Recent Submissions

  • Left atrial enlargement on non-gated CT is associated with large vessel occlusion in acute ischaemic stroke

    Butt, Waleed; Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Lenthall, Robert; Malik, Luqman; George, Bindu; Pointon, Kate (2021)
    BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested that atrial fibrillation (AF) is more prevalent in the large vessel occlusion (LVO) subgroup of acute ischaemic stroke patients. Given the association between left atrial enlargement (LAE) and AF, we sought to evaluate the feasibility of assessing LAE on non-gated CT and its association with LVO in the hyperacute stroke setting. METHODS: We analysed our prospectively collected database that included all stroke patients referred for consideration of endovascular treatment between April 14, 2020, and May 21, 2020. During this period, a CT chest was included in our regional stroke protocol to aid triage of patients suspected for COVID-19 from which cardiac measurements were obtained. Patients were dichotomized into LVO and no-LVO groups, and LA measurements were trichotomized into normal, borderline, and enlarged. Univariate analyses were performed between groups. RESULTS: Of the included 38 patients, 21 were categorized as LVO and 17 as no LVO. There was a statistically significant association between LAE and LVO (p = 0.028). No significant difference was demonstrated between groups for the baseline AF and other clinical characteristics, except for baseline NIHSS (p = 0.0005). There was excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.969) for LA measurements. CONCLUSION: Our study provides preliminary data to suggest LAE is more prevalent in the LVO stroke subgroup at presentation and can be reliably assessed on non-gated CT in the hyperacute setting. These findings have potential implications for stratifying secondary management and may prompt a more rigorous pursuit of occult AF or other cardiac causes of stroke. Copyright © 2021 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • Comparison of LI-RADS with other non-invasive liver MRI criteria and radiological opinion for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic livers using gadoxetic acid with histopathological explant correlation

    Clarke, Christopher (2021)
    AIM: To establish the diagnostic accuracy of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and compare its performance to that of international criteria from European Assofor the Study of the Liver (EASL), Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH), Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL), and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), and to the reporting radiologist's overall opinion regarding the probability of a nodule being a HCC by correlating with a histological diagnosis from whole liver explants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present single-centre, retrospective review selected participants based on the following criteria: adults (>=18 years) listed for liver transplantation in 2014/2015, with liver cirrhosis at the time of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hepatocyte specific contrast agent, and at least one liver lesion >=10 mm on MRI with histology from subsequent liver explant for comparison. Each lesion was assessed against international criteria and given a "radiologist opinion" score of 1-5 (1 = definitely benign, 5 = definitely HCC). RESULTS: Total 268 patient records were reviewed, with 105 eligible lesions identified from 47 patients. Median lesion size was 15.5 mm (range 10-68 mm). Sensitivity (%), specificity (%), and positive predictive value (PPV; %) for LI-RADS LR5 was 45, 89, and 89, for LI-RADS LR4+5 + TIV was 61, 80, and 86, for EASL was 44, 86 and 86, for JSH/APASL was 64, 81, and 87, for OPTN was 36, 90, and 88, and for "radiologist impression" of probably or definitely HCC was 79, 79, and 88 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MRI has moderate sensitivity and good specificity for the diagnosis of HCC with considerable variation depending on criteria used. OPTN criteria have the best specificity, but low sensitivity. "Radiologist opinion" gives highest overall accuracy with increases in sensitivity and reduction in specificity when compared to the imaging criteria. Copyright © 2021 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Collaboration between an NHS University Teaching Hospital and independent hospital to maintain CT colonography service provision during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic

    Holland, Paul; De Abreu, Deborah; Higashi, Yutaro; Clarke, Christopher (2021)
    Our trust performed CTCs at 93% of the capacity of the previous year, scanning 1265 patients in 2020, compared with 1348 in 2019. We describe the changes made to our service to achieve this, which included collaboration with the colorectal surgical team to prioritise existing CTC patients according to faecal-immunochemical tests and full blood count results, and the associated challenges which included image transfer delays and patient attendance for scans. Furthermore, the endoscopy and radiology services used the opportunity created by co-location at the same hospital site to provide a same day incomplete colonoscopy and staging service for optically confirmed cancers. Collaboration between the NHS and independent sector allowed us to achieve continuity of service provision during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic without substituting unprepared CT abdomen and pelvis instead of the more sensitive CTC. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by the British Institute of Radiology.
  • Renal mass mimicking prominent columns of bertin: A case series

    Ilounoh, Christopher Ekene (2023)
    Prominent column of Bertin (PCB), also known as hypertrophic column of Bertin, are often referred to as pseudo tumors, given that they can mimic the appearance of renal tumors. This case series demonstrates a reverse situation where renal masses mimicked PCB. Two patient cases are presented to demonstrate how renal masses mimicked PCB, and a third comparative case is presented to demonstrate a split sinus sign that represents a PCB, a pseudo tumor confirmed with a computed tomogram (CT). Considering the renal masses mimicking PCB, CT, and histology confirmed the presence of renal cell carcinoma. Renal masses which present sonographically as PCB, are most likely to be overlooked and have negative impacts when undetected. Early detection of renal tumors is vital in improving a patient’s prognosis. This case series is useful in providing further evidence of how renal masses can mimic PCB, with sonography. Careful sonographic examination of PCB should be encouraged, and if sonographic features are uncertain, consider further evaluation by urology, especially for those patients with a background of hematuria and no previous imaging studies.
  • Chest radiograph scoring alone or combined with other risk scores for predicting outcomes in COVID-19: A UK study

    Au-Yong, Iain; Higashi, Yutaro; Gianotti, Elisabetta; Fogarty, Andrew; Morling, Joanne R.; Race, Andrea; Juurlink, Irene; Simmonds, Mark; Briggs, Steve; Cruickshank, Simon; et al. (2021)
  • CT texture analysis in histological classification of epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    Wong, Esther M.F. (2021)
    OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to compare the ability of morphological and texture features derived from contrast-enhanced CT in histological subtyping of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). METHODS: Consecutive 205 patients with newly diagnosed EOC who underwent contrast-enhanced CT were included and dichotomised into high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and non-HGSC. Clinical information including age and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) was documented. The pre-treatment images were analysed using commercial software, TexRAD, by two independent radiologists. Eight qualitative CT morphological features were evaluated, and 36 CT texture features at 6 spatial scale factors (SSFs) were extracted per patient. Features' reduction was based on kappa score, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), univariate ROC analysis and Pearson's correlation test. Texture features with ICC >= 0.8 were compared by histological subtypes. Patients were randomly divided into training and testing sets by 8:2. Two random forest classifiers were determined and compared: model 1 incorporating selected morphological and clinical features and model 2 incorporating selected texture and clinical features. RESULTS: HGSC showed specifically higher texture features than non-HGSC (p < 0.05). Both models performed highly in predicting histological subtypes of EOC (model 1: AUC 0.891 and model 2: AUC 0.937), and no statistical significance was found between the two models (p = 0.464). CONCLUSION: CT texture analysis provides objective and quantitative metrics on tumour characteristics with HGSC demonstrating specifically high texture features. The model incorporating texture analysis could classify histology subtypes of EOC with high accuracy and performed as well as morphological features. KEY POINTS: * A number of CT morphological and texture features showed good inter- and intra-observer agreements. * High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma showed specifically higher CT texture features than non-high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. * CT texture analysis could differentiate histological subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma with high accuracy.
  • Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in perianal Crohn's disease at 1.5 and 3.0 T: A feasibility study

    Bannur, Uday; Clarke, Christopher; Latief, Khalid (2021)
    Perianal Crohn's Disease (pCD) is a common manifestation of Crohn's Disease. Absence of reliable disease measures makes disease monitoring unreliable. Qualitative MRI has been increasingly used for diagnosing and monitoring pCD and has shown potential for assessing response to treatment. Quantitative MRI sequences, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) and magnetisation transfer (MT), along with T2 relaxometry, offer opportunities to improve diagnostic capability. Quantitative MRI sequences (DWI, DCE, MT and T2) were used in a cohort of 25 pCD patients before and 12 weeks after biological therapy at two different field strengths (1.5 and 3 T). Disease activity was measured with the Perianal Crohn's Disease Activity index (PDAI) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Diseased tissue areas on MRI were defined by a radiologist. A baseline model to predict outcome at 12 weeks was developed. No differences were seen in the quantitative MR measured in the diseased tissue regions from baseline to 12 weeks; however, PDAI and CRP decreased. Baseline PDAI, CRP, T2 relaxometry and surgical history were found to have a moderate ability to predict response after 12 weeks of biological treatment. Validation in larger cohorts with MRI and clinical measures are needed in order to further develop the model.
  • Clinical utility of small bowel ultrasound assessment of Crohn's disease in adults: A systematic scoping review

    Clarke, Christopher (2022)
    Background: Ultrasound (US) is an alternative to magnetic resonance enterography, and has the potential to significantly reduce waiting times, expedite clinical decision-making and improve patient experience. Point of care US is an advantage of the US imaging modality, where same day scanning, interpretation and treatment decisions can be made. Aim: To systematically scope the literature on point of care US use in small bowel Crohn's disease, generating a comprehensive list of factors relating to the current understanding of clinical utility of this imaging modality. Methods: Searches included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO,,'TRIP' and Epistemonikos. Reference lists of included studies were hand searched. Search terms were searched for as both keywords and subject headings (MeSH) as appropriate. Searches were performed with the 'suggested search terms' and 'explode' selection, and restricted to 'human', 'adult' and 'English language' publications. No date limits were applied to be as inclusive as possible. Two investigators conducted abstract and full-text review. No formal quality appraisal process was undertaken; however, quality of sources was considered when reporting findings. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The review included 42 sources from the UK, Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. Small bowel ultrasound (SBUS) has been shown to be as accurate in detecting the presence of small bowel Crohn's disease, is quicker, safer and more acceptable to patients, compared with magnetic resonance enterography. SBUS is used widely in central Europe and Canada but has not been embraced in the UK. Further research considering economic evaluation, clinical decision-making and exploration of perceived barriers to future implementation of SBUSs is required. Copyright © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
  • Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cerebral venous thrombosis and mortality

    SVIN COVID-19 Global COVID Stroke Registry (2022)
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent studies suggested an increased incidence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We evaluated the volume of CVT hospitalization and in-hospital mortality during the 1st year of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the preceding year. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study of 171 stroke centers from 49 countries. We recorded COVID-19 admission volumes, CVT hospitalization, and CVT in-hospital mortality from January 1, 2019, to May 31, 2021. CVT diagnoses were identified by International Classification of Disease-10 (ICD-10) codes or stroke databases. We additionally sought to compare the same metrics in the first 5 months of 2021 compared to the corresponding months in 2019 and 2020 ( Identifier: NCT04934020). RESULTS: There were 2,313 CVT admissions across the 1-year pre-pandemic (2019) and pandemic year (2020); no differences in CVT volume or CVT mortality were observed. During the first 5 months of 2021, there was an increase in CVT volumes compared to 2019 (27.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.2 to 32.0; P<0.0001) and 2020 (41.4%; 95% CI, 37.0 to 46.0; P<0.0001). A COVID-19 diagnosis was present in 7.6% (132/1,738) of CVT hospitalizations. CVT was present in 0.04% (103/292,080) of COVID-19 hospitalizations. During the first pandemic year, CVT mortality was higher in patients who were COVID positive compared to COVID negative patients (8/53 [15.0%] vs. 41/910 [4.5%], P=0.004). There was an increase in CVT mortality during the first 5 months of pandemic years 2020 and 2021 compared to the first 5 months of the pre-pandemic year 2019 (2019 vs. 2020: 2.26% vs. 4.74%, P=0.05; 2019 vs. 2021: 2.26% vs. 4.99%, P=0.03). In the first 5 months of 2021, there were 26 cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), resulting in six deaths. CONCLUSIONS: During the 1st year of the COVID-19 pandemic, CVT hospitalization volume and CVT in-hospital mortality did not change compared to the prior year. COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with higher CVT in-hospital mortality. During the first 5 months of 2021, there was an increase in CVT hospitalization volume and increase in CVT-related mortality, partially attributable to VITT.
  • Pressor therapy in acute ischaemic stroke: An updated systematic review

    Hewson, David; Lenthall, Robert; McConachie, Norman; Bath, Philip M.; Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Podlasek, Anna; Sprigg, Nikola; Krishnan, Kailash (2022)
    Background: Low blood pressure (BP) in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) is associated with poor functional outcome, death, or severe disability. Increasing BP might benefit patients with post-stroke hypotension including those with potentially salvageable ischaemic penumbra. This updated systematic review considers the present evidence regarding the use of vasopressors in AIS. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE and trial databases using a structured search strategy. We examined reference lists of relevant publications for additional studies examining BP elevation in AIS. Results: We included 27 studies involving 1886 patients. Nine studies assessed increasing BP during acute reperfusion therapy (intravenous thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy, intra-arterial thrombolysis or combined). Eighteen studies tested BP elevation alone. Phenylephrine was the most commonly used agent to increase BP (n = 16 studies), followed by norepinephrine (n = 6), epinephrine (n = 3) and dopamine (n = 2). Because of small patient numbers and study heterogeneity, a meta-analysis was not possible. Overall, BP elevation was feasible in patients with fluctuating or worsening neurological symptoms, large vessel occlusion with labile BP, sustained post-stroke hypotension and ineligible for intravenous thrombolysis or after acute reperfusion therapy. The effects on functional outcomes were largely unknown and close monitoring is advised if such intervention is undertaken. Conclusion: Although theoretical arguments support increasing BP to improve cerebral blood flow and sustain the ischaemic penumbra in selected AIS patients, the data are limited and results largely inconclusive. Large, randomised controlled trials are needed to identify the optimal BP target, agent, duration of treatment and effects on clinical outcomes. Copyright © European Stroke Organisation 2022.
  • Perfusion imaging for endovascular thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke is associated with improved functional outcomes in the early and late time windows

    Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Podlasek, Anna; McConachie, Norman; Lenthall, Robert; Nair, Sujit; Malik, Luqman; Krishnan, Kailash; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M. (2022)
    BACKGROUND: The impact on clinical outcomes of patient selection using perfusion imaging for endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting beyond 6 hours from onset remains undetermined in routine clinical practice. METHODS: Patients from a national stroke registry that underwent EVT selected with or without perfusion imaging (noncontrast computed tomography/computed tomography angiography) in the early (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in functional independence (29.3% with perfusion versus 24.8% without; P=0.210) or in the safety outcome measures of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (P=0.53) and in-hospital mortality (10.6% with perfusion versus 14.3% without; P=0.053). In the early time window, patients with perfusion imaging had significantly improved odds of functional outcome (adjusted common OR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.28-1.78]; P=0.0001) and functional independence (41.6% versus 33.6%, adjusted OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.08-1.59]; P=0.006). Perfusion imaging was associated with lower odds of futile recanalization in both time windows (late: adjusted OR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.50-0.97]; P=0.034; early: adjusted OR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.65-0.99]; P=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world study, acquisition of perfusion imaging for EVT was associated with improvement in functional disability in the early and late time windows compared with nonperfusion neuroimaging. These indirect comparisons should be interpreted with caution while awaiting confirmatory data from prospective randomized trials.
  • Investigating brain microstructural alterations in type 1 and type 2 diabetes using diffusion tensor imaging: A systematic review

    Alotaibi, Abdulmajeed; Tench, Christopher; Stevenson, Rebecca; Felmban, Ghadah; Altokhis, Amjad; Dineen, Robert A.; Constantinescu, Cris S. (2021)
    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have an impact on the microstructural environment and cognitive functions of the brain due to its microvascular/macrovascular complications. Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques can allow detection of brain volume reduction in people with diabetes. However, conventional MRI is insufficiently sensitive to quantify microstructural changes. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has been used as a sensitive MRI-based technique for quantifying and assessing brain microstructural abnormalities in patients with diabetes. This systematic review aims to summarise the original research literature using DTI to quantify microstructural alterations in diabetes and the relation of such changes to cognitive status and metabolic profile. A total of thirty-eight published studies that demonstrate the impact of diabetes mellitus on brain microstructure using DTI are included, and these demonstrate that both type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus may affect cognitive abilities due to the alterations in brain microstructures.
  • Outcomes in antiplatelet-associated intracerebral hemorrhage in the TICH-2 randomized controlled trial

    Krishnan, Kailash; Dineen, Robert A.; Bath, Philip M.; Sprigg, Nikola (2021)
    Background Antiplatelet therapy increases the risk of hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) while the effect on functional outcome is uncertain. Methods and Results This is an exploratory analysis of the TICH-2 (Tranexamic Acid in Intracerebral Hemorrhage-2) double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, which studied the efficacy of tranexamic acid in patients with spontaneous ICH within 8 hours of onset. Multivariable logistic regression and ordinal regression were performed to explore the relationship between pre-ICH antiplatelet therapy, and 24-hour hematoma expansion and day 90 modified Rankin Scale score, as well as the effect of tranexamic acid. Of 2325 patients, 611 (26.3%) had pre-ICH antiplatelet therapy. They were older (mean age, 75.7 versus 66.5 years), more likely to have ischemic heart disease (25.4% versus 2.7%), ischemic stroke (36.2% versus 6.3%), intraventricular hemorrhage (40.2% versus 27.5%), and larger baseline hematoma volume (mean, 28.1 versus 22.6 mL) than the no-antiplatelet group. Pre-ICH antiplatelet therapy was associated with a significantly increased risk of hematoma expansion (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63), a shift toward unfavorable outcome in modified Rankin Scale (adjusted common OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.32-1.91) and a higher risk of death at day 90 (adjusted OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.25-2.11). Tranexamic acid reduced the risk of hematoma expansion in the overall patients with ICH (adjusted OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.93) and antiplatelet subgroup (adjusted OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41-0.91) with no significant interaction between pre-ICH antiplatelet therapy and tranexamic acid (P interaction=0.248). Conclusions Antiplatelet therapy is independently associated with hematoma expansion and unfavorable functional outcome. Tranexamic acid reduced hematoma expansion regardless of prior antiplatelet therapy use. Registration URL:; Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
  • Neuroimaging manifestations in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection: A multinational, multicentre collaborative study

    ASPNR PECOBIG Collaborator Group (2021)
    BACKGROUND: The CNS manifestations of COVID-19 in children have primarily been described in case reports, which limit the ability to appreciate the full spectrum of the disease in paediatric patients. We aimed to identify enough cases that could be evaluated in aggregate to better understand the neuroimaging manifestations of COVID-19 in the paediatric population. METHODS: An international call for cases of children with encephalopathy related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and abnormal neuroimaging findings was made. Clinical history and associated plasma and cerebrospinal fluid data were requested. These data were reviewed by a central neuroradiology panel, a child neurologist, and a paediatric infectious diseases expert. The children were categorised on the basis of their time of probable exposure to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, cases were excluded when a direct link to SARS-CoV-2 infection could not be established or an established alternate diagnostic cause could be hypothesised. The accepted referral centre imaging data, from ten countries, were remotely reviewed by a central panel of five paediatric neuroradiologists and a consensus opinion obtained on the imaging findings. FINDINGS: 38 children with neurological disease related to SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from France (n=13), the UK (n=8), the USA (n=5), Brazil (n=4), Argentina (n=4), India (n=2), Peru (n=1), and Saudi Arabia (n=1). Recurring patterns of disease were identified, with neuroimaging abnormalities ranging from mild to severe. The most common imaging patterns were postinfectious immune-mediated acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like changes of the brain (16 patients), myelitis (eight patients), and neural enhancement (13 patients). Cranial nerve enhancement could occur in the absence of corresponding neurological symptoms. Splenial lesions (seven patients) and myositis (four patients) were predominantly observed in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Cerebrovascular complications in children were less common than in adults. Significant pre-existing conditions were absent and most children had favourable outcomes. However, fatal atypical CNS co-infections developed in four previously healthy children infected with SARS-CoV-2. INTERPRETATION: Acute-phase and delayed-phase SARS-CoV-2-related CNS abnormalities are seen in children. Recurring patterns of disease and atypical neuroimaging manifestations can be found and should be recognised being as potentially due to SARS-CoV-2 infection as an underlying aetiological factor. Studies of paediatric specific cohorts are needed to better understand the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the CNS at presentation and on long-term follow-up in children. FUNDING: American Society of Pediatric Neuroradiology, University of Manchester (Manchester, UK). VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 hospital admissions: Experience of a single tertiary healthcare center

    Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Dineen, Robert A.; Tanasescu, Radu; Nikfekr, Esmaeil; Evans, Jonathan; Constantinescu, Cris S.; Hosseini, Akram A. (2021)
    Background: Early reports have detailed a range of neurological symptoms in patients with the SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there is a lack of detailed description and incidence of the neurological disorders amongst hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We describe a range of neurological disorders (other than non-specific neurological symptoms), including their clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings, encountered in our cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to a large tertiary institution. Methods: We reviewed our prospectively collated database of all adult Neurology referrals, Neurology and Stroke admissions and Neurological multi-disciplinary team meetings for all hospitalized patients with suspected or proven COVID-19 from 17 March 2020 to 31 August 2020. Results: Twenty-nine of 1,243 COVID-19 inpatients (2.3%) presented with COVID-19-related neurological disorders. The mean age was 68.9 +/- 13.5(SD) years, age range of 34-97 years, and there were 16 males. Twenty two patients had confirmed, five were probable and two had suspected COVID-19 infection according to the WHO case classification. Eight patients (27%) required critical care admission. Neurological symptoms at presentation included acute confusion and delirium, seizures, and new focal neurological deficits. Based on the pre-defined neurological phenotype, COVID-19 patients were grouped into four main categories. Sixteen patients had cerebrovascular events (13 with acute ischemic stroke and three had hemorrhagic features), seven patients were found to have inflammatory, non-inflammatory and autoimmune encephalopathy (including two with known Multiple Sclerosis), whilst disorders of movement and peripheral nervous system were diagnosed in three patients each. Conclusion: Although the exact prevalence and etiology remain unclear, new onset of neurological disorders, in addition to anosmia, is non-sporadic during the acute COVID-19-infection. Longitudinal follow-up of these patients is required to determine the clinical and functional outcome, treatment response and long-term effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Copyright © 2021 Dhillon, Dineen, Morris, Tanasescu, Nikfekr, Evans, Constantinescu and Hosseini.
  • Accumulation of brain hypointense foci on susceptibility-weighted imaging in childhood ataxia telangiectasia

    Dineen, Robert A.; Paine, Simon; Prasad, Manish; Chow, Gabriel; Whitehouse, William P.; Auer, Dorothee P. (2021)
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SWI hypointense cerebral lesions have been reported in adults with the inherited cerebellar neurodegenerative disorder ataxia telangiectasia. This study aims to establish the prevalence, age-dependency, and spatial distribution of these lesions in children and young people with ataxia telangiectasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants with classic ataxia telangiectasia and matched controls underwent SWI acquisition at 3T at 1 or 2 time points. SWI hypointense lesions were manually labeled according to the Microbleed Anatomical Rating Scale. Differences in prevalence of lesion number between groups with ataxia telangiectasia and without ataxia telangiectasia were tested with the Fisher exact test, and differences in age between participants with ataxia telangiectasia with and without lesions were tested using independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. The relationship between age and lesion number was modeled as an exponential function. RESULTS: Analyzable SWI datasets from 17 participants with ataxia telangiectasia (with median age at first scan of 12.4 years; range, 4.6-20.2 years; 8 [47%] were female) and 22 matched healthy controls showed prevalence of SWI hypointense lesions in 41% of participants with ataxia telangiectasia and 0% in controls (P = .001, Fisher exact test). Lesions were exclusively supratentorial and predominantly lobar. Participants with ataxia telangiectasia with SWI hypointense lesions were older than those without (median age 5.2 years versus 9.3 years, U = 10.5, P = .014). An exponential curve described the relationship between age and lesion number (R 2 = 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: SWI hypointense lesions are common in children and young people with ataxia telangiectasia, accumulating from 12 years of age onward. In contrast to cerebellar-dominant neurodegeneration in ataxia telangiectasia, SWI hypointense lesions were exclusively supratentorial. Further investigation is needed to establish the clinical relevance of these imaging-detected lesions. Copyright © 2021 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
  • Quantitative CT radiomics-based models for prediction of haematoma expansion and poor functional outcome in primary intracerebral haemorrhage

    Krishnan, Kailash; Bath, Philip M.; Sprigg, Nikola; Dineen, Robert A. (2021)
    OBJECTIVES: To test radiomics-based features extracted from noncontrast CT of patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage for prediction of haematoma expansion and poor functional outcome and compare them with radiological signs and clinical factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred fifty-four radiomics-based features were extracted from 1732 scans derived from the TICH-2 multicentre clinical trial. Features were harmonised and a correlation-based feature selection was applied. Different elastic-net parameterisations were tested to assess the predictive performance of the selected radiomics-based features using grid optimisation. For comparison, the same procedure was run using radiological signs and clinical factors separately. Models trained with radiomics-based features combined with radiological signs or clinical factors were tested. Predictive performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) score. RESULTS: The optimal radiomics-based model showed an AUC of 0.693 for haematoma expansion and an AUC of 0.783 for poor functional outcome. Models with radiological signs alone yielded substantial reductions in sensitivity. Combining radiomics-based features and radiological signs did not provide any improvement over radiomics-based features alone. Models with clinical factors had similar performance compared to using radiomics-based features, albeit with low sensitivity for haematoma expansion. Performance of radiomics-based features was boosted by incorporating clinical factors, with time from onset to scan and age being the most important contributors for haematoma expansion and poor functional outcome prediction, respectively. CONCLUSION: Radiomics-based features perform better than radiological signs and similarly to clinical factors on the prediction of haematoma expansion and poor functional outcome. Moreover, combining radiomics-based features with clinical factors improves their performance. KEY POINTS: * Linear models based on CT radiomics-based features perform better than radiological signs on the prediction of haematoma expansion and poor functional outcome in the context of intracerebral haemorrhage. * Linear models based on CT radiomics-based features perform similarly to clinical factors known to be good predictors. However, combining these clinical factors with radiomics-based features increases their predictive performance. Copyright © 2021. The Author(s).

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