Recent Submissions

  • Myocardial calcium handling in type 2 diabetes: a novel therapeutic target

    Dattani, Abhishek; Singh, Anvesha; McCann, Gerry P; Gulsin, Guarav S (2023-12-23)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a multisystem disease with rapidly increasing global prevalence. Heart failure has emerged as a major complication of T2D. Dysregulated myocardial calcium handling is evident in the failing heart and this may be a key driver of cardiomyopathy in T2D, but until recently this has only been demonstrated in animal models. In this review, we describe the physiological concepts behind calcium handling within the cardiomyocyte and the application of novel imaging techniques for the quantification of myocardial calcium uptake. We take an in-depth look at the evidence for the impairment of calcium handling in T2D using pre-clinical models as well as in vivo studies, following which we discuss potential novel therapeutic approaches targeting dysregulated myocardial calcium handling in T2D.
  • Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of adult aplastic anaemia: A British Society for Haematology Guideline

    Garg, Mamta (2024-01-21)
    Pancytopenia with hypocellular bone marrow is the hallmark of aplastic anaemia (AA) and the diagnosis is confirmed after careful evaluation, following exclusion of alternate diagnosis including hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndromes. Emerging use of molecular cyto-genomics is helpful in delineating immune mediated AA from inherited bone marrow failures (IBMF). Camitta criteria is used to assess disease severity, which along with age and availability of human leucocyte antigen compatible donor are determinants for therapeutic decisions. Supportive care with blood and platelet transfusion support, along with anti-microbial prophylaxis and prompt management of opportunistic infections remain key throughout the disease course. The standard first-line treatment for newly diagnosed acquired severe/very severe AA patients is horse anti-thymocyte globulin and ciclosporin-based immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with eltrombopag or allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) from a matched sibling donor. Unrelated donor HSCT in adults should be considered after lack of response to IST, and up front for young adults with severe infections and a readily available matched unrelated donor. Management of IBMF, AA in pregnancy and in elderly require special attention. In view of the rarity of AA and complexity of management, appropriate discussion in multidisciplinary meetings and involvement of expert centres is strongly recommended to improve patient outcomes.
  • Polatuzumab vedotin plus rituximab and lenalidomide in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a cohort of a multicentre, single-arm, phase 1b/2 study

    Miall, Fiona (2024-01-05)
    Background: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma comprises nearly 30% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases and patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who are ineligible for stem-cell transplantation have few treatment options and poor prognoses. We aimed to determine whether the novel combination of polatuzumab vedotin in combination with rituximab and lenalidomide (Pola+R+Len) would provide a tolerable treatment option with enhanced antitumour response in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Methods: This completed phase 1b/2, open-label, multicentre, single-arm study (GO29834) evaluated the safety and efficacy of Pola+R+Len in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at 19 sites in three countries (USA, Spain, and UK). Patients (≥18 years old) were eligible for inclusion if they had histologically documented CD20-positive relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower, had received at least one previous line of chemoimmunotherapy, including an anti-CD20 agent, and were ineligible for stem-cell transplantation. The dose-escalation phase (1b) used escalating doses of lenalidomide to find the recommended phase 2 dose. Patients received six 28-day cycles of induction treatment with intravenous rituximab 375 mg/m2 and intravenous polatuzumab vedotin 1·8 mg/kg (all cohorts) plus oral lenalidomide at the following doses: 10 mg (cohort A); 15 mg (cohort B); and 20 mg (cohort C). Rituximab and polatuzumab vedotin were administered on day 1 and lenalidomide on days 1-21 of each 28-day cycle. During the dose-expansion phase (2), patients received six 28-day cycles of Pola+R+Len at the recommended phase 2 dose established during dose escalation. In both phases, patients with a complete response or partial response at the end of induction were eligible for post-induction therapy with rituximab 375 mg/m2 on day 1 and lenalidomide 10 mg/day on days 1-21 of each 28-day cycle for a maximum of 6 cycles. The primary safety objective of the dose-escalation phase was identification of the maximum tolerated dose through incidence of dose-limiting toxic effects. The primary efficacy outcome of the dose-expansion phase was Independent Review Committee-assessed complete response rate at end of induction, based on PET-CT. Analyses were conducted in the safety population, which included all patients who received at least one dose of any study drug, and the efficacy population, which included all patients who received at least one dose of any study drug at the recommended phase 2 dose. This study is registered with, number NCT02600897. Findings: Between July 11, 2017 and Feb 3, 2020, 57 patients were enrolled (median age 71 years [IQR 60-75]; 38 [67%] were male and 19 (33%) were female; 47 [82%] were not Hispanic or Latino; and the median previous lines of therapy was 2 [IQR 1-3]). 18 participants were included in phase 1b and 39 were included in phase 2. Phase 1b confirmed a 20 mg recommended phase 2 dose for lenalidomide. After a median follow-up of 11·8 months (IQR 4·7-25·8), the complete response rate, as assessed by the Independent Review Committee, was 31% (90% CI 20-43). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (35 [61%] of 57) and thrombocytopenia (eight [14%] of 57). Serious adverse events were reported in 23 (40%) of 57 patients and one patient died due to a treatment-related adverse event (neutropenic sepsis). Interpretation: Although the combination of Pola+R+Len did not meet the prespecified activity threshold, some patients derived clinical benefit and the regimen had a tolerable safety profile in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Funding: Genentech/F Hoffmann-La Roche.
  • Real-world efficacy of single-agent belantamab mafodotin in relapsed systemic AL amyloidosis

    Garg, Mamta (2024-01-03)
    Systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a relapsing plasma cell disorder. Therapy is limited, particularly for triple-class refractory disease. We report the use of belantamab mafodotin, a BCMA-directed drug-antibody conjugate, for relapsed AL amyloidosis, including patients traditionally excluded from clinical trials. Thirty-one patients were reviewed, with a median of three prior lines of therapy. The median follow-up was 12 months (95% CI 4-19), and a median of five doses were delivered. The best haematological overall response rate was 71%, and the complete/very good partial response was 58%. Sixty-eight percent had keratopathy and improved in all. Belantamab mafodotin has high efficacy and good tolerability in patients with relapsed AL amyloidosis.
  • Ibrutinib as first line therapy for mantle cell lymphoma: a multicentre, real-world UK study

    Allchin, Rebecca; Walter, Harriet Sarah; Miall, Fiona (2023-12-21)
    During the Covid-19 pandemic, ibrutinib +/- rituximab was approved in England for initial treatment of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) instead of immunochemotherapy. As limited data are available in this setting, we conducted an observational cohort study evaluating safety and efficacy. Adults receiving ibrutinib +/- rituximab for untreated MCL were evaluated for treatment toxicity, response and survival, including outcomes in high-risk MCL (TP53 mutation/deletion/p53 overexpression, blastoid/pleomorphic, or Ki67 >/=30%). 149 patients from 43 participating centres were enrolled: 74.1% male, median age 75, 75.2% ECOG 0-1, 36.2% high-risk, 8.9% autologous transplant candidates. All patients received >/= 1 cycle ibrutinib (median 8 cycles), 39.0% with rituximab. Grade >/= 3 toxicity occurred in 20.3%, 33.8% required dose reductions/delays. At 15.6 months (mo) median follow-up, 41.6% discontinued ibrutinib; 8.1% due to toxicity. Of 104 response-assessed patients, overall (ORR) and complete response (CR) rates were 71.2% and 20.2% respectively. ORR was 77.3% (low-risk) vs. 59.0% (high-risk), p=0.05, and 78.7% (ibrutinib-rituximab) vs. 64.9% (ibrutinib), p=0.13. Median progression-free survival was 26.0mo (all patients); 13.7mo (high-risk) vs. not reached (NR) (low-risk), p=0.004. Median overall survival was NR (all); 14.8mo (high-risk) vs. NR (low-risk), p=0.005. Median post-ibrutinib survival was 1.4mo, longer in 41.9% patients receiving subsequent treatment (median 8.6 vs 0.6mo, p=0.002). Ibrutinib +/- rituximab was effective and well tolerated as first-line treatment of MCL, including older and transplant-ineligible patients. PFS and OS were significantly inferior in one-third of patients with high-risk disease and those unsuitable for post-ibrutinib treatment, highlighting the need for novel approaches in these groups.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia therapy guided by measurable residual disease

    Kennedy, Ben (2023-11-10)
    Background: The combination of ibrutinib and venetoclax has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as compared with chemoimmunotherapy. Whether ibrutinib-venetoclax and personalization of treatment duration according to measurable residual disease (MRD) is more effective than fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-rituximab (FCR) is unclear. Methods: In this phase 3, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label platform trial involving patients with untreated CLL, we compared ibrutinib-venetoclax and ibrutinib monotherapy with FCR. In the ibrutinib-venetoclax group, after 2 months of ibrutinib, venetoclax was added for up to 6 years of therapy. The duration of ibrutinib-venetoclax therapy was defined by MRD assessed in peripheral blood and bone marrow and was double the time taken to achieve undetectable MRD. The primary end point was progression-free survival in the ibrutinib-venetoclax group as compared with the FCR group, results that are reported here. Key secondary end points were overall survival, response, MRD, and safety. Results: A total of 523 patients were randomly assigned to the ibrutinib-venetoclax group or the FCR group. At a median of 43.7 months, disease progression or death had occurred in 12 patients in the ibrutinib-venetoclax group and 75 patients in the FCR group (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07 to 0.24; P<0.001). Death occurred in 9 patients in the ibrutinib-venetoclax group and 25 patients in the FCR group (hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.67). At 3 years, 58.0% of the patients in the ibrutinib-venetoclax group had stopped therapy owing to undetectable MRD. After 5 years of ibrutinib-venetoclax therapy, 65.9% of the patients had undetectable MRD in the bone marrow and 92.7% had undetectable MRD in the peripheral blood. The risk of infection was similar in the ibrutinib-venetoclax group and the FCR group. The percentage of patients with cardiac severe adverse events was higher in the ibrutinib-venetoclax group than in the FCR group (10.7% vs. 0.4%). Conclusions: MRD-directed ibrutinib-venetoclax improved progression-free survival as compared with FCR, and results for overall survival also favored ibrutinib-venetoclax. (Funded by Cancer Research UK and others; FLAIR ISRCTN Registry number, ISRCTN01844152; EudraCT number, 2013-001944-76.).
  • Safety of bendamustine for the treatment of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a UK real-world experience

    Ahearne, Matthew; Miall, Fiona (2023-11-15)
    Introduction: Bendamustine is among the most effective chemotherapeutics for indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHL), but trial reports of significant toxicity, including opportunistic infections and excess deaths, led to prescriber warnings. We conducted a multicentre observational study evaluating bendamustine toxicity in real-world practice. Methods: Patients receiving at least one dose of bendamustine (B) +/- rituximab (R) for iNHL were included. Demographics, lymphoma and treatment details and grade 3-5 adverse events (AEs) were analysed. Results: 323 patients were enrolled from 9 NHS hospitals. Most patients (96%) received BR and 46% R maintenance. 21.7% experienced serious AEs (SAE) related to treatment, including infections in 12%, with absolute risk highest during induction (63%), maintenance (20%), and follow-up (17%), and the relative risk highest during maintenance (54%), induction (34%) and follow-up (28%). Toxicity led to permanent treatment discontinuation in 13% of patients, and 2.8% died of bendamustine-related infections (n=5), myelodysplastic syndrome (n=3), and cardiac disease (n=1). More SAEs per patient were reported in patients with mantle cell lymphoma, poor pre-induction PS, poor pre-maintenance PS, abnormal pre-induction total globulins and in those receiving growth factors. Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis was variable, and 3/10 opportunistic infections occurred despite prophylaxis. Conclusion: In this real-world analysis, bendamustine-related deaths and treatment discontinuation were similar to trial populations of younger, fitter patients. Poor PS, mantle cell histology and maintenance rituximab were potential risk factors. Infections, including late onset events, were the most common treatment-related SAE and cause of death warranting extended antimicrobial prophylaxis and infectious surveillance, especially in maintenance-treated patients.
  • Outcomes and characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancers in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms on ruxolitinib

    Laing, Heather; Garg, Mamta (2023-11-14)
    Non-melanoma skin cancers in ruxolitinib-treated MPN patients behave aggressively, with adverse features and high recurrence. In our cohort, mortality from metastatic NMSC exceeded that from myelofibrosis . Vigilant skin assessment, counselling on NMSC risks, and prospective ruxolitinib-NMSC studies are crucial.
  • FLT3 inhibitors as MRD-guided salvage treatment for molecular failure in FLT3 mutated AML

    Hodgson, Katherine (2023-08-09)
    Patients with FLT3-mutated AML have a high relapse rate and suboptimal outcomes. Many have co-mutations suitable for measurable residual disease (MRD) monitoring by RT-qPCR and those destined to relapse can be identified by high or rising levels of MRD, called molecular failure. This provides a window for pre-emptive intervention, but there is little evidence to guide treatment. The use of FLT3 inhibitors (FLT3i) appears attractive but their use has not yet been evaluated. We identified 56 patients treated with FLT3i at molecular failure. The FLT3 mutation was an ITD in 52, TKD in 7 and both in 3. Over half of patients had previously received midostaurin. Molecular failure occurred at a median 9.2 months from diagnosis and was treated with gilteritinib (n = 38), quizartinib (n = 7) or sorafenib (n = 11). 60% achieved a molecular response, with 45% reaching MRD negativity. Haematological toxicity was low, and 22 patients were bridged directly to allogeneic transplant with another 6 to donor lymphocyte infusion. 2-year overall survival was 80% (95%CI 69-93) and molecular event-free survival 56% (95%CI 44-72). High-sensitivity next-generation sequencing for FLT3-ITD at molecular failure identified patients more likely to benefit. FLT3i monotherapy for molecular failure is a promising strategy which merits evaluation in prospective studies.
  • Ruxolitinib versus best available therapy for polycythemia vera intolerant or resistant to hydroxycarbamide in a randomized trial

    Garg, Mamta (2023-05-01)
    Purpose: Polycythemia vera (PV) is characterized by JAK/STAT activation, thrombotic/hemorrhagic events, systemic symptoms, and disease transformation. In high-risk PV, ruxolitinib controls blood counts and improves symptoms. Patients and methods: MAJIC-PV is a randomized phase II trial of ruxolitinib versus best available therapy (BAT) in patients resistant/intolerant to hydroxycarbamide (HC-INT/RES). Primary outcome was complete response (CR) within 1 year. Secondary outcomes included duration of response, event-free survival (EFS), symptom, and molecular response. Results: One hundred eighty patients were randomly assigned. CR was achieved in 40 (43%) patients on ruxolitinib versus 23 (26%) on BAT (odds ratio, 2.12; 90% CI, 1.25 to 3.60; P = .02). Duration of CR was superior for ruxolitinib (hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.61; P < .001). Symptom responses were better with ruxolitinib and durable. EFS (major thrombosis, hemorrhage, transformation, and death) was superior for patients attaining CR within 1 year (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.78; P = .01); and those on ruxolitinib (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.94; P = .03). Serial analysis of JAK2V617F variant allele fraction revealed molecular response was more frequent with ruxolitinib and was associated with improved outcomes (progression-free survival [PFS] P = .001, EFS P = .001, overall survival P = .01) and clearance of JAK2V617F stem/progenitor cells. ASXL1 mutations predicted for adverse EFS (HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.47 to 6.17; P = .003). The safety profile of ruxolitinib was as previously reported. Conclusion: The MAJIC-PV study demonstrates ruxolitinib treatment benefits HC-INT/RES PV patients with superior CR, and EFS as well as molecular response; importantly also demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that molecular response is linked to EFS, PFS, and OS.
  • A phase 1b dose-escalation study of carfilzomib in combination with thalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed/refractory systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    Garg, Mamta (2023-05-22)
    Introduction: Proteasome inhibitors are the backbone of AL amyloidosis treatment - bortezomib being most widely used. Carfilzomib is a proteasome inhibitor licenced to treat multiple myeloma; autonomic and peripheral neuropathy are uncommon toxicities with carfilzomib. There is limited data on the use of carfilzomib in AL amyloidosis. Here, we report the results of a phase Ib dose-escalation study of Carfilzomib-Thalidomide-Dexamethasone (KTD) in relapsed/refractory AL amyloidosis. Results: The trial registered 11 patients from 6 UK centres from September 2017 to January 2019; 10 patients received at least one dose of trial treatment. 80 adverse events were reported from 10 patients in the 1st three cycles. One patient experienced dose-limiting toxicity (acute kidney injury) at a dose of 45 mg/m2, and another patient had a SAR (fever). Five patients experienced an AE ≥ grade 3. There were no haematologic, infectious, or cardiac AE ≥ grade 3. The overall haematological response rate (ORR) at the end of three cycles of treatment was 60%. Conclusion: Carfilzomib 45 mg/m2 weekly can be safely given with thalidomide and dexamethasone. The efficacy and tolerability profile appears comparable to other agents in relapsed AL amyloidosis. These data provide a framework for further studies of carfilzomib combinations in AL amyloidosis.
  • Daratumumab, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone as induction and extended consolidation improves outcome in ultra-high-risk multiple myeloma

    Garg, Mamta (2023-06-14)
    Purpose: The multicenter OPTIMUM (MUKnine) phase II trial investigated daratumumab, low-dose cyclophosphamide, lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (Dara-CVRd) before and after autologous stem-cell transplant (ASCT) in newly diagnosed patients with molecularly defined ultra-high-risk (UHiR) multiple myeloma (NDMM) or plasma cell leukemia (PCL). To provide clinical context, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were referenced to contemporaneous outcomes seen in patients with UHiR NDMM treated in the recent Myeloma XI (MyeXI) trial. Methods: Transplant-eligible all-comers NDMM patients were profiled for UHiR disease, defined by presence of ≥2 genetic risk markers t(4;14)/t(14;16)/t(14;20), del(1p), gain(1q), and del(17p), and/or SKY92 gene expression risk signature. Patients with UHiR MM/PCL were offered treatment with Dara-CVRd induction, V-augmented ASCT, extended Dara-VR(d) consolidation, and Dara-R maintenance. UHiR patients treated in MyeXI with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, dexamethasone, and cyclophosphamide, or lenalidomide, dexamethasone, and cyclophosphamide, ASCT, and R maintenance or observation were identified by mirrored molecular screening. OPTIMUM PFS at 18 months (PFS18m) was compared against MyeXI using a Bayesian framework, and patients were followed up to the end of consolidation for PFS and OS. Results: Of 412 screened NDMM OPTIMUM patients, 103 were identified as UHiR or PCL and subsequently treated on trial with Dara-CVRd; 117 MyeXI patients identified as UHiR formed the external comparator arm, with comparable clinical and molecular characteristics to OPTIMUM. Comparison of PFS18m per Bayesian framework resulted in a 99.5% chance of OPTIMUM being superior to MyeXI. At 30 months' follow-up, PFS was 77% for OPTIMUM versus 39.8% for MyeXI, and OS 83.5% versus 73.5%, respectively. Extended post-ASCT Dara-VRd consolidation therapy was highly deliverable, with limited toxicity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Dara-CVRd induction and extended post-ASCT Dara-VRd consolidation markedly improve PFS for UHiR NDMM patients over conventional management, supporting further evaluation of this strategy. Trial registration: NCT03188172.
  • Ibrutinib and rituximab versus fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab for patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (FLAIR): interim analysis of a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial

    Kennedy, Ben (2023-05)
    Background: The approval of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was based on trials which compared ibrutinib with alkylating agents in patients considered unfit for fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab, the most effective chemoimmunotherapy in CLL. We aimed to assess whether ibrutinib and rituximab is superior to fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in terms of progression-free survival. Methods: This study is an interim analysis of FLAIR, which is an open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial in patients with previously untreated CLL done at 101 UK National Health Service hospitals. Eligible patients were between 18 and 75 years of age with a WHO performance status of 2 or less and disease status requiring treatment according to International Workshop on CLL criteria. Patients with greater than 20% of their CLL cells having the chromosome 17p deletion were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by means of minimisation (Binet stage, age, sex, and centre) with a random element in a web-based system to ibrutinib and rituximab (ibrutinib administered orally at 420 mg/day for up to 6 years; rituximab administered intravenously at 375 mg/m2 on day 1 of cycle 1 and at 500 mg/m2 on day 1 of cycles 2-6 of a 28-day cycle) or fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (fludarabine 24 mg/m2 per day orally on day 1-5, cyclophosphamide 150 mg/m2 per day orally on days 1-5; rituximab as above for up to 6 cycles). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. Safety analysis was per protocol. This study is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN01844152, and EudraCT, 2013-001944-76, and recruiting is complete. Findings: Between Sept 19, 2014, and July 19, 2018, of 1924 patients assessed for eligibility, 771 were randomly assigned with median age 62 years (IQR 56-67), 565 (73%) were male, 206 (27%) were female and 507 (66%) had a WHO performance status of 0. 385 patients were assigned to fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab and 386 patients to ibrutinib and rituximab. After a median follow-up of 53 months (IQR 41-61) and at prespecified interim analysis, median progression-free survival was not reached (NR) with ibrutinib and rituximab and was 67 months (95% CI 63-NR) with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (hazard ratio 0·44 [95% CI 0·32-0·60]; p<0·0001). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse event was leukopenia (203 [54%] patients in the fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab group and 55 [14%] patients in the ibrutinib and rituximab group. Serious adverse events were reported in 205 (53%) of 384 patients receiving ibrutinib and rituximab compared with 203 (54%) of 378 patients receiving fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab. Two deaths in the fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab group and three deaths in the ibrutinib and rituximab group were deemed to be probably related to treatment. There were eight sudden unexplained or cardiac deaths in the ibrutinib and rituximab group and two in the fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab group. Interpretation: Front line treatment with ibrutinib and rituximab significantly improved progression-free survival compared with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab but did not improve overall survival. A small number of sudden unexplained or cardiac deaths in the ibrutinib and rituximab group were observed largely among patients with existing hypertension or history of cardiac disorder. Funding: Cancer Research UK and Janssen.
  • Rare cause of pericardial effusion: 'Erdheim-Chester disease'

    Imtiaz, Haider; Hussein, Mohsin; Chan, Daniel; Garg, Mamta (2023-03-20)
    This report details the case of a woman in her 50s who presented with symptoms of congestive heart failure and raised inflammatory biochemical markers. Her investigations included an echocardiogram, which revealed a large pericardial effusion and a subsequent CT-thorax/abdomen/pelvis showing extensive retroperitoneal, pericardial and periaortic inflammation and soft-tissue infiltration. Genetic analysis of histopathological samples detected a V600E or V600Ec missense variant within codon 600 of the BRAF genewith BRAF variants, confirming the diagnosis of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD).The patient's clinical management involved several treatments and interventions with input from a variety of clinical specialties. This included the cardiology team for pericardiocentesis, the cardiac surgical team for pericardiectomy due to recurrent pericardial effusions and finally the haematology team for further specialist treatment with pegylated interferon and consideration of BRAF inhibitor therapy. The patient became stable following treatment with significant improvement in her heart failure symptoms. She remains under regular joint cardiology and haematology team follow-up. The case highlighted the importance of using a multidisciplinary approach to best manage the multisystem involvement of ECD.
  • MUKtwelve protocol: a phase II randomised, controlled, open, parallel group, multicentre trial of selinexor, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone (SCP) versus cyclophosphamide and prednisolone (CP) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma

    Garg, Mamta (2022-10-26)
    Introduction: Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells with around 6000 new cases per year in the UK. Cyclophosphamide plus prednisolone is considered a standard of care for disease and symptom control in the advanced relapsed or refractory myeloma setting within the UK NHS. The selective nuclear export inhibitor, selinexor, has been relatively well tolerated in previous clinical trials and offers promise when used in combination with a wide range of other anti-cancer treatments. Here, we investigate if the addition of selinexor can improve responses to cyclophosphamide plus prednisolone without adding prohibitive toxicity. Methods and analysis: MUKtwelve is a UK-based, randomised, controlled, open, parallel group, multicentre phase II trial designed to evaluate clinical efficacy of selinexor in combination with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone (SCP) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. A calibration arm will receive cyclophosphamide and prednisolone alone (CP). Participants who experience disease progression on the CP arm may, if eligible, receive SCP.The MUKtwelve trial results will be the first to assess clinical efficacy of selinexor with low-dose CP in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. It is widely accepted that the relapsing-remitting nature of the disease is accompanied by cellular changes that often result in the requirement for novel agents and drug combinations to regain disease control. Patients also often experience cumulative toxicities throughout their treatments, limiting the treatment intensity that can be given at relapse. Thus, there is a need for novel effective combination therapies with acceptable toxicity profiles. Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval is obtained. Results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number: ISRCTN15028850.
  • Gynaecological management of women with inherited bleeding disorders. A UK Haemophilia Centres Doctors' Organisation Guideline

    Myers, Bethan (2022-08-17)
    Women with inherited bleeding disorders (IBDs) may present to healthcare professionals in a variety of ways and commonly will be encountered by either haematology or gynaecology services. Heavy menstrual bleeding is very often the first manifestation of an IBD. There is a wide variation in severity of bleeding for women with IBD and diagnosis and subsequent management of their condition requires multidisciplinary specialised care which is tailored to the individual and includes excellent cross-specialty communication between gynaecology and haematology teams. This guideline is intended for both haematologists and gynaecologists who are involved in the diagnosis and management of women with bleeding disorders. It sets out recommendations about how to investigate heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB), the commonest presentation for women with IBD to hospital services, to guide physicians about how to diagnose an IBD and covers the management of women with known IBD and HMB. The second section sets out recommendations for patients known to have IBD and covers management of patients with IBD in the setting of gynaecological surgery and management for all other non-surgical gynaecological situations.
  • Black sickle cell patients' lives matter: healthcare, long-term shielding and psychological distress during a racialised pandemic in England - a mixed-methods study

    Webster, Amy
    Objective: To understand the psychological and social impact of shielding on people with sickle cell disorders and their carers in the Midlands region of England. This region was badly affected during the pandemic, with the city of Birmingham having some of the highest rates of COVID-19 deaths. Design: A mixed-methods project with a quantitative survey on shielding and adapted SF36 V.2 questionnaire, which was supplemented by qualitative semistructured interviews analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). Participants: Fifty-one participants who were predominantly of Black Caribbean or Black African heritage anonymously took part in the online survey. We supplemented this with eight in-depth semistructured interviews with adults with sickle cell disorders using IPA. Results: The adapted 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF36) version 2 (V. 2) survey indicated worse quality of life and mental health. The open-ended questions from the adapted survey also identified shielding concerns about hospital care, pain management and knowledge of sickle cell by healthcare professionals. From the interviews, it emerged that the racialised element of the pandemic caused significant psychological distress for a population group that had to regularly access hospitals. It was noted that psychological health needs both during a pandemic and outside of it were poorly understood and became invisible in services. The psychological impact of experiences of hospital care as well as growing up with an invisible chronic condition were important to understand psychologically.

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