Recent Submissions

  • The paradox of haemodialysis: the lived experience of the clocked treatment of chronic illness

    Burton, James O; Hull, Katherine L (2024-03)
    Studies exploring the relationship between time and chronic illness have generally focused on measurable aspects of time, also known as linear time. Linear time follows a predictable, sequential order of past, present and future; measured using a clock and predicated on normative assumptions. Sociological concepts addressing lifecourse disruption following diagnosis of chronic illness have served to enhance the understanding of lived experience. To understand the nuanced relationship between time and chronic illness, however, requires further exploration. Here, we show how the implicit assumptions of linear time meet in tension with the lived experience of chronic illness. We draw on interviews and photovoice work with people with end-stage kidney disease in receipt of in-centre-daytime haemodialysis to show how the clocked treatment of chronic illness disrupts experiences of time. Drawing on concepts of 'crip' and 'chronic' time we argue that clocked treatment and the lived experience of chronic illness converge at a paradox whereby clocked treatment allows for the continuation of linear time yet limits freedom. We use the concept of 'crip time' to challenge the normative assumptions implicit within linear concepts of time and argue that the understanding of chronic illness and its treatment would benefit from a 'cripped' starting point.
  • Differences in dietary intake, eating occasion timings and eating windows between chronotypes in adults living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Katsarove, Stanislava; Redman, Emma; Arsenyadis, Franciskos; Brady, Emer M; Davies, Melanie; Hall, Andrew P; Henson, Joseph (2023-09-05)
    Chronotype studies investigating dietary intake, eating occasions (EO) and eating windows (EW) are sparse in people with type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis reports data from the CODEC study. The Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) assessed chronotype preference. Diet diaries assessed dietary intake and temporal distribution. Regression analysis assessed whether dietary intake, EW, or EO differed by chronotype. 411 participants were included in this analysis. There were no differences in energy, macronutrient intake or EW between chronotypes. Compared to evening chronotypes, morning and intermediate chronotypes consumed 36.8 (95% CI: 11.1, 62.5) and 20.9 (95% CI: -2.1, 44.1) fewer milligrams of caffeine per day, respectively. Evening chronotypes woke up over an hour and a half later than morning (01:36 95% CI: 01:09, 02:03) and over half an hour later than intermediate chronotypes (00:45 95% CI: 00:21; 01:09. Evening chronotypes went to sleep over an hour and a half later than morning (01:48 95% CI: 01:23; 02:13) and an hour later than intermediate chronotypes (01:07 95% CI: 00:45; 01:30). Evening chronotypes' EOs and last caffeine intake occurred later but relative to their sleep timings. Future research should investigate the impact of chronotype and dietary temporal distribution on glucose control to optimise T2DM interventions.
  • Ethnic differences in cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in UK healthcare workers: a cross-sectional analysis

    Martin, Christopher; Nazareth, Joshua; Pan, Daniel; Ahmed, Aleem; Bandi, Srini; George, Nisha; Gohar, Marjan; Mangwani, Jitendra; Moorthy, Arumugam; Renals, Valerie; et al. (2023-04-04)
    Background: Few studies have compared SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity by ethnic group. We sought to establish whether cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination differ according to ethnicity in UK Healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis, we used baseline data from two immunological cohort studies conducted in HCWs in Leicester, UK. Blood samples were collected between March 3, and September 16, 2021. We excluded HCW who had not received two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine at the time of sampling and those who had serological evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Outcome measures were SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific total antibody titre, neutralising antibody titre and ELISpot count. We compared our outcome measures by ethnic group using univariable (t tests and rank-sum tests depending on distribution) and multivariable (linear regression for antibody titres and negative binomial regression for ELISpot counts) tests. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, sex, vaccine type, length of interval between vaccine doses and time between vaccine administration and sample collection and expressed as adjusted geometric mean ratios (aGMRs) or adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs). To assess differences in the early immune response to vaccination we also conducted analyses in a subcohort who provided samples between 14 and 50 days after their second dose of vaccine. Findings: The total number of HCWs in each analysis were 401 for anti-spike antibody titres, 345 for neutralising antibody titres and 191 for ELISpot. Overall, 25.4% (19.7% South Asian and 5.7% Black/Mixed/Other) were from ethnic minority groups. In analyses including the whole cohort, neutralising antibody titres were higher in South Asian HCWs than White HCWs (aGMR 1.47, 95% CI [1.06-2.06], P = 0.02) as were T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 S1 peptides (aIRR 1.75, 95% CI [1.05-2.89], P = 0.03). In a subcohort sampled between 14 and 50 days after second vaccine dose, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibody and neutralising antibody geometric mean titre (GMT) was higher in South Asian HCWs compared to White HCWs (9616 binding antibody units (BAU)/ml, 95% CI [7178-12,852] vs 5888 BAU/ml [5023-6902], P = 0.008 and 2851 95% CI [1811-4487] vs 1199 [984-1462], P < 0.001 respectively), increments which persisted after adjustment (aGMR 1.26, 95% CI [1.01-1.58], P = 0.04 and aGMR 2.01, 95% CI [1.34-3.01], P = 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 ELISpot responses to S1 and whole spike peptides (S1 + S2 response) were higher in HCWs from South Asian ethnic groups than those from White groups (S1: aIRR 2.33, 95% CI [1.09-4.94], P = 0.03; spike: aIRR, 2.04, 95% CI [1.02-4.08]). Interpretation: This study provides evidence that, in an infection naïve cohort, humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are stronger in South Asian HCWs than White HCWs. These differences are most clearly seen in the early period following vaccination. Further research is required to understand the underlying mechanisms, whether differences persist with further exposure to vaccine or virus, and the potential impact on vaccine effectiveness. Funding: DIRECT and BELIEVE have received funding from UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) through the COVID-19 National Core Studies Immunity (NCSi) programme (MC_PC_20060).
  • Suitability and allocation of protein-containing foods according to protein tolerance in PKU: A 2022 UK national consensus

    French, Moira (2022-11-24)
    Introduction: There is little practical guidance about suitable food choices for higher natural protein tolerances in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This is particularly important to consider with the introduction of adjunct pharmaceutical treatments that may improve protein tolerance. Aim: To develop a set of guidelines for the introduction of higher protein foods into the diets of patients with PKU who tolerate >10 g/day of protein. Methods: In January 2022, a 26-item food group questionnaire, listing a range of foods containing protein from 5 to >20 g/100 g, was sent to all British Inherited Metabolic Disease Group (BIMDG) dietitians (n = 80; 26 Inherited Metabolic Disease [IMD] centres). They were asked to consider within their IMD dietetic team when they would recommend introducing each of the 26 protein-containing food groups into a patient’s diet who tolerated >10 g to 60 g/day of protein. The patient protein tolerance for each food group that received the majority vote from IMD dietetic teams was chosen as its tolerance threshold for introduction. A virtual meeting was held using Delphi methodology in March 2022 to discuss and agree final consensus. Results: Responses were received from dietitians from 22/26 IMD centres (85%) (11 paediatric, 11 adult). For patients tolerating protein ≥15 g/day, the following foods were agreed for inclusion: gluten-free pastas, gluten-free flours, regular bread, cheese spreads, soft cheese, and lentils in brine; for protein tolerance ≥20 g/day: nuts, hard cheeses, regular flours, meat/fish, and plant-based alternative products (containing 5−10 g/100 g protein), regular pasta, seeds, eggs, dried legumes, and yeast extract spreads were added; for protein tolerance ≥30 g/day: meat/fish and plant-based alternative products (containing >10−20 g/100 g protein) were added; and for protein tolerance ≥40 g/day: meat/fish and plant-based alternatives (containing >20 g/100 g protein) were added. Conclusion: This UK consensus by IMD dietitians from 22 UK centres describes for the first time the suitability and allocation of higher protein foods according to individual patient protein tolerance. It provides valuable guidance for health professionals to enable them to standardize practice and give rational advice to patients.
  • BSACI 2021 guideline for the management of egg allergy

    Ball, Heidi
    This guideline advises on the management of patients with egg allergy. Most commonly egg allergy presents in infancy, with a prevalence of approximately 2% in children and 0.1% in adults. A clear clinical history will confirm the diagnosis in most cases. Investigation by measuring egg-specific IgE (by skin prick testing or specific IgE assay) is useful in moderate-severe cases or where there is diagnostic uncertainty. Following an acute allergic reaction, egg avoidance advice should be provided. Egg allergy usually resolves, and reintroduction can be achieved at home if reactions have been mild and there is no asthma. Patients with a history of severe reactions or asthma should have reintroduction guided by a specialist. All children with egg allergy should receive the MMR vaccine. Most adults and children with egg allergy can receive the influenza vaccine in primary care, unless they have had anaphylaxis to egg requiring intensive care support. Yellow Fever vaccines should only be considered in egg-allergic patients under the guidance of an allergy specialist. This guideline was prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and is intended for allergists and others with a special interest in allergy. The recommendations are evidence based. Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the panel of specialists on the committee. The document encompasses epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and co-morbid associations.
  • Evaluation of an 8-Week vegan diet on plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide and postchallenge glucose in adults with dysglycemia or obesity

    Davies, Melanie; Suzuki, Toru; Smith, Alice (Oxford University Press, 2021-07-01)
    Background: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite generated by the gut in response (in part) to meat consumption, is linked to poor cardiometabolic health. Objectives: We investigate the effect of an 8-week vegan diet, followed by a 4-week period of unrestricted diet, on glucose tolerance and plasma TMAO in human omnivores with obesity or dysglycemia. Methods: This interventional single-group prospective trial involved 23 regular meat eaters with dysglycemia [glycated hemoglobin ≥ 5.7% and ≤8% (39-64 mmol/mol)], or obesity (ΒΜΙ ≥ 30 kg/m2) aged 57.8 ± 10.0 years. Participants [14 men (60.9%) and 9 women (39.1%)] were supported in following a vegan diet for 8 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of unrestricted diet. The primary outcomes (plasma TMAO and glucose) were assessed at baseline, during the vegan diet (weeks 1 and 8), and after the unrestricted diet period (week 12). TMAO was assessed after fasting and glucose was measured as a time-averaged total AUC using a 180-minute oral-glucose-tolerance test. Generalized estimating equation models with an exchangeable correlation structure were used to assess changes from baseline, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and weight. Results: TMAO levels (marginal mean) were reduced after weeks 1 and 8 of a vegan diet compared to baseline, from 10.7 (97.5% CI, 6.61-17.3) μmol/L to 5.66 (97.5% CI, 4.56-7.02) μmol/L and 6.38 (97.5% CI, 5.25-7.74) μmol/L, respectively; however, levels rebounded at week 12 after resumption of an unrestricted diet (17.5 μmol/L; 97.5% CI, 7.98-38.4). Postprandial glucose levels (marginal means) were reduced after weeks 1 and 8 compared to baseline, from 8.07 (97.5% CI, 7.24-8.90) mmol/L to 7.14 (97.5% CI, 6.30-7.98) mmol/L and 7.34 (97.5% CI, 6.63-8.04) mmol/L, respectively. Results for glucose and TMAO were independent of weight loss. Improvements in the lipid profile and markers of renal function were observed at week 8. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a vegan diet is an effective strategy for improving glucose tolerance and reducing plasma TMAO in individuals with dysglycemia or obesity. This study was registered at as NCT03315988.