• Heparin for assisted reproduction: summary of a Cochrane review.

      Jayaprakasan, Kanna (2015-01)
      It is suggested that heparin given in the peri-implantation period may improve clinical outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproduction techniques (ART). This systematic review evaluates the use of heparin in subfertile women undergoing ART.
    • Hormone replacement therapy in pre-menopausal women undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for benign disease: A review of practice.

      Richardson, Alison; West, Emily; Cust, Mike (2017-01)
      Introduction The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline on the diagnosis and management of the menopause states that women who are likely to go through the menopause as a result of surgical treatment should be offered information about the menopause and the importance of starting hormonal replacement therapy before they have their treatment. Objectives To determine compliance with NICE guidelines at the Royal Derby Hospital. Study design We undertook a retrospective review of all pre-menopausal women undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for benign pathology between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2016. Results Thirty-six cases were reviewed. Women were aged between 32.5 and 49.8 years old (median 45.13, inter-quartile range 42.6-47.6). The commonest indications for bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were dysfunctional uterine bleeding (36.1%), chronic pelvic pain (30.5%), complex cyst (13.9%), and pre-menstrual syndrome (13.9%). Fifteen women (41.7%) did not have hormonal replacement therapy discussed. Only two (5.6%) had hormonal replacement therapy discussed pre-operatively. The remaining 19 had hormonal replacement therapy discussed post-operatively, either on the ward prior to discharge (n = 3) or, more commonly, in clinic six to eight weeks later. Although hormonal replacement therapy was only contraindicated in one woman (3%), it was only prescribed to five (24%). Results were slightly better for women under 40 but still only 28.6% had hormonal replacement therapy discussed with them pre-operatively. Conclusion This audit has demonstrated that compliance with the NICE guidelines is poor. We suspect similar results might be found in other gynaecology departments nationally. A hospital guideline to aid clinicians and a patient information sheet to educate women has been devised. A re-audit is planned six months after ratification of these documents.
    • "I'm 100% for it! I'm a convert!": women's experiences of a yoga programme during treatment for gynaecological cancer; an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

      Bali, Anish (2015-02)
      To explore patients' experiences of taking part in a yoga intervention while undergoing treatment for gynaecological cancer. Sixteen women (age range 31-79 years; mean age 60) participated in focus groups based on a semi-structured question schedule. Resulting discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Royal Derby Hospital, UK. Patients took part in a 10-week course of Hatha yoga, where they participated in a one hour long class per week. Three themes emerged from the data: applying breathing techniques, engaging in the physicality of yoga and finding a community. The first theme was particularly important to the patients as they noted the breadth and applicability of the techniques in their day-to-day lives. The latter two themes reflect physical and social perspectives, which are established topics in the cancer and yoga literature and are contextualised here within the women's experiences of cancer treatment. The women's perceptions of the programme were generally positive, providing a previously unseen view of the patient experience of participating in a yoga intervention. The difference between the women's prior expectations and lived experiences is discussed.
    • The impact of uterine artery embolization on ovarian reserve: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

      El-Shamy, Tarek; Amer, Saad; Mohamed, Ahmed; James, Cathryn; Jayaprakasan, Kanna (2020-01)
      INTRODUCTION: Uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been gaining increasing popularity as an effective and minimally invasive treatment for uterine fibroids. However, there has been growing concern over the risk of unintended embolization of the utero-ovarian circulation, leading to reduction of ovarian blood supply with subsequent impairment of ovarian reserve. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of UAE on circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and other markers of ovarian reserve. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This meta-analysis included all published cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies, as well as randomized trials that investigated the impact of UAE on circulating AMH. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Dynamed Plus, ScienceDirect, TRIP database, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 to June 2019. All identified articles were screened, and articles were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. AMH and other data were extracted from the eligible articles and entered into RevMan software to calculate the weighted mean difference between pre- and post-embolization values. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017082615. RESULTS: This review included 3 cohort and 3 case-control studies (n = 353). The duration of follow up after UAE ranged between 3 and 12 months. Overall pooled analysis of all studies showed no significant effect of UAE on serum AMH levels (weighted mean difference -0.58 ng/mL; 95% CI -1.5 to 0.36, I2 = 95%). Subgroup analysis according to age of participants (under and over 40 years) and according to follow-up duration (3, 6 and 12 months) showed no significant change in post-embolization circulating AMH. Pooled analysis of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations (4 studies, n = 248) revealed no statistically significant change after UAE (weighted mean difference 4.32; 95% CI -0.53 to 9.17; I2 = 95%). Analysis of 2 studies (n = 62) measuring antral follicle count showed a significant decline at 3-month follow up (weighted mean difference -3.28; 95% CI -5.62 to -0.93; I2 = 94%). CONCLUSIONS: Uterine artery embolization for uterine fibroids does not seem to affect ovarian reserve as measured by serum concentrations of AMH and FSH.
    • The impact of uterine artery embolization on ovarian reserve: a systematic reviewand meta-analysis.

      Shamy, TE; James, Cathryn (2019-08)
      INTRODUCTION: In the recent years, uterine artery embolisation (UAE) has been gaining increasing popularity as an effective and minimally invasive treatment for uterine fibroids. However, there has been a growing concern over the risk of unintended embolization of the utero-ovarian circulation leading to reduction of ovarian blood supply with subsequent impairment of ovarian reserve. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of UAE on circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and other markers of ovarian reserve. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This meta-analysis included all published cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies a well as randomized trials that investigated the impact of UAE on circulating AMH. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Dynamed Plus, ScienceDirect, TRIP database, ClinicalTrials. gov and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 to June 2019. All identified articles were screened, and articles were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. AMH and other data were extracted from the eligible articles and entered into RevMan software to calculate the weighted mean difference between pre- and post-embolization values. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017082615. RESULTS: This review included three cohort and three case-control studies (n=353). The duration of follow up after UAE ranged between three and 12 months. Overall pooled analysis of all studies showed no significant effect of UAE on serum AMH levels (weighted mean difference -0.58 ng/ml; 95% CI -1.5 to 0.36, I2 =95%). Subgroup analysis according to age of participants (under and over 40 years) and according to follow-up duration (3, 6 and 12-month) showed no significant change in post-embolization circulating AMH. Pooled analysis of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations (four studies, n=248) revealed no statistically significant change after UAE (weighted mean difference 4.32; 95% CI -0.53 to 9.17; I2= 95%). Analysis of two studies (n=62) measuring antral follicle count showed a significant decline at 3-months follow up (weighted mean difference -3.28; 95% CI -5.62 to -0.93; I2 = 94%). CONCLUSIONS: Uterine artery embolization for uterine fibroids does not seem to affect ovarian reserve as measured by serum concentrations of AMH and FSH.
    • Lidocaine-prilocaine cream versus local infiltration anaesthesia in pain relief during repair of perineal trauma after vaginal delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      El-Shamy, Tarek; James, Cathryn (2018-08)
      BACKGROUND: Perineal trauma is a common problem that may affect women during vaginal delivery; this trauma can either spontaneous (tear) or intentional (episiotomy). When repair of perineal trauma is required, adequate analgesics must be obtained. Topical products as lidocaine-prilocaine (EMLA) cream is one of the suggested methods, but still there is lack of evidence with regard to its efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to assess the evidence of utilizing EMLA cream in comparison to local perineal infiltration anaesthesia for pain control during perineal repair after vaginal delivery. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Dynamed Plus, ScienceDirect, TRIP database, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library were searched electronically from January 2006 to May 2018 for studies investigating the effect of lidocaine-prilocaine cream in relieving pain during repair of perineal trauma. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: All randomized controlled trials assessing effect of lidocaine-prilocaine cream versus local infiltration anaesthesia in relieving pain during repair of perineal trauma were considered for this meta-analysis. Fifteen studies were identified of which four studies deemed eligible for this review. Quality and risk of bias assessment was performed for all studies. DATA EXTRACTION: Two researchers independently extracted the data from the individual articles and entered into RevMan software. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Statistical heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Higgins chi-square and (I2) statistics. When heterogeneity was significant, a random-effects model was used for meta-analysis. Otherwise, fixed effect meta-analysis was used when there was no significant heterogeneity. RESULTS: Pooled analysis of result in "pain score" was insignificant between the two groups (WMD -1.11; 95% CI (-2.55 to 0.33); p = 0.13). Furthermore, the use of additional analgesia showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (WMD 1.34; 95% CI (0.66-2.71), p = 0.42). Regarding patient satisfaction, overall analysis of three studies showed significant results favouring EMLA cream group users (WMD 4.65; 95% CI (1.96-11.03), p = 0.0005). The pooled analysis of the outcome "duration of repair" showed significantly shorter duration of repair in EMLA cream users (n = 92) than local infiltration anaesthesia (n = 95) (1.72 min; 95% CI (-2.76 to -0.67), p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical lidocaine-prilocaine cream gives comparable results in reducing pain during perineal repair after vaginal delivery.
    • Management of abnormal uterine bleeding - focus on ambulatory hysteroscopy

      Kolhe, Shilpa (2018-03)
      The rapid evolution in ambulatory hysteroscopy (AH) has transformed the approach to diagnose and manage abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). The medical management in primary care remains the mainstay for initial treatment of this common presentation; however, many women are referred to secondary care for further evaluation. To confirm the diagnosis of suspected intrauterine pathology, the traditional diagnostic tool of day case hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage in a hospital setting under general anesthesia is now no longer required. The combination of ultrasound diagnostics and modern AH now allows thorough evaluation of uterine cavity in an outpatient setting. Advent of miniature hysteroscopic operative systems has revolutionized the ways in which clinicians can not only diagnose but also treat menstrual disorders such as heavy menstrual bleeding, intermenstrual bleeding and postmenopausal bleeding in most women predominantly in a one-stop clinic. This review discussed the approach to manage women presenting with AUB with a focus on the role of AH in the diagnosis and treatment of this common condition in an outpatient setting.
    • The NICE classification for "Ultra-radical (extensive) surgery for advanced ovarian cancer" guidance does not meaningfully predict post-operative complications: a cohort study.

      Phillips, A (2018-08)
      OBJECTIVE: To determine which descriptors of cytoreductive surgical extent in advanced ovarian cancer(AOC) best predict post-operative morbidity. DESIGN: Retrospective notes review. SETTING: A gynaecological cancer centre in the United Kingdom. POPULATION: 608 women operated on for AOC in 114 months at a tertiary cancer centre between 16/8/07-16/2/17. METHODS: Outcome data were analysed by six approaches to classify extent of surgery. Standard/ultra-radical surgery; standard/radical/supra-radical surgery; presence/absence of gastrointestinal resections; low/intermediate/high surgical complexity score(SCS); presence of bowel anastomoses and/or diaphragmatic surgery; and presence/absence of multiple bowel resections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Major (grade 3-5) post-operative morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: 43(7.1%) patients experienced major complications. Grade 5 complications occurred in 6 patients(1.0%). Patients who underwent multiple bowel resections had a relative risk(RR) of 7.73(95%CI 3.92-15.26), high SCS RR of 6.12(95%CI 3.25-11.52); diaphragmatic surgery and gastrointestinal anastomosis RR 5.57(95%CI 2.65 - 11.72); "any gastrointestinal resection" RR 4.69(95%CI 2.66-8.24); ultra-radical surgery RR 4.65(95%CI 2.26-8.79); supra-radical surgery RR 4.20(95%CI 2.35-7.51) of grade 3-5 morbidity as compared to those undergoing standard surgery as defined by NICE. No significant difference was seen in the rate of major morbidity between standard (6/59,10.2%) and ultra-radical (9/81,11.1%) surgery within the cohort who had intermediate complex surgery (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Numbers of procedures performed significantly correlates with major morbidity. The number of procedures performed better predicted major post-operative morbidity than the performance of certain "high risk" procedures. We recommend the SCS to define a higher-risk operation. NICE should re-evaluate the use of the term "ultra-radical" surgery.
    • Observational retrospective study of UK national success, risks and costs for 319,105 IVF/ICSI and 30,669 IUI treatment cycles.

      Jayaprakasan, Kanna (2020-03)
      OBJECTIVE: To compare success rates, associated risks and cost-effectiveness between intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: The UK from 2012 to 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Data from Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's freedom of information request for 2012-2016 for IVF/ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection)and IUI as practiced in 319 105 IVF/ICSI and 30 669 IUI cycles. Direct-cost calculations for maternal and neonatal expenditure per live birth (LB) was constructed using the cost of multiple birth model, with inflation-adjusted Bank of England index-linked data. A second direct-cost analysis evaluating the incremental cost-effective ratio (ICER) was modelled using the 2016 national mean (baseline) IVF and IUI success rates. OUTCOME MEASURES: LB, risks from IVF and IUI, and costs to gain 1 LB. RESULTS: This largest comprehensive analysis integrating success, risks and costs at a national level shows IUI is safer and more cost-effective than IVF treatment.IVF LB/cycle success was significantly better than IUI at 11.49% (p<0.001) but the IUI success is much closer to IVF at 2.35:1, than previously considered. IVF remains a significant source of multiple gestation pregnancy (MGP) compared with IUI (RR (Relative Risk): 1.45 (1.31 to 1.60), p<0.001) as was the rate of twins (RR: 1.58, p<0.001).In 2016, IVF maternal and neonatal cost was £115 082 017 compared with £2 940 196 for IUI and this MGP-related perinatal cost is absorbed by the National Health Services. At baseline tariffs and success rates IUI was £42 558 cheaper than IVF to deliver 1LB with enhanced benefits with small improvements in IUI. Reliable levels of IVF-related MGP, OHSS (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome), fetal reductions and terminations are revealed. CONCLUSION: IUI success rates are much closer to IVF than previously reported, more cost-effective in delivering 1 LB, and associated with lower risk of complications for maternal and neonatal complications. It is prudent to offer IUI before IVF nationally.
    • Obstetric and neonatal outcomes for women with reversed and non-reversed type III female genital mutilation.

      Raouf, Sanaria (2011-05)
      OBJECTIVE: To record and compare obstetric and neonatal complication rates in women with reversed and non-reversed type III female genital mutilation (FGM). METHODS: A retrospective observational study comparing cesarean delivery rates and neonatal outcomes of primiparous and multiparous women who had or had not undergone reversal of FGM III. RESULTS: Of the 250 women, 230 (92%) had an FGM reversal. Of these, 50 (21.7%) were primiparous (cesarean delivery rate 17/50; 34%) and 180 (78.3%) were multiparous (cesarean delivery rate 28/180; 15.6%). Of the 20 women who had not had an FGM reversal, 7 (35%) were primiparous (cesarean delivery rate 5/7; 71.4%) and 13 (65%) were multiparous (cesarean delivery rate 7/13; 53.8%). The cesarean delivery rates for primiparae and multiparae were 32.9% and 25%, respectively. Multiparous women with FGM III reversal had a lower possibility of caesarean delivery compared with the hospital multiparous population (P=0.003) and multiparae who had not undergone FGM III reversal (P=0.007). There was no significant association between Apgar scores or blood loss at vaginal delivery and FGM reversal. CONCLUSION: Reversal of FGM III significantly reduced the increased risk of cesarean delivery seen with multiparae who have FGM III.
    • Outcome of women with postcoital bleeding referred for colposcopy

      Tamizian, Onnig (2019-03)
      BACKGROUND: Most causes of postcoital bleeding (PCB) are benign but the most important cause is cervical cancer so it is important to refer women with postcoital bleeding for colposcopy. We evaluated women referred with postcoital bleeding for the prevalence of cervical abnormalities. METHOD(S): This was a retrospective study of 270 women referred with postcoital bleeding to the colposcopy clinic at the Royal Derby Hospital, Derby and those with suspected cervical abnormalities underwent colposcopy-directed cervical biopsies with or without treatment. RESULT S: Eighty-nine out of 124 women (72%) above 35 years and 108 out of 146 women (74%) below 35 years were seen for colposcopy within 4 weeks of referral. Final diagnoses confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 35 women (13%) and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 10 women (3.7%). None of the women had cervical cancer and all had recently negative cervical smears. CONCLUSION(S): Although cervical cancer was not detected in the women referred for colposcopy, PCB stills presents a risk of coexisting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia so women should be referred for further assessment promptly within appropriate, improved waiting times. Most cases however will be benign with a high chance of symptom resolution providing reassurance.
    • Ovarian cancer screening and mortality in the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS): a randomised controlled trial.

      Jenkins, Howard (2016-03)
      BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis, with just 40% of patients surviving 5 years. We designed this trial to establish the effect of early detection by screening on ovarian cancer mortality. METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial, we recruited postmenopausal women aged 50-74 years from 13 centres in National Health Service Trusts in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Exclusion criteria were previous bilateral oophorectomy or ovarian malignancy, increased risk of familial ovarian cancer, and active non-ovarian malignancy. The trial management system confirmed eligibility and randomly allocated participants in blocks of 32 using computer-generated random numbers to annual multimodal screening (MMS) with serum CA125 interpreted with use of the risk of ovarian cancer algorithm, annual transvaginal ultrasound screening (USS), or no screening, in a 1:1:2 ratio. The primary outcome was death due to ovarian cancer by Dec 31, 2014, comparing MMS and USS separately with no screening, ascertained by an outcomes committee masked to randomisation group. All analyses were by modified intention to screen, excluding the small number of women we discovered after randomisation to have a bilateral oophorectomy, have ovarian cancer, or had exited the registry before recruitment. Investigators and participants were aware of screening type. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00058032. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2001, and Oct 21, 2005, we randomly allocated 202,638 women: 50,640 (25·0%) to MMS, 50,639 (25·0%) to USS, and 101,359 (50·0%) to no screening. 202,546 (>99·9%) women were eligible for analysis: 50,624 (>99·9%) women in the MMS group, 50,623 (>99·9%) in the USS group, and 101,299 (>99·9%) in the no screening group. Screening ended on Dec 31, 2011, and included 345,570 MMS and 327,775 USS annual screening episodes. At a median follow-up of 11·1 years (IQR 10·0-12·0), we diagnosed ovarian cancer in 1282 (0·6%) women: 338 (0·7%) in the MMS group, 314 (0·6%) in the USS group, and 630 (0·6%) in the no screening group. Of these women, 148 (0·29%) women in the MMS group, 154 (0·30%) in the USS group, and 347 (0·34%) in the no screening group had died of ovarian cancer. The primary analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model gave a mortality reduction over years 0-14 of 15% (95% CI -3 to 30; p=0·10) with MMS and 11% (-7 to 27; p=0·21) with USS. The Royston-Parmar flexible parametric model showed that in the MMS group, this mortality effect was made up of 8% (-20 to 31) in years 0-7 and 23% (1-46) in years 7-14, and in the USS group, of 2% (-27 to 26) in years 0-7 and 21% (-2 to 42) in years 7-14. A prespecified analysis of death from ovarian cancer of MMS versus no screening with exclusion of prevalent cases showed significantly different death rates (p=0·021), with an overall average mortality reduction of 20% (-2 to 40) and a reduction of 8% (-27 to 43) in years 0-7 and 28% (-3 to 49) in years 7-14 in favour of MMS.INTERPRETATION: Although the mortality reduction was not significant in the primary analysis, we noted a significant mortality reduction with MMS when prevalent cases were excluded. We noted encouraging evidence of a mortality reduction in years 7-14, but further follow-up is needed before firm conclusions can be reached on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ovarian cancer screening. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Department of Health, The Eve Appeal.
    • Ovarian reserve after salpingectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Mohamed, Ahmed; James, Cathryn; Amer, Saad (2017-07)
      INTRODUCTION: Although there has been a growing concern over the possible damaging effect of salpingectomy on ovarian reserve, this issue remains uncertain. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to test the hypothesis that salpingectomy may compromise ovarian reserve. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A detailed search was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, Dynamed Plus, ScienceDirect, TRIP database and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 to November 2016. All cohort, cross-sectional and randomized controlled studies investigating changes in circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) after salpingectomy were considered. Thirty-seven studies were identified, of which eight were eligible. Data were extracted and entered into RevMan software for calculation of the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI. Two groups of studies were analyzed separately: group 1 (six studies, n = 464) comparing data before and after salpingectomy and group 2 (two studies) comparing data in women who have undergone salpingectomy (n = 169) vs. healthy controls (n = 154). RESULTS: Pooled results of group 1 studies showed no statistically significant change in serum AMH concentration after salpingectomy (WMD, -0.10 ng/mL; 95% CI -0.19 to 0.00, I2 = 0%). Similarly, meta-analysis of group 2 showed no statistically significant difference in serum AMH concentration between salpingectomy group and controls (WMD, -0.11 ng/mL; 95% CI -0.37 to 0.14, I2 = 77%). Subgroup analyses based on laterality of surgery, type of AMH kit and participants' age (<40 years) still showed no statistically significant changes in circulating AMH. CONCLUSION: Salpingectomy does not seem to compromise ovarian reserve in the short-term. However, the long-term effect of salpingectomy on ovarian reserve remains uncertain.
    • Patent foramen ovale as a cause of platypnea orthodeoxia syndrome presenting in pregnancy: A case report and review of the literature

      Dewick, Laura; Ashworth, J (2016-06)
      Background At 8 weeks into her third IVF pregnancy, a 40-yearold doctor presented to the Royal Derby Hospital with dyspnoea. Her breathing had worsened since the drainage of 5 litres of ascites from ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 3 weeks prior. Her symptoms deteriorated and she was intermittently hospitalised from 28 weeks, as she was unable to sit upright without desaturating to 75% in air. This presentation was consistent with Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome (shortness of breath and arterial desaturation when upright which improves when supine). Investigations including chest X-ray, VQ scan, CTPA, Spirometry, Echo and ECG were normal. Bubble echo was initially normal, but when repeated 2 weeks later it demonstrated a right to left shunt consistent with a patent foramen ovale (PFO). She underwent a caesarean section at 35 weeks following which her symptoms resolved entirely. Objectives To establish the incidence of PFO in women of reproductive age, presenting symptoms, diagnostic tests and options for management. Methods Review of recent literature via a web based search. Results Patent Foramen Ovale is known to affect up to 1 in 3 adults based on autopsy findings from around 1000 'normal' hearts. The incidence in those aged under 30 years is 34.3%, falling to 25.4% in the over 40s. Size is known to increase with age. PFO affects men and women equally, with no difference in size between genders. It has long been recognised as a cause of unexplained stroke, particularly in those under 55, where the incidence is thought to rise to 56%. The vast majority of adults are asymptomatic, although it is occasionally associated with clinical syndromes including decompression syndrome in scuba divers, migraine (particularly with aura) and rarely with Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. The diagnosis is made via Echocardiography, with trans-oesophageal echo considered the gold standard. In the UK use of 'bubble echo' has improved detection, as saline contrast is injected into a peripheral vein during the valsalva manoeuvre, following which bubbles can be seen crossing the septum. Management options include secondary prevention of paradoxical embolic stroke with anticoagulation, and percutaneous transcatheter closure. This method has now been developed for use in the second trimester to allow closure with minimal fetal radiation exposure. Conclusion Patent foramen ovale is a relatively common phenomenon in women of childbearing age and should therefore feature in the differential diagnosis of worsening shortness of breath in pregnancy, especially if positional
    • Pelvic mass associated with raised CA 125 for benign condition: a case report.

      Asher, Viren (2012-04)
      BACKGROUND: Raised CA 125 with associated pelvic mass is highly suggestive of ovarian malignancy, but there are various other benign conditions that can be associated with pelvic mass and a raised CA 125. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of 19 year old, Caucasian British woman who presented initially with sudden onset right sided iliac fossa pain and on imaging was found to have 9.8 x 4.5 cm complex cystic mass in right adnexa with a raised CA 125 of 657, which was initially thought to be highly suspicious of cancer but was subsequently found to be due to pelvic inflammatory disease on histology. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the fact that though a pelvic mass with raised CA 125 is highly suggestive of malignancy, pelvic inflammatory disease should always be considered as a differential diagnosis especially in a young patient and a thorough sexual history and screening for pelvic infection should always be carried out in these patients.
    • Practical Guidance for Measuring and Reporting Surgical Margins in Vulvar Cancer

      Van Schalkwyk, Gerhard (2019-08)
      Surgical resection with free surgical margins is the cornerstone of successful primary treatment of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). In general reexcision is recommended when the minimum peripheral surgical margin (MPSM) is <8 mm microscopically. Pathologists are, therefore, required to report the minimum distance from the tumor to the surgical margin. Currently, there are no guidelines on how to make this measurement, as this is often considered straightforward. However, during the 2018 Annual Meeting of the British Association of Gynaecological Pathologists (BAGP), a discussion on this topic revealed a variety of opinions with regard to reporting and method of measuring margin clearance in VSCC specimens. Given the need for uniformity and the lack of guidance in the literature, we initiated an online survey in order to deliver a consensus-based definition of peripheral surgical margins in VSCC resections. The survey included questions and representative diagrams of peripheral margin measurements. In total, 57 pathologists participated in this survey. On the basis of consensus results, we propose to define MPSM in VSCC as the minimum distance from the peripheral edge of the invasive tumor nests toward the inked peripheral surgical margin reported in millimeters. This MPSM measurement should run through tissue and preferably be measured in a straight line. Along with MPSM, other relevant measurements such as depth of invasion or tumor thickness and distance to deep margins should be reported. This manuscript provides guidance to the practicing pathologist in measuring MPSM in VSCC resection specimens, in order to promote uniformity in measuring and reporting.
    • Prenatal thoraco-amniotic chest drain insertion to manage a case of fetal hydrops secondary to FOXC2.

      Gulati, Nidhi (2018-06)
      Lymphoedema-distichiasis is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder of the lymphatic system. Rarely, it is associated with fetal hydrops; the risk and severity of which increases with successive generations. The causative gene is a member of the forkhead transcription factor family (FOXC2). We describe a fetus presenting with early-onset, rapidly progressing body wall oedema, bilateral pleural effusions and a pericardial effusion in a mother with known FOXC2 mutation. First trimester chorionic villus sampling confirmed FOXC2 mutation in the fetus when there was only a large nuchal translucency. As the phenotype progressed, the couple consented to in utero ultrasound-guided insertion of sequential bilateral pleuro-amniotic chest drains (at 23 weeks) which successfully drained the pleural effusions. The fetus was delivered at 39 weeks gestation by elective caesarean section in good condition. The shunts were removed postnatally, and the baby was discharged after 7 days. This is the first case described of a fetus with severe early-onset fetal hydrops secondary to FOXC2 mutation successfully treated by the prenatal insertion of bilateral pleuro-amniotic shunts.
    • Preoperative serum albumin is an independent prognostic predictor of survival in ovarian cancer.

      Asher, Viren; Lee, Joanne; Bali, Anish (2011-07)
      Ovarian cancer is associated with high mortality due to asymptomatic nature of the disease and advance stage at presentation. In advanced stages, it is associated with cachexia and ascites leading to malnutrition. Nutritional status of a patient with cancer has been well known to be associated with survival and can be assessed by level of albumin in blood. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine preoperative serum albumin as prognostic predictor of survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Preoperative serum albumin was determined in 235 patients undergoing surgery for ovarian cancer at Royal Derby Hospital. The prognostic predictive value of serum albumin, along with other prognostic markers was then analysed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Low serum albumin was associated with poor survival (P 35 g/l were associated with median survival of 43.2 months (95% CI 11.6-20.9). Serum albumin (P < 0.001) retained its significance as an independent predictor of poor survival on Cox's multivariate regression analysis along with Age (P < 0.001) and FIGO stage (P < 0.001). Serum albumin can be used as an independent prognostic predictor of survival in patients with ovarian cancer.
    • The prevalence of hyperprolactinaemia in subfertile ovulatory women and its impact on fertility treatment outcome.

      Amer, Saad; Jayaprakasan, Kanna
      Subtle hyperprolactinaemia is not an uncommon finding in ovulatory subfertile women. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of hyperprolactinaemia in subfertile ovulatory and oligo-anovulatory women, and to determine if hyperprolactinaemia influences fertility treatment outcome. All women (n = 1010) who attended the fertility clinic of a UK tertiary hospital during 2015-2019 were included. Out of 804 eligible women analysed, 575 women (71.5%) were ovulatory and 229 (28.5%) were oligo-anovulatory. Prevalence of hyperprolactinaemia was higher in the ovulatory group than in the oligo-anovulatory group (26.8% vs. 14.4%; OR: 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-3.2). On sub-group analysis, the prevalence of mild, moderate and severe hyperprolactinaemia was 23.0%, 3.7% and 0.2% in ovulatory women and 11.8%, 1.7% and 0.9% in oligo-anovulatory women. Mild hyperprolactinaemia was found to be more prevalent in the ovulatory group (OR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.4-3.5). Ongoing pregnancy/livebirth rates were similar between hyperprolactinaemic and normoprolactinaemic women (42.8% vs. 46.7%). Hyperprolactinaemia did not have an impact on ongoing pregnancy/livebirth rates in both ovulatory and oligo-anovulatory women (OR:0.8; 95%CI: 0.5-1.1; OR: 1.2; 95%CI: 0.6-2.5, respectively). Hyperprolactinaemia is prevalent among ovulatory women, although most had mildly raised clinically insignificant levels. Elevated prolactin levels in ovulatory women do not seem to impact on pregnancy outcome. Impact StatementWhat is already known on this subject? Prolactin has been linked to ovulation and fertility. Prolactin testing is not generally recommended for subfertile women with regular menstrual cycles, which is a surrogate marker of ovulation. However, some clinicians, particularly in the general practice, still perform prolactin test as part of baseline endocrine profile.What do the results of this study add? Prevalence of hyperprolactinaemia in subfertile ovulatory women was 26.8% (154/575), of which 86% (132/154) were mild. Further, the livebirth/ongoing pregnancy rates were similar between hyperprolactinaemic and normoprolactinaemic women. Prolactin being a sensitive hormone, responsive to even minimal stress and its high levels not influencing clinical pregnancy outcome, prolactin measurement is not needed in women having regular menstrual cycles.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Hyperprolactinaemia was not uncommon in ovulatory women, although most had mildly elevated levels. Hyperprolactinaemia did not have any impact on fertility treatment outcome. Serum prolactin should not be tested in ovulating women, as mild elevations are commonly present and have no clinical significance.