Recent Submissions

  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of 29 studies predicting diagnostic accuracy of CT, MRI, PET, and USG in detecting extracapsular spread in head and neck cancers

    Ameerally, Phil; Conboy, Peter; Mair, Manish; Oladejo, Olaleye; Salha, Rami; Vaidhyanath, Ram (2024-04-10)
    Background: Extracapsular spread (ECS) is the extension of cancer cells beyond the lymph node capsule and is a significant prognostic factor in head and neck cancers. This meta-analysis compared the diagnostic accuracy of CT, MRI, PET, and USG in detecting ECS in head and neck cancers. Methodology: The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared the diagnostic accuracy of CT, MRI, PET, and USG in detecting ECS in head and neck cancers. They included studies that were published between 1990 and December 2023 and that used histopathology as the reference standard for ECS. Results: The pooled sensitivity and specificity of CT scan were 0.63 (95% CI = 0.53-0.73) and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.74-0.91), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 0.83 (95% CI = 0.71-0.90) and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.73-0.92), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET were 0.80 (95% CI = 0.74-0.85) and 0.93 (95% CI = 0.92-0.94), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of USG were 0.80 (95% CI = 0.68-0.88) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.74-0.91), respectively. MRI had significantly higher sensitivity than CT scan (p-0.05). The specificity of CT and MRI was not significantly different (p-0.99). PET scan had the highest specificity among all imaging modalities. Conclusion: MRI is the most accurate imaging modality for detecting ECS in head and neck cancers. CT scan is a reasonable alternative, but PET scan may be considered when high specificity is required. USG may not add any further benefit in detecting ECS.
  • Clinical significance and resource burden of double duct sign in non-jaundiced patients

    Chavda, Rishi; Chung, Wen; Dennison, Ashley; Garcia, Guiseppe; Hussain, Wajith; Isherwood, John; Issa, Eyad (2024-03-16)
    Aim The study aims to determine the incidence of malignancy at presentation and subsequent risk of malignancy (at 12 months follow-up) in a cohort of patients with double duct sign (DDS) on cross-sectional imaging but no visible stigmata of jaundice. The study also correlates malignancy with liver enzyme dysfunction and estimates the resource burden incurred during the investigation of these patients. Methods A search for the key term "double duct sign" was undertaken in the radiological database of a tertiary hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) centre between March 2017 and March 2022. Radiological reports, clinic letters, blood results, and multidisciplinary team meeting (MDT) outcomes were reviewed during this period and at one year. The national tariff payment system was reviewed to identify tariffs for different investigations required for the cohort and to calculate the total cost incurred. Results Ninety-seven patients with DDS were identified. Sixty-four patients (66%) had a normal bilirubin (0-21 µmol/L) at presentation and were included in the analysis. Seven patients (10.9%) were diagnosed with malignant peri-ampullary tumours, and 21 (32.8%) were diagnosed with benign diseases. In 34 patients (53%) with DDS, the underlying cause remained uncharacterised. Most patients had mild abnormalities of liver enzymes, but two patients (4.3%) were diagnosed with malignant peri-ampullary tumours despite having normal serological values. Patients who had a benign diagnosis and/or who had cancer excluded without a definitive diagnosis did not go on to develop a malignancy at 12 months follow-up. However, in those patients where the underlying aetiology could not be characterised, extended surveillance was required with a total of 80 MDT discussions and multiple surveillance scans (103 CT and 65 MRI scans). Twenty-six patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with three patients requiring more than one EUS examination (29 investigations in total). The cost of these investigations was £38,926.89. Conclusion This study confirms that DDS even in patients without clinical jaundice or with normal liver enzymes requires careful investigation to exclude malignancy despite the resource burden this entails. This supports previously reported results in the literature, and despite the increased use of cross-sectional imaging, DDS remains a clinically significant finding. Large cohort risk stratification studies would be useful to determine clinical urgency and allow the appropriate allocation of resources.
  • Predictors of anastomotic leak and conduit necrosis after oesophagectomy: Results from the oesophago-gastric anastomosis audit (OGAA)

    Ahmed, A; Boddy, A; Butt, Z; Supramaniam, K (2024-03-24)
    Background: Both anastomotic leak (AL) and conduit necrosis (CN) after oesophagectomy are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the identification of preoperative, modifiable risk factors is desirable. The aim of this study was to generate a risk scoring model for AL and CN after oesophagectomy. Methods: Patients undergoing curative resection for oesophageal cancer were identified from the international Oesophagogastric Anastomosis Audit (OGAA) from April 2018-December 2018. Definitions for AL and CN were those set out by the Oesophageal Complications Consensus Group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for both AL and CN. A risk score was then produced for both AL and CN using the derivation set, then internally validated using the validation set. Results: This study included 2247 oesophagectomies across 137 hospitals in 41 countries. The AL rate was 14.2% and CN rate was 2.7%. Preoperative factors that were independent predictors of AL were cardiovascular comorbidity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The risk scoring model showed insufficient predictive ability in internal validation (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve [AUROC] = 0.618). Preoperative factors that were independent predictors of CN were: body mass index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, previous myocardial infarction and smoking history. These were converted into a risk-scoring model and internally validated using the validation set with an AUROC of 0.775. Conclusion: Despite a large dataset, AL proves difficult to predict using preoperative factors. The risk-scoring model for CN provides an internally validated tool to estimate a patient's risk preoperatively.
  • A retrospective multicentre clinical study on management of isolated splenic vein thrombosis: risks and benefits of anticoagulation

    Eltweri, A M; Garcea, G (2024-04-09)
    Introduction: Isolated splenic vein thrombosis (iSVT) is a common complication of pancreatic disease. Whilst patients remain asymptomatic, there is a risk of sinistral portal hypertension and subsequent bleeding from gastric varices if recanalisation does not occur. There is wide variation of iSVT treatment, even within single centres. We report outcomes of iSVT from tertiary referral hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HPB) units including the impact of anticoagulation on recanalisation rates and subsequent variceal bleeding risk. Methods: A retrospective cohort study including all patients diagnosed with iSVT on contrast-enhanced CT scan abdomen and pelvis between 2011 and 2019 from two institutions. Patients with both SVT and portal vein thrombosis at diagnosis and isolated splenic vein thrombosis secondary to malignancy were excluded. The outcomes of anticoagulation, recanalisation rates, risk of bleeding and progression to portal vein thrombosis were examined using CT scan abdomen and pelvis with contrast. Results: Ninety-eight patients with iSVT were included, of which 39 patients received anticoagulation (40%). The most common cause of iSVT was acute pancreatitis n = 88 (90%). The recanalisation rate in the anticoagulation group was 46% vs 15% in patients receiving no anticoagulation (p = 0.0008, OR = 4.7, 95% CI 1.775 to 11.72). Upper abdominal vascular collaterals (demonstrated on CT scan angiography) were significantly less amongst patients who received anticoagulation treatment (p = 0.03, OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.1736 to 0.9288). The overall rate of upper GI variceal-related bleeding was 3% (n = 3/98) and it was independent of anticoagulation treatment. Two of the patients received therapeutic anticoagulation. Conclusion: The current data supports that therapeutic anticoagulation is associated with a statistically significant increase in recanalisation rates of the splenic vein, with a subsequent reduction in radiological left-sided portal hypertension. However, all patients had a very low risk of variceal bleeding regardless of anticoagulation. The findings from this retrospective study should merit further investigation in large-scale randomised clinical trials.
  • New robotic platform for transoral robotic surgery: an IDEAL stage 0 study

    Oladejo, Olaleye (2024-03-15)
    Objectives: This study aims to assess the feasibility to perform transoral robotic surgery (TORS) with a new robotic platform, the Versius Surgical System (CMR Surgical, UK) in a preclinical cadaveric setting in accordance to stage 0 of the IDEAL-D framework. Design: IDEAL stage 0 preclinical assessment of the Versius Robotic System in TORS in human cadavers. Setting: All procedures were performed in a simulated operating theatre environment at a UK surgical training centre. Participants: 11 consultant head and neck surgeons from the UK, mainland Europe and the USA took part in TORS procedures on six human cadavers. Interventions: 3 key index procedures were assessed that represent the core surgical workload of TORS: lateral oropharyngectomy, tongue base resection and partial supraglottic laryngectomy. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was the successful completion of each surgical procedure. Secondary outcomes included the optimisation of system setup, instrumentation and surgeon-reported outcomes for feasibility of each component procedural step. Results: 33 cadaveric procedures were performed and 32 were successfully completed. One supraglottic laryngectomy was not fully completed due to issues dividing the epiglottic cartilage with available instrumentation. Surgeon-reported outcomes met the minimal level of feasibility in all procedures and a consensus that it is feasible to perform TORS with Versius was reached. Available instrumentation was not representative of other robotic platforms used in TORS and further instrument optimisation is recommended before wider dissemination. Conclusions: It is feasible to perform TORS with the Versius Surgical System (CMR Surgical) within a pre-clinical cadaveric setting. Clinical evaluation is needed and appropriate with the system. Further instrument development and optimisation is desirable.
  • Long-term outcomes following resection of adenocarcinoma arising from Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (A-IPMN) versus Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC): a propensity-score matched analysis

    Alsaoudi, Tareq; Bhardwaj, Neil (2024-03-22)
    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare long-term post-resection oncological outcomes between A-IPMN and PDAC. Summary background data: Knowledge of long term oncological outcomes (e.g recurrence and survival data) comparing between adenocarcinoma arising from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (A-IPMN) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is scarce. Methods: Patients undergoing pancreatic resection (2010-2020) for A-IPMN were identified retrospectively from 18 academic pancreatic centres and compared with PDAC patients from the same time-period. Propensity-score matching (PSM) was performed and survival and recurrence were compared between A-IPMN and PDAC. Results: 459 A-IPMN patients (median age,70; M:F,250:209) were compared with 476 PDAC patients (median age,69; M:F,262:214). A-IPMN patients had lower T-stage, lymphovascular invasion (51.4%vs. 75.6%), perineural invasion (55.8%vs. 71.2%), lymph node positivity (47.3vs. 72.3%) and R1 resection (38.6%vs. 56.3%) compared to PDAC(P<0.001). The median survival and time-to-recurrence for A-IPMN versus PDAC were 39.0 versus19.5months (P<0.001) and 33.1 versus 14.8months (P<0.001), respectively (median follow-up,78 vs.73 months). Ten-year overall survival for A-IPMN was 34.6%(27/78) and PDAC was 9%(6/67). A-IPMN had higher rates of peritoneal (23.0 vs. 9.1%, P<0.001) and lung recurrence (27.8% vs. 15.6%, P<0.001) but lower rates of locoregional recurrence (39.7% vs. 57.8%; P<0.001). Matched analysis demonstrated inferior overall survival (P=0.005), inferior disease-free survival (P=0.003) and higher locoregional recurrence (P<0.001) in PDAC compared to A-IPMN but no significant difference in systemic recurrence rates (P=0.695). Conclusions: PDACs have inferior survival and higher recurrence rates compared to A-IPMN in matched cohorts. Locoregional recurrence is higher in PDAC but systemic recurrence rates are comparable and constituted by their own distinctive site-specific recurrence patterns.
  • International Hepato-Pancreato-Billiary Association (IHPBA) registry study on COVID-19 infections in HPB surgery patients

    Kourdouli, Amar (2024-01)
    Background: In response to the pandemic, the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA) developed the IHPBA-COVID Registry to capture data on HPB surgery outcomes in COVID-positive patients prior to mass vaccination programs. The aim was to provide a tool to help members gain a better understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on patient outcomes following HPB surgery worldwide. Methods: An online registry updated in real time was disseminated to all IHPBA, E-AHPBA, A-HPBA and A-PHPBA members to assess the effects of the pandemic on the outcomes of HPB procedures, perioperative COVID-19 management and other aspects of surgical care. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients from 35 centres in 18 countries were included. Seventy-three (58%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 preoperatively. Operative mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy and major hepatectomy was 28% and 15%, respectively, and 2.5% after cholecystectomy. Postoperative complication rates of pancreatic procedures, hepatic interventions and biliary interventions were respectively 80%, 50% and 37%. Respiratory complication rates were 37%, 31% and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: This study reveals a high risk of mortality and complication after HPB surgeries in patient infected with COVID-19. The more extensive the procedure, the higher the risk. Nonetheless, an increased risk was observed across all types of interventions, suggesting that elective HPB surgery should be avoided in COVID positive patients, delaying it at distance from the viral infection.
  • Role of the exercise professional in metabolic and bariatric surgery

    Herring, Louisa (2024-01)
    Background: Physical activity (PA) is important for the long-term health and weight management of patients who undergo metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS). However, the roles of exercise professionals in MBS settings have not been systematically determined. Objectives: To investigate: (1) who are the professionals implementing PA programming in MBS clinical settings; and (2) what patient-centric tasks do they perform? Setting: Clinical and academic exercise settings worldwide. Methods: This multimethod study included a scoping review of PA programs in MBS described in the research literature. Data about job tasks were extracted and provided to 10 experts to sort into categories. Cluster analysis was utilized to find the hierarchical structure of tasks. A Delphi process was used to agree on a final model. Results: The majority of PA professionals were exercise physiologists in the USA and physiotherapists or other types of exercise professionals elsewhere. Forty-three tasks were identified, the most reported being supervision of exercise, fitness testing, and exercise prescription. Seven higher-order categories were determined: (1) Exercise-related health assessment, (2) Body composition and physical fitness assessment, (3) Lifestyle physical activity and sedentary behavior assessment, (4) Education, instruction, and prescription, (5) Exercise monitoring, (6) Behavioral counseling and psychosocial support, and (7) Dietary support. The following statements were rated an average of 9.0, classifying them as "imperative": 1) "Pre- and postoperative PA/exercise guidelines for MBS patients are needed", 2) "MBS programs need to include PA/exercise as part of multidisciplinary care". Conclusions: The expert group reached a consensus on 7 major classifications of job tasks for the exercise professional. It is important for governing medical associations across the world to formally recognize experienced exercise professionals as playing pivotal roles in continuing, multidisciplinary care for MBS patients. These findings also provide evidence-based information in the effort to solidify these positions within the greater context of healthcare.
  • Artificial intelligence applications in diagnosing and managing non-syndromic craniosynostosis: a comprehensive review

    Bangi, Shifa F (2023-09-15)
    Craniosynostosis is characterised by the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures, resulting in an abnormal head shape. The management of craniosynostosis requires early diagnosis, surgical intervention, and long-term monitoring. With the advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, there is great potential for AI to assist in various aspects of managing craniosynostosis. The main aim of this article is to review available literature describing the current uses of AI in craniosynostosis. The main applications highlighted include diagnosis, surgical planning, and outcome prediction. Many studies have demonstrated the accuracy of AI in differentiating subtypes of craniosynostosis using machine learning (ML) algorithms to classify craniosynostosis based on simple photographs. This demonstrates its potential to be used as a screening tool and may allow patients to monitor disease progression reducing the need for CT scanning. ML algorithms can also analyse CT scans to aid in the accurate and efficient diagnosis of craniosynostosis, particularly when training junior surgeons. However, the lack of sufficient data currently limits this clinical application. Virtual surgical planning for cranial vault remodelling using prefabricated cutting guides has been shown to allow more precise reconstruction by minimising the subjectivity of the clinicians' assessment. This was particularly beneficial in reducing operating length and preventing the need for blood transfusions. Despite the potential benefits, there are numerous challenges associated with implementing AI in craniosynostosis. The integration of AI in craniosynostosis holds significant promise for improving the management of craniosynostosis. Further collaboration between clinicians, researchers, and AI experts is necessary to harness its full potential.
  • Assessment of long-term graft function following total pancreatectomy and autologous islet transplantation: the Leicester experience

    Pollard, Christina A; Chung, Wen Yuan; Garcia, Guiseppe; Dennison, Ashley R (2023-10-01)
    Background: Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is a recognised treatment for chronic pancreatitis (CP) with the potential to mitigate or prevent pancreatogenic diabetes. We present our 10-year follow-up of TPIAT patients. Methods: The University Hospitals of Leicester performed 60 TPIAT procedures from September 1994 to May 2011. Seventeen patients completed their 10-year assessment and were grouped using the modified Auto-Igls criteria; good response, n=5 (insulin-independent for first 5 years post-TPIAT); partial response, n=6 (insulin requirements <20 iU/day post-TPIAT) and poor response, n=6 (insulin requirements ≥20 iU/day post-TPIAT). C-peptide, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were undertaken preoperatively (baseline), then at 3, 6 months and then yearly for 10 years. Data was analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Median C-peptide levels were significantly higher, 120 minutes following OGTT, in the "good response" compared to "partial" and "poor" groups (two-way ANOVA test, P<0.0001). All groups demonstrated preservation of C-peptide release. HbA1c levels were significantly lower in the "good response" compared to "partial" and "poor" groups (two-way ANOVA test, P<0.0003 and P<0.0001). Median fasting glucose levels at 30 and 120 min following OGTT, were significantly lower in the "good response" compared to "partial" and "poor" groups (two-way ANOVA test, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001). Conclusions: TPIAT preserves long-term islet graft functions in 10-year follow up. Even in patients in the poor response group, there is evidence of C-peptide release (>0.5 ng/mL) after OGTT stimulation potentially preventing long-term diabetes-related complications.
  • Outcomes of Early Oral Feeding Compared to Delayed Feeding in Children after Elective Distal Bowel Anastomosis

    Eradi, Bala (2023-09)
    Background: Conventionally, oral feeds after distal bowel anastomosis surgery (ileostomy/colostomy closure) are delayed until after bowel peristalsis is established. The safety of an early feeding regimen is not established in children. This study compared early feeding regimens with delayed feeding in children undergoing elective intestinal anastomosis surgeries. Materials and methods: In this retrospective multicentric cohort study, children undergoing elective distal bowel anastomosis surgery were divided into Group A (oral feeds allowed within 6 h) and Group B (delayed feeds). The two groups were compared for the incidence of abdomen distension, vomiting, surgical site infection, duration of analgesia, length of hospital stay, and readmission rate. Results: During the study, 58 patients were included: Group A (n = 26) and Group B (n = 32). The duration of analgesia (1.9 vs. 4.01 days) and length of hospital stay (3.38 vs. 5.0 days) were significantly less in Group A. Abdominal distension (7.7% vs. 15.6%), vomiting (11.5% vs. 15.6%), surgical site infection rate (3.8% vs. 12.5%), and readmissions (0% vs. 3.1%) were less in Group A, but statistically not significant. Conclusion: Early feeding after the elective restoration of distal bowel continuity can be safely practiced in the pediatric population. It is associated with a reduced need for analgesia and shorter hospital stay.
  • The incidence of post cholecystectomy pain (PCP) syndrome at 12 months following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective evaluation in 200 patients

    Lee, Hayun; Makanji, Dipak; Ranjha, Khadija; Kukreja, Yuvraj (29/09/2023)
    Objectives: Post cholecystectomy pain syndrome can cause significant distress, impairs quality of life and exacerbations often result in emergency visits. Poorly controlled postoperative pain is a recognized cause of persistent postsurgical pain. Abdominal myofascial pain syndrome is an underdiagnosed cause of persistent pain in this cohort. The objective was to estimate the incidence of poorly controlled postoperative pain in the first 48 h after surgery and the likelihood of developing persistent pain at 12 months. Methods: The patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a tertiary unit were consented for participation in a prospective service evaluation. A telephone review was performed at three, six and twelve months after surgery. Incidence of poorly controlled pain in the first 48 h after surgery was assessed. Patients with persistent pain were referred to the pain clinic. Results: Over a six-month period, 200 patients were assessed. Eleven patients were excluded (5.5 %). Twelve patients were lost to follow-up (6.6 %, 12/189). Patient satisfaction with acute postoperative pain management was low in 40 % (76/189). Poorly controlled postoperative pain was reported by 36 % (68/189) of patients. Incidence of persistent pain was 29 % (54/189) at 12 months post-surgery. Over half of patients with persistent pain (63 %, 34/54) reported poorly controlled postoperative pain. A somatic source was diagnosed in 54 % (29/54) with post cholecystectomy pain syndrome. Conclusions: Poorly controlled postoperative pain was reported by a third of patients. Persistent pain was present in 29 % at twelve months post-surgery. Abdominal myofascial pain syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis in post cholecystectomy pain syndrome. Keywords: abdominal myofascial pain syndrome; abdominal wall pain; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; post cholecystectomy syndrome; postoperative pain.
  • Revisional surgery following one anastomosis gastric bypass: the devil is in the details

    Sahloul, Mohamed (2023-07-06)
    Introduction Gastric bypass procedures are usually well tolerated and rarely require reversal. Literature regarding indications for reversal and outcomes is limited and largely restricted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) [1,2,3,4,5]. Indications include food intolerance, malnutrition/excessive weight loss, dumping syndrome, postprandial hypoglycaemia, chronic pain, non-healing marginal ulcers and short bowel syndrome [1, 3, 5]. Over the years, the popularity and acceptance of one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) has grown worldwide. Currently, it is estimated that OAGB accounts for more than 10% of the bariatric and metabolic surgical procedures performed worldwide [6]. The data on the reversal of OAGB is not only scant but also limited to malnutrition. The aim of this video is to demonstrate surgical pitfalls whilst performing OAGB or reversal of OAGB and to establish the merits of multidisciplinary approach and intraoperative endoscopy during complicated revisional surgery. Materials and Methods The video presents a laparoscopic revision of a complicated and previously inadequately reversed OAGB in a 65-year-old female patient. Initial OAGB, done elsewhere, was reversed 7 days postoperatively due to complete intolerance to liquids. The patient had a poor functional outcome with ongoing vomiting and excess weight loss of more than 100% due to poor oral intake. She was referred to our centre 10 months following her initial procedure with a BMI of 24 kg/m2. Intra-operatively, the OAGB gastric pouch was found to be communicating with the remnant stomach only through a very narrow side-to-side anastomosis, in agreement with the preoperative barium studies and cross-sectional imaging. This anastomosis was extended proximally up to the level of the gastric fundus to allow wide communication of the pouch with the body of the stomach. Intra-operative endoscopy revealed further stenosis at the body-antrum transition—presumably the result of the first horizontal stapling reaching too close to the greater curvature during the creation of the gastric pouch for the OAGB. This narrowing was not completely visualised in the preoperative studies. This narrow isthmus was widened by creating a side-to-side body-to-antrum anastomosis. Endoscopic views verified complete luminal reconstruction of the stomach. The alternative conventional approach to the procedure performed would have been a standard RYGB with/without fundal resection, but the patient was adamant against having any further bypass procedures. Results Τhe patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery and was discharged on day 7. She had a slow progression through textures and had difficulties fully tolerating solid nutrition with occasional vomiting. A nuclear solid gastric emptying study 4 months postoperatively revealed mild gastroparesis. This clinically resolved over the course of the following 8 months. At 5 years follow-up, the patient is tolerating an unrestricted solid diet with no evidence of malnutrition, whilst maintaining a BMI of 26 kg/m2. Conclusions OAGB is a commonly performed bariatric procedure. Although considered technically less challenging as compared to RYGB, care must be taken to avoid dividing the pouch too close to the greater curve. Reversal procedures are challenging, and a multidisciplinary approach in conjunction with intraoperative endoscopy is essential to fully assess the anatomy and avoid pitfalls. Bariatric teams must be prepared that despite complete anatomical reconstruction, physiological reversal of gastric function may be slow or even incomplete in some cases.
  • Use of patient reported experience measure and patient reported outcome measures to evaluate differences in surgical or non-surgical management of humeral shaft fractures

    Athanatos, Lambros; Pandey, Radhakant; Singh, Harvinder (2021-10-26)
    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of patient reported experience measures (PREMs) in humeral shaft fractures managed with or without surgery against patient reported outcome measures (PROMs). Methods: Adult patients treated for a humeral shaft fracture between June 2015 and August 2017 were included in non-surgery and surgery (early and late surgery) groups. The PREM questionnaire was based on patient and clinician feedback obtained during focus groups and was posted to patients. PROMs included the short form-12 (SF-12) and visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, stiffness, function and satisfaction. Results: Eighty-one patients responded, 54 patients were treated in a brace and 27 with surgery (13 early, 14 late). There was moderate positive correlation between PREM and VAS satisfaction and function and moderate negative correlation with VAS pain and stiffness. There was also moderate positive correlation between PREM and SF-12 mental and weak positive correlation with SF-12 physical. The late surgery group had poorer PREMs (expectations, p = 0.002 and friends & family test, p = 0.0001) and PROMs (VAS satisfaction, p = 0.005) compared to the early surgery group. Conclusions: PREMs can be used in conjunction with PROMs to improve the patient's quality of care and as a means of identifying, at an early stage, those patients not doing well and to offer surgery.
  • Comparing the efficacy and safety of combination triamcinolone acetonide and 5-fluorouracil versus monotherapy triamcinolone acetonide or 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Mavilakandy, Akash (2023-06-20)
    Background: Keloids and hypertrophic scars cause physical and psychosocial problems. Combination 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) may enhance the treatment of pathological scars, although the evidence base is limited. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and complication rates of combination intralesional TAC and 5-FU in comparison to monotherapy intralesional TAC or 5-FU for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Methods: EMBASE, MEDLINE and CENTRAL were searched by two independent reviewers. The primary outcome was treatment efficacy (51% to 100% improvement). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool, respectively. Results: Of 277 articles screened, 13 studies were included comprising 12 randomised control trials (RCT) and 1 non-randomised study. There were six and nine studies comparing combination intralesional therapy versus monotherapy 5-FU and monotherapy TAC, respectively. The combined group demonstrated superior objective treatment efficacy compared to the monotherapy TAC group (OR 3.45, 95% C.I: [2.22-5.35], I 2=0%, P<0.00001) and monotherapy 5-FU group (OR 4.17, 95% C.I: [2.21-7.87], I 2=0%, P<0.0001). Telangiectasia was less frequent in combination therapy (OR 0.24, 95% CI: [0.11-0.52], I 2=0%, P=0.0003) compared to monotherapy TAC. Conclusions: Combined intralesional TAC and 5-FU administration demonstrated superior treatment efficacy outcomes compared to monotherapy TAC or 5-FU. Patient-reported outcome measures, lacking here, should be incorporated in the design of future research to justify clinical recommendations.
  • Computed tomographic colonography for symptomatic patients: the diminutive polyp dilemma

    Sharma, Vivek (2022-11-09)
    Background: Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is sensitive to polyp detection but is considered inaccurate for measuring diminutive polyps (<6 mm), with divergence between CTC and either colonoscopic or histopathological polyp measurements. Reporting diminutive polyps remains debatable. This study aims to compare outcomes of symptomatic patients with diminutive versus borderline polyps on CTC and to thereby examine the potential implication of reporting diminutive polyps. Methods: A single-centre retrospective study of symptomatic patients who underwent CTC from October 2016 through September 2018 was performed. After excluding CTC demonstrating cancer, no polyps, or polyps >6 mm, cases were categorized as either 'diminutive' (largest polyp <6 mm), or 'borderline' (largest polyp = 6 mm). The outcome measures were progression to endoscopy, surgery, procedure-related morbidity, dysplasia and malignancy. Results: A total of 308 cases (211 diminutive and 97 borderline) were analysed. The groups were similar (P > 0.05) in mean age (73 vs. 74 years), female proportion (57% vs. 49%), endoscopy-related morbidity (6% vs. 7%) and CTC-related morbidity (0 vs. 1%). Most patients (64%) underwent endoscopy, which was more common in the borderline vs. the diminutive group (76% vs. 59%; P = 0.003). Dysplasia was more common in the borderline vs. the diminutive group (69% vs. 48%; P = 0.003). No malignancies were diagnosed, and no patients proceeded to surgery. Conclusion: Reporting diminutive polyps on CTC for symptomatic patients frequently leads to endoscopy, which often reveals dysplasia but rarely malignancy. This raises the question of how referring clinicians can best counsel and manage symptomatic patients with diminutive polyps on CTC, by considering the balance between utilitarianism and deontology.
  • Impact of minimally invasive surgery on surgeon health (ISSUE) study: protocol of a single-arm observational study conducted in the live surgery setting

    Singh, Baljit; Moss, Esther (2023-03-07)
    Introduction: The rapid evolution of minimally invasive surgery has had a positive impact on patient outcomes; however, it is reported to be associated with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WMS) in surgeons. Currently there is no objective measure to monitor the physical and psychological impact of performing a live surgical procedure on the surgeon. Methods and analysis: A single-arm observational study with the aim of developing a validated assessment tool to quantify the impact of surgery (open/laparoscopic/robotic-assisted) on the surgeon. Development and validation cohorts of major surgical cases of varying levels of complexity performed by consultant gynaecological and colorectal surgeons will be recruited. Recruited surgeons wear three Xsens DOT monitors (muscle activity) and an Actiheart monitor (heart rate). Salivary cortisol levels will be taken and questionnaires (WMS and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) completed by the participants preoperatively and postoperatively. All the measures will be incorporated to produce a single score that will be called the 'S-IMPACT' score. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval for this study has been granted by the East Midlands Leicester Central Research Ethics Committee REC ref 21/EM/0174. Results will be disseminated to the academic community through conference presentations and peer-reviewed journal publications. The S-IMPACT score developed within this study will be taken forward for use in definitive multicentre prospective randomised control trials.
  • Inequalities in cancer mortality trends in people with type 2 diabetes: 20 year population-based study in England

    Zaccardi, Francesco; Issa, Eyad; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh; Brown, Karen (2023-01-24)
    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to describe the long-term trends in cancer mortality rates in people with type 2 diabetes based on subgroups defined by sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors. Methods: We defined a cohort of individuals aged ≥35 years who had newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between 1 January 1998 and 30 November 2018. We assessed trends in all-cause, all-cancer and cancer-specific mortality rates by age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, obesity and smoking status. We used Poisson regression to calculate age- and calendar year-specific mortality rates and Joinpoint regression to assess trends for each outcome. We estimated standardised mortality ratios comparing mortality rates in people with type 2 diabetes with those in the general population. Results: Among 137,804 individuals, during a median follow-up of 8.4 years, all-cause mortality rates decreased at all ages between 1998 and 2018; cancer mortality rates also decreased for 55- and 65-year-olds but increased for 75- and 85-year-olds, with average annual percentage changes (AAPCs) of -1.4% (95% CI -1.5, -1.3), -0.2% (-0.3, -0.1), 1.2% (0.8, 1.6) and 1.6% (1.5, 1.7), respectively. Higher AAPCs were observed in women than men (1.5% vs 0.5%), in the least deprived than the most deprived (1.5% vs 1.0%) and in people with morbid obesity than those with normal body weight (5.8% vs 0.7%), although all these stratified subgroups showed upward trends in cancer mortality rates. Increasing cancer mortality rates were also observed in people of White ethnicity and former/current smokers, but downward trends were observed in other ethnic groups and non-smokers. These results have led to persistent inequalities by gender and deprivation but widening disparities by smoking status. Constant upward trends in mortality rates were also observed for pancreatic, liver and lung cancer at all ages, colorectal cancer at most ages, breast cancer at younger ages, and prostate and endometrial cancer at older ages. Compared with the general population, people with type 2 diabetes had a more than 1.5-fold increased risk of colorectal, pancreatic, liver and endometrial cancer mortality during the whole study period. Conclusions/interpretation: In contrast to the declines in all-cause mortality rates at all ages, the cancer burden has increased in older people with type 2 diabetes, especially for colorectal, pancreatic, liver and endometrial cancer. Tailored cancer prevention and early detection strategies are needed to address persistent inequalities in the older population, the most deprived and smokers.
  • A scoring system for predicting malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: a multicenter EUROPEAN validation

    Garcea, Giuseppe; Popa, Mariuca (2022-10-06)
    Purpose: A preoperative estimate of the risk of malignancy for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) is important. The present study carries out an external validation of the Shin score in a European multicenter cohort. Methods: An observational multicenter European study from 2010 to 2015. All consecutive patients undergoing surgery for IPMN at 35 hospitals with histological-confirmed IPMN were included. Results: A total of 567 patients were included. The score was significantly associated with the presence of malignancy (p < 0.001). In all, 64% of the patients with benign IPMN had a Shin score < 3 and 57% of those with a diagnosis of malignancy had a score ≥ 3. The relative risk (RR) with a Shin score of 3 was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07-1.77), with a sensitivity of 57.1% and specificity of 64.4%. Conclusion: Patients with a Shin score ≤ 1 should undergo surveillance, while patients with a score ≥ 4 should undergo surgery. Treatment of patients with Shin scores of 2 or 3 should be individualized because these scores cannot accurately predict malignancy of IPMNs. This score should not be the only criterion and should be applied in accordance with agreed clinical guidelines.

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