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Outcomes reported in trials of childhood fractures: A systematic reviewAIMS: To analyze outcomes reported in trials of childhood fractures., METHODS: OVID MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched on the eighth August 2019. A manual search of trial registries, bibliographic review and internet search was used to identify additional studies. 11,476 studies were screened following PRISMA guidelines. 100 trials were included in the analysis. Data extraction was completed by two researchers for each trial. Study quality was not evaluated. Outcomes reported by trials were mapped onto domains in the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Function framework., RESULTS: In all, 525 outcomes were identified representing 52 WHO domains. Four domains were reported in more than 50% of trials: structure of upper/lower limb, sensation of pain, mobility of joint function, and health services, systems and policies. The Activities Scale for Kids performance (ASK-p) score was the most common outcome score reported in 6/72 upper limb and 4/28 lower limb trials., CONCLUSION: There is a diverse range of outcomes reported in trials of childhood fractures covering all areas in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. There were three common upper limb and three common lower limb outcomes. In the absence of a core outcome set, we recommend that upper limb trials report pain, range of movement and radiograph appearance of the arm and lower limb trials report pain, radiograph appearance of the leg and healthcare costs to improve consistency of reporting in future trials.Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2020;1-5:167-174. Copyright © 2020 Author(s) et al.
Nursing interventions to reduce medication errors in paediatrics and neonates: Systematic review and meta-analysis.Medication errors are a great concern to health care organisations as they are costly and pose a significant risk to patients. Children are three times more likely to be affected by medication errors than adults with medication administration error rates reported to be over 70%. To identify nursing interventions to reduce medication administration errors and perform a meta-analysis. Online databases; British Nursing Index (BNI), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for relevant studies published between January 2000 to 2020. Studies with clear primary or secondary aims focusing on interventions to reduce medication administration errors in paediatrics, children and or neonates were included in the review. 442 studies were screened and18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven interventions were identified from included studies; education programmes, medication information services, clinical pharmacist involvement, double checking, barriers to reduce interruptions during drug calculation and preparation, implementation of smart pumps and improvement strategies. Educational interventional aspects were the most common identified in 13 out of 18 included studies. Meta-analysis demonstrated an associated 64% reduction in medicine administration errors post intervention (pooled OR 0.36 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.21–0.63) P = 0.0003). Medication safety education is an important element of interventions to reduce administration errors. Medication errors are multifaceted that require a bundle interventional approach to address the complexities and dynamics relevant to the local context. It is imperative that causes of errors need to be identified prior to implementation of appropriate interventions. • Medication errors are multifacceted requring complex intervetion. • Causes of errors need to be identified prior implementation of appropriate intervetions. • Medication safety education is an integral element of interventions in a bid to reduce administration errors. • Interdisciplinary collaboration in the medication process contributes to the reduction of medication administration errors.