Recent Submissions

  • Bi-atrial thrombus straddling a patent foramen ovale with bilateral embolization: A therapeutic challenge

    Dattani, Abhishek; Safwan, Kassem; Ansari, Mohammedimran; Somani, Riyaz (2022-01)
    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality across the world and a significant portion of ischemic strokes have a cardiac source. We report a case of a 55-year-old male who presented with an ischemic stroke and bilateral pulmonary emboli secondary to an intra-cardiac thrombus straddling a patent foramen ovale, which was clearly seen using transesophageal echocardiography. We discuss the management dilemma associated with this clinical picture given the risk of hemorrhagic transformation in the acute phase of an ischemic stroke. Our case demonstrates the need for a multidisciplinary approach in an area of medicine that lacks clear guidelines.
  • Predictors and Outcomes of Neurological Deterioration in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Results from the TICH-2 Randomized Controlled Trial

    Mistri, Amit
    Neurological deterioration is common after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to identify the predictors and effects of neurological deterioration and whether tranexamic acid reduced the risk of neurological deterioration. Data from the Tranexamic acid in IntraCerebral Hemorrhage-2 (TICH-2) randomized controlled trial were analyzed. Neurological deterioration was defined as an increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of ≥ 4 or a decline in Glasgow Coma Scale of ≥ 2. Neurological deterioration was considered to be early if it started ≤ 48 h and late if commenced between 48 h and 7 days after onset. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors and effects of neurological deterioration and the effect of tranexamic acid on neurological deterioration. Of 2325 patients, 735 (31.7%) had neurological deterioration: 590 (80.3%) occurred early and 145 (19.7%) late. Predictors of early neurological deterioration included recruitment from the UK, previous ICH, higher admission systolic blood pressure, higher NIHSS, shorter onset-to-CT time, larger baseline hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid extension and antiplatelet therapy. Older age, male sex, higher NIHSS, previous ICH and larger baseline hematoma predicted late neurological deterioration. Neurological deterioration was independently associated with a modified Rankin Scale of > 3 (aOR 4.98, 3.70-6.70; p < 0.001). Tranexamic acid reduced the risk of early (aOR 0.79, 0.63-0.99; p = 0.041) but not late neurological deterioration (aOR 0.76, 0.52-1.11; p = 0.15). Larger hematoma size, intraventricular and subarachnoid extension increased the risk of neurological deterioration. Neurological deterioration increased the risk of death and dependency at day 90. Tranexamic acid reduced the risk of early neurological deterioration and warrants further investigation in ICH.
  • Investigating the association between depression and cerebral haemodynamics-A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Chithiramohan, Tamara; Parekh, Jvalant; Minhas, Jatinder; Robinson, Thompson; Divall, Pip; Beishon, Lucy
    Background: Vascular mechanisms may play a role in depression. The aim of this review is to summarise the evidence on alterations in cerebral haemodynamics in depression. Methods: MEDLINE (1946- present), Embase (1947-present), Web of Science (1970-present), PsycINFO (1984-present), CINAHL (1976-present) and CENTRAL were searched using a predefined search strategy. A meta-analysis was conducted in four groups: 1) global cerebral blood flow (CBF) in ml/min/100 g, 2) CBF velocity (CBFv) in cm/s (maximum flow of left middle cerebral artery, 3) combined CBF and CBFv, 4) Ratio of uptake of Tc 99 m HMPAO (region of interest compared to whole brain). Data are presented as mean difference or standardised mean difference and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A narrative synthesis of the remaining studies was performed. Results: 87 studies were included. CBF was significantly reduced in depressed patients compared to HC [15 studies, 538 patients, 416 HC, MD: -2.24 (95% CI -4.12, -0.36), p = 0.02, I2 = 64%]. There were no statistically significant differences in other parameters. The narrative synthesis revealed variable changes in CBF in depressed patients, particularly affecting the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices. Limitations: There were various sources of heterogeneity including the severity of depression, use of antidepressant medication, imaging modality used and reporting of outcomes. All of these factors made direct comparisons between studies difficult. Conclusions: The reduction in CBF in depressed patients compared to HCs may indicate a role for assessment and CBF altering interventions in high-risk groups. However, results were inconsistent across studies, warranting further work to investigate specific subgroups.
  • Review of major trials of acute blood pressure management in stroke

    Robinson, Thompson; Minhas, Jatinder
    Over the last two decades, there have been a number of major landmark clinical trials, classified as "major" as they sought to address clear clinical practice driven questions, in a pragmatic yet robust trial design, using a large powered sample size (n > 1000), in order to help improve patient outcome through informing guidelines. A commonality across all stroke sub-types included in these trials is the tendency to acute hypertensive crises within the acute stroke period. This phenomenon is associated with greater stroke complications and worsened overall prognosis. Multiple trials have attempted to address the issue of acute blood pressure management during the acute stroke period, with consideration for timing, magnitude of lowering, agent and relationship to other interventions. This review will consider the major clinical trials performed in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke that test the hypothesis that acute BP reduction improves clinical outcomes.
  • Cerebral autoregulation in hemorrhagic stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography studies

    Minhas, Jatinder S; Ghaly, George; Divall, Pip; Robinson, Thompson (2019-01)
    Purpose: International guidelines advocate intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering within 6 hours of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) to a target systolic BP of 130-140 mm Hg, though more intensive lowering may be associated with adverse outcome. Observational studies suggest impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA) following ICH. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD), alongside continuous BP monitoring, provides a noninvasive bedside investigation that offers detailed perspectives on physiological perturbations post-acute ICH. This systematic review and meta-analysis focuses on all TCD studies of CA in ICH. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched for studies of hemorrhagic stroke and blood flow measurement. Results: Eight studies met inclusion criteria (293 ICH patients); CA was impaired up to 12-days post-acute ICH. Impaired CA was evidenced by reduced transfer function analysis phase and higher mean flow correlation values: these were associated with worsened clinical parameters including ICH-volume and Glasgow Coma Scale. Meta-analysis of CBV demonstrated that, compared to controls, mean CBV was significantly lower in the ipsilateral (49.7 vs 64.8 cm s-1 , Z = 4.26, P < .0001) and contralateral hemispheres following ICH (51.5 vs 64.8 cm s-1 , Z = 3.44, P = .0006). Conclusion: Lower mean CBV in combination with impaired CA may have implications for more intensive BP lowering and warrants further studies examining such strategies on cerebral blood flow and its regulatory mechanisms.
  • Therapeutic variation in lowering blood pressure: effects of intracranial pressure in acute intracerebral haemorrhage.

    Kadicheeni, Meeriam; Robinson, Thompson; Minhas, Jatinder S; Divall, Pip
    Introduction: Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Blood pressure (BP) control is one of the main management strategies in acute ICH. Limited data currently exist regarding intracranial pressure (ICP) in acute ICH. The relationship between BP lowering and ICP is yet to be fully elucidated. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to investigate the effects of BP lowering on ICP in acute ICH. The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019134470). Results: Following PRISMA guidelines, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were searched for studies on ICH with BP and ICP or surrogate measures. 1096 articles were identified after duplicates were removed; 18 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were the most common agent used to lower BP, but had a varying effect on ICP. Other BP-lowering agents used also had a varying effect on ICP. Discussion and conclusion: Further work, including large observational or randomized interventional studies, is needed to develop a better understanding of the effect of BP lowering on ICP in acute ICH, which will assist the development of more effective management strategies. Trial registration: The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019134470) on 29/05/2019.