Recent Submissions

  • Lifestyle or pharmacotherapy in cardio-metabolic disease prevention

    Osman, Hanad (2023)
    Cardio-metabolic diseases are the leading causes of premature death worldwide. The conditions are together some of the most prevalent and severe multimorbidities and include conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease and stroke. People with these conditions are at a higher risk of all-cause death and have a reduction in life expectancy when compared to patients without cardio-metabolic disorders. As a result of the increasing prevalence and impact of cardio-metabolic multimorbidity on disability, no healthcare system can 'treat' its way out of this pandemic. 'Treating our way out' requires the use of multiple medications which can lead to improper prescribing, insufficient compliance, overdosing or underdosing, improper drug choice, insufficient monitoring, unfavourable drug effects, and drug interactions and inappropriate wastes and costs. Therefore, individuals living with these conditions should be empowered to adopt lifestyle changes that foster independent living with their conditions. Adopting these healthy lifestyles such as smoking cessation, improving dietary habits, sleep hygiene and physical activity is a suitable adjunctive measure if not an alternative to polypharmacy in cardio-metabolic multimorbidity.
  • Understanding the feasibility and environmental effectiveness of a pilot postal inhaler recovery and recycling scheme

    Murphy, Anna (2023-01-21)
    All inhalers have an environmental impact; the majority are not recycled, with many disposed of inappropriately through domestic waste. To assess the feasibility of a method for recovering and recycling inhalers, Chiesi Limited (Chiesi) set up and funded 'Take AIR (Action for Inhaler Recycling)', a 12-month pilot postal scheme facilitated by community pharmacies across Leicester, Leicestershire, and Rutland, and hospitals in Leicestershire. All inhalers were accepted in the scheme. The recovered pressurised metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) were dismantled and component parts recycled where possible; the remaining propellant gas was extracted for reuse in refrigeration and air conditioning industries. Other inhaler types were incinerated in an 'energy-from-waste' facility. From February 2021 to February 2022, 20,049 inhalers were returned; most (77%) were pMDIs. So far, Take AIR has saved the equivalent of an estimated 119.3 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions from entering the atmosphere. Our experience demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of a postal inhaler recovery and recycling scheme, which could be used as a foundation to build future initiatives.
  • Inflammation and cardiovascular status impact midazolam pharmacokinetics in critically ill children: An observational, prospective, controlled study

    Mulla, Hussain (2022-08-29)
    Altered physiology caused by critical illness may change midazolam pharmacokinetics and thereby result in adverse reactions and outcomes in this vulnerable patient population. This study set out to determine which critical illness-related factors impact midazolam pharmacokinetics in children using population modeling. This was an observational, prospective, controlled study of children receiving IV midazolam as part of routine care. Children recruited into the study were either critically-ill receiving continuous infusions of midazolam or otherwise well, admitted for elective day-case surgery (control) who received a single IV bolus dose of midazolam. The primary outcome was to determine the population pharmacokinetics and identify covariates that influence midazolam disposition during critical illness. Thirty-five patients were recruited into the critically ill arm of the study, and 54 children into the control arm. Blood samples for assessing midazolam and 1-OH-midazolam concentrations were collected opportunistically (critically ill arm) and in pre-set time windows (control arm). Pharmacokinetic modeling demonstrated a significant change in midazolam clearance with acute inflammation (measured using C-Reactive Protein), cardio-vascular status, and weight. Simulations predict that elevated C-Reactive Protein and compromised cardiovascular function in critically ill children result in midazolam concentrations up to 10-fold higher than in healthy children. The extremely high concentrations of midazolam observed in some critically-ill children indicate that the current therapeutic dosing regimen for midazolam can lead to over-dosing. Clinicians should be aware of this risk and intensify monitoring for oversedation in such patients.
  • High inhaler resistance does not limit successful inspiratory maneuver among patients with asthma or COPD

    Murphy, Anna (2023-03)
    Introduction: There has been an active discussion on the sustainability of inhaler therapy in respiratory diseases, and it has cast a shadow on pMDIs which rely on propellant with high global warming potential (GWP). DPIs offer a lower GWP and effective alternative, but there has been concern whether all patients can generate sufficient inspiratory effort to disperse the drug. This review focuses on airflow resistance of DPIs and its clinical relevance. Areas covered: For this narrative review, we searched the literature for studies comparing flow patterns with different devices. We also included a section on clinical trials comparing reliever administration with DPI, pMDI with spacer, and nebulizer during exacerbation. Expert opinion: The evidence supports the efficacy of DPIs irrespective of respiratory condition or age of the patient even during acute exacerbations. Air flow resistance does not limit the use of DPIs and the patients were able to generate sufficient inspiratory flow rate with almost any device studied. None of 16 identified clinical trials comparing reliever administration via DPIs to other types of devices during exacerbation or bronchial challenge showed statistically significant difference between the device types in FEV1 recovery. DPIs performed as well as other types of inhaler devices even during asthma or COPD exacerbation.
  • Infliximab: a single-centre, prospective, observational evaluation of TDM data in patients with IBD

    Gadsby, Jessica; Hall, Karen; Shah, Fatima; Pattni, Sanjeev; Gethins, Sharon; Mulla, Hussain
    Objectives: Therapeutic drug monitoring of infliximab (IFX) is important to optimise treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A recent IBD consensus statement recommends targeting trough serum concentrations of >3 μg/mL, higher than our local recommendation of >1 μg/mL. We therefore investigated the relationship between IFX trough concentrations and C reactive protein (CRP), faecal calprotectin (FCP), clinical outcomes and anti-IFX antibody (AB) development as well as the influence of concomitant thiopurine treatment. Methods: Observational data, prospectively collected in a cohort of adult patients with IBD newly initiated on IFX at a single centre. Results: IFX concentrations >3 μg/mL were associated with a greater reduction in CRP (% change from baseline) and lower FCP; mean (SD) 47 (33.8) % vs 102.3 (136.9) % and 233.9 (505.1) μg/g vs 416.3 (613.5) μg/g, respectively. Lower IFX concentrations were observed in patients who developed AB than those who did not, mean (range) 6.2 (1.1-10) μg/mL vs 0.9 (0.4-4.9) μg/mL, respectively, and also in patients who stopped/switched therapy compared with those who continued, 2.4 (2.9) μg/mL vs 6.5 (2.8) μg/mL; p=0.0002. Patients taking a concomitant thiopurine were found to have higher IFX concentrations; mean (range) 6.4 (0.7-10) μg/mL vs 3.9 (0.4-10) μg/mL. Conclusions: IFX concentrations are correlated with biomarkers, clinical response and AB development in patients with IBD. Concomitant thiopurine therapy appears to be associated with higher IFX concentrations and reduced likelihood of AB development.