aged 50 years or older were randomly assigned to four homologous and four heterologous vaccine schedules using BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 with 4-week or 12-week priming intervals (eight groups in total). Immunogenicity analyses were done on the intention-to-treat (ITT) population, comprising participants with no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline or for the trial duration, to assess the effect of priming interval on humoral and cellular immune response 28 days and 6 months post-second dose, in addition to the effects on reactogenicity and safety. The Com-COV trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, 69254139 (EudraCT 2020-005085-33). FINDINGS: Between Feb 11 and 26, 2021, 730 participants were randomly assigned in the general cohort, with 77-89 per group in the ITT analysis. At 28 days and 6 months post-second dose, the geometric mean concentration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG was significantly higher in the 12-week interval groups than in the 4-week groups for homologous schedules. In heterologous schedule groups, we observed a significant difference between intervals only for the BNT162b2-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group at 28 days. Pseudotyped virus neutralisation titres were significantly higher in all 12-week interval groups versus 4-week groups, 28 days post-second dose, with geometric mean ratios of 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.8) for homologous BNT162b2, 1.5 (1.2-1.9) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-BNT162b2, 1.6 (1.3-2.1) for BNT162b2-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and 2.4 (1.7-3.2) for homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. At 6 months post-second dose, anti-spike IgG geometric mean concentrations fell to 0.17-0.24 of the 28-day post-second dose value across all eight study groups, with only homologous BNT162b2 showing a slightly slower decay for the 12-week versus 4-week interval in the adjusted analysis. The rank order of schedules by humoral response was unaffected by interval, with homologous BNT162b2 remaining the most immunogenic by antibody response. T-cell responses were reduced in all 12-week priming intervals compared with their 4-week counterparts. 12-week schedules for homologous BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-BNT162b2 were up to 80% less reactogenic than 4-week schedules. INTERPRETATION: These data support flexibility in priming interval in all studied COVID-19 vaccine schedules. Longer priming intervals might result in lower reactogenicity in schedules with BNT162b2 as a second dose and higher humoral immunogenicity in homologous schedules, but overall lower T-cell responses across all schedules. Future vaccines using these novel platforms might benefit from schedules with long intervals. FUNDING: UK Vaccine Taskforce and National Institute for Health and Care Research. Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
  • Ensemble Kalman inversion for magnetic resonance elastography

    McGrath, Deirdre M.; Francis, Susan T. (2022)
    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an MRI-based diagnostic method for measuring mechanical properties of biological tissues. MRE measurements are processed by an inversion algorithm to produce a map of the biomechanical properties. In this paper a new and powerful method (ensemble Kalman inversion with level sets (EKI)) of MRE inversion is proposed and tested. The method has critical advantages: material property variation at disease boundaries can be accurately identified, and uncertainty of the reconstructed material properties can be evaluated by consequence of the probabilistic nature of the method. EKI is tested in 2D and 3D experiments with synthetic MRE data of the human kidney. It is demonstrated that the proposed inversion method is accurate and fast. Copyright Creative Commons Attribution license.
  • Application of in vivo imaging techniques and diagnostic tools in oral drug delivery research

    Marciani, Luca; Perkins, Alan; Sulaiman, Sarah; Corsetti, Maura (2022)
    Drug absorption following oral administration is determined by complex and dynamic interactions between gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, the drug, and its formulation. Since many of these interactions are not fully understood, the COST action on "Understanding Gastrointestinal Absorption-related Processes (UNGAP)" was initiated in 2017, with the aim to improve the current comprehension of intestinal drug absorption and foster future developments in this field. In this regard, in vivo techniques used for the characterization of human GI physiology and the intraluminal behavior of orally administered dosage forms in the GI tract are fundamental to gaining deeper mechanistic understanding of the interplay between human GI physiology and drug product performance. In this review, the potential applications, advantages, and limitations of the most important in vivo techniques relevant to oral biopharmaceutics are presented from the perspectives of different research fields.
  • Age modifies both the maximal temperature and inflammatory response in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection

    Crooks, Colin J.; West, Joe; Morling, Joanne R.; Simmonds, Mark; Juurlink, Irene; Briggs, Steve; Cruickshank, Simon; Hammond-Pears, Susan; Shaw, Dominick; Card, Timothy R.; et al. (2022)
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the maximal response of the temperature and inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and how these are modified by age. METHODS: Participants were patients admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection. For each participant, the maximal temperature and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were identified and stratified by age. In a secondary analysis, these were compared in patients treated before and after dexamethasone. RESULTS: Mean maximal temperature varied by age (p Copyright © Royal College of Physicians 2022. All rights reserved.
  • Aerosol and droplet generation in upper and lower GI endoscopy: Whole procedure and event-based analysis

    Phillips, Frank; Warburton, Samantha; Parra-Blanco, Adolfo (2022)
    Background and Aims: Aerosol-generating procedures have become an important healthcare issue during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus can be transmitted through aerosols. We aimed to characterize aerosol and droplet generation in GI endoscopy, where there is little evidence. Method(s): This prospective observational study included 36 patients undergoing routine peroral gastroscopy (POG), 11 undergoing transnasal endoscopy (TNE), and 48 undergoing lower GI (LGI) endoscopy. Particle counters took measurements near the appropriate orifice (2 models were used with diameter ranges of .3-25 mum and 20-3000 mum). Quantitative analysis was performed by recording specific events and subtracting background particles. Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Result(s): POG produced 1.96 times the level of background particles (P Conclusion(s): GI endoscopy performed through the mouth, nose, or rectum generates significant quantities of aerosols and droplets. Because the infectivity of procedures is not established, we therefore suggest adequate personal protective equipment is used for all GI endoscopy where there is a high population prevalence of COVID-19. Avoiding throat and nasal spray would significantly reduce particles generated from upper GI procedures.Copyright © 2022 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
  • Postinfective bowel dysfunction following Campylobacter enteritis is characterised by reduced microbiota diversity and impaired microbiota recovery

    Jalanka, Jonna; Gunn, David; Singh, Gulzar; Krishnasamy, Shanthi; Lingaya, Melanie; James, Louise; Nowak, Adam; Major, Giles; Spiller, Robin C. (2023)
    OBJECTIVES: Persistent bowel dysfunction following gastroenteritis (postinfectious (PI)-BD) is well recognised, but the associated changes in microbiota remain unclear. Our aim was to define these changes after gastroenteritis caused by a single organism, Campylobacter jejuni, examining the dynamic changes in the microbiota and the impact of antibiotics. DESIGN: A single-centre cohort study of 155 patients infected with Campylobacter jejuni. Features of the initial illness as well as current bowel symptoms and the intestinal microbiota composition were recorded soon after infection (visit 1, 80 days later (visits 2 and 3). Microbiota were assessed using 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: PI-BD was found in 22 of the 99 patients who completed the trial. The cases reported significantly looser stools, with more somatic and gastrointestinal symptoms. Microbiota were assessed in 22 cases who had significantly lower diversity and altered microbiota composition compared with the 44 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Moreover 60 days after infection, cases showed a significantly lower abundance of 23 taxa including phylum Firmicutes, particularly in the order Clostridiales and the family Ruminoccocaceae, increased Proteobacteria abundance and increased levels of Fusobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The microbiota changes were linked with diet; higher fibre consumption being associated with lower levels of Gammaproteobacteria. CONCLUSION: The microbiota of PI-BD patients appeared more disturbed by the initial infection compared with the microbiota of those who recovered. The prebiotic effect of high fibre diets may inhibit some of the disturbances seen in PI-BD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02040922. Copyright © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
  • An exploratory investigation of pupillometry as a measure of tinnitus intrusiveness on a test of auditory short-term memory

    Baguley, David (2022)
    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential of pupillometry to provide an objective measure of competition between tinnitus and external sounds during a test of auditory short-term memory. Design(s): Twelve participants with chronic tinnitus and twelve control participants without tinnitus took part in the study. Pretest sessions used an adaptive method to estimate listeners' frequency discrimination threshold on a test of delayed pitch discrimination for pure tones. Target and probe tones were presented at 72 dB SPL and centered on 750 Hz+/-2 semitones with an additional jitter of 5 to 20 Hz. Test sessions recorded baseline pupil diameter and task-related pupillary responses (TEPRs) during three blocks of delayed pitch discrimination trials. The difference between target and probe tones was set to the individual's frequency detection threshold for 80% response-accuracy. Listeners with tinnitus also completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). Linear mixed effects procedures were applied to examine changes in baseline pupil diameter and TEPRs associated with group (tinnitus versus control), block (1 to 3) and their interaction. The association between THI scores and maximum TEPRs was assessed using simple linear regression. Result(s): Patterns of baseline pupil dilation across trials diverged in listeners with tinnitus and controls. For controls, baseline pupil dilation remained constant across blocks. For listeners with tinnitus, baseline pupil dilation increased on blocks 2 and 3 compared with block 1. TEPR amplitudes were also larger in listeners with tinnitus than controls. Linear mixed effects models yielded a significant group by block interaction for baseline pupil diameter and a significant main effect of group on maximum TEPR amplitudes. Regression analyses yielded a significant association between THI scores and TEPR amplitude in listeners with tinnitus. Conclusion(s): Our data indicate measures of baseline pupil diameter, and TEPRs are sensitive to competition between tinnitus and external sounds during a test of auditory short-term memory. This result suggests pupillometry can provide an objective measure of intrusion in tinnitus. Future research will be required to establish whether our findings generalize to listeners across a full range of tinnitus severity. Copyright © 2022 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.
  • Acute severe hepatitis outbreak in children: A perfect storm. What do we know, and what questions remain?

    Irving, William (2022)
    During the first half of 2022, the World Health Organization reported an outbreak of acute severe hepatitis of unknown aetiology (AS-Hep-UA) in children, following initial alerts from the United Kingdom (UK) where a cluster of cases was first observed in previously well children aged Copyright © 2022 Matthews, Campbell, Sandulescu, Maticic, Ruta, Rivero-Juarez, van Welzen, Tan, Garcia, Gherlan, Cinar, Hasanoglu, Gmizic, Nicolini, Santos, Sargsyants, Velikov, Habibovic, Fourati, Zidovec-Lepej, Herder, Dudman, Miron, Irving and Sahin.
  • Acceptability of a standalone written leaflet for the National Health Service for England targeted lung health check programme: A concurrent, think-aloud study

    Baldwin, David R. (2022)
    Background: Many countries are introducing low-dose computed tomography screening programmes for people at high risk of lung cancer. Effective communication strategies that convey risks and benefits, including unfamiliar concepts and outcome probabilities based on population risk, are critical to achieving informed choice and mitigating inequalities in uptake. Method(s): This study investigated the acceptability of an aspect of NHS England's communication strategy in the form of a leaflet that was used to invite and inform eligible adults about the Targeted Lung Health Check (TLHC) programme. Acceptability was assessed in terms of how individuals engaged with, comprehended and responded to the leaflet. Semi-structured, 'think aloud' interviews were conducted remotely with 40 UK screening-naive current and former smokers (aged 55-73). The verbatim transcripts were analysed thematically using a coding framework based on the Dual Process Theory of cognition. Result(s): The leaflet helped participants understand the principles and procedures of screening and fostered cautiously favourable intentions. Three themes captured the main results of the data analysis: (1) Response-participants experienced anxiety about screening results and further investigations, but the involvement of specialist healthcare professionals was reassuring; (2) Engagement-participants were rapidly drawn to information about lung cancer prevalence, and benefits of screening, but deliberated slowly about early diagnosis, risks of screening and less familiar symptoms of lung cancer; (3) Comprehension-participants understood the main principles of the TLHC programme, but some were confused by its rationale and eligibility criteria. Radiation risks, abnormal screening results and numerical probabilities of screening outcomes were hard to understand. Conclusion(s): The TLHC information leaflet appeared to be acceptable to the target population. There is scope to improve aspects of comprehension and engagement in ways that would support informed choice as a distributed process in lung cancer screening. Patient or Public Contribution: The insight and perspectives of patient representatives directly informed and improved the design and conduct of this study. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Acceptability and engagement amongst patients on oral and intravenous bisphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis in older adults

    Sahota, Opinder (2022)
    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is common in older adults leading to fragility fractures at enormous individual and economic cost. Improving long-term adherence with bisphosphonate treatments reduces fracture risk, but adherence rates for first-line oral bisphosphonate alendronate remains low. Although alternative treatment regimens, including annual intravenous infusions are available, patient acceptability remains unclear. Therefore, understanding patients' acceptability and engagement in different bisphosphonate regimens is important to ensure optimal treatment benefits. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 78 patients with a mean age of 69.9 years, who had taken or received bisphosphonates for osteoporosis within the last 24 months. Data analysis included iterative categorisation and used the theoretical framework of acceptability (TFA) to compare the acceptability of treatments regimens. RESULTS: Treatment acceptability and engagement were influenced by the extent to which patients understood the prescribed treatment, and evidence of the treatment working. Acceptability and engagement were compromised when treatment was perceived as burdensome, personal costs were incurred, and patients' values were incompatible with the regimen. The balancing of these factors contributed to patients' ability to cope with the treatment and their emotional responses. Intravenous treatment was generally perceived as easier to understand, more effective, less burdensome with fewer opportunity costs, and a preferable regimen compared with oral bisphosphonates. CONCLUSIONS: Annual intravenous zoledronate bisphosphonate treatment was generally more acceptable to patients, perceived as more straightforward to engage in, although a small portion of patients on oral bisphosphonates were satisfied with treatment. Further research is needed to identify how acceptability and engagement can be optimised. Copyright © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:
  • A systematic literature review and meta-analysis on digital health interventions for people living with dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Cowley, Alison (2022)
    Objectives: Digital health interventions enable services to support people living with dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) remotely. This literature review gathers evidence on the effectiveness of digital health interventions on physical, cognitive, behavioural and psychological outcomes, and Activities of Daily Living in people living with dementia and MCI. Methods/Design: Searches, using nine databases, were run in November 2021. Two authors carried out study selection/appraisal using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Study characteristics were extracted through the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions data extraction form. Data on digital health interventions were extracted through the template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. Intervention effectiveness was determined through effect sizes. Meta-analyses were performed to pool data on intervention effectiveness. Result(s): Twenty studies were included in the review, with a diverse range of interventions, modes of delivery, activities, duration, length, frequency, and intensity. Compared to controls, the interventions produced a moderate effect on cognitive abilities (SMD = 0.36; 95% CI = -0.03 to 0.76; I2 = 61%), and a negative moderate effect on basic ADLs (SMD = -0.40; 95% CI = -0.86 to 0.05; I2 = 69%). Stepping exergames generated the largest effect sizes on physical and cognitive abilities. Supervised training produced larger effect sizes than unsupervised interventions. Conclusion(s): Supervised intervention delivery is linked to greatest benefits. A mix of remote and face-to-face delivery could maximise benefits and optimise costs. Accessibility, acceptability and sustainability of digital interventions for end-users must be pre-requisites for the development of future successful services.Copyright © 2022 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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