Recent Submissions

  • Survey on the impact of COVID19 in patients on immunosuppression for ocular and orbital inflammatory disorders

    Thomas, Mervyn; Kumar, Periyasamy; Islam, Tahir; Sivagnanasithiyar, Tharsica; Betteridge, Carol; Moorthy, Arumugam; Kapoor, Bharat
  • Lifestyle modification and inflammation in people with axial spondyloarthropathy-A scoping review

    Moorthy, Arumugam
    Introduction: People with axial spondyloarthritis (AS) have an inflammatory profile, increasing the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidaemia. Consequently, AS is linked with co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical inactivity, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity influence inflammation, but knowledge of the interaction between these with inflammation, disease activity, and CVD risk in AS is dominated by cross-sectional research. Methods: A review of the literature was conducted between July 2020 and December 2021. The focus of the scoping review is to summarise longitudinal and randomised control trials in humans to investigate how tracking or modifying lifestyle influences inflammation and disease burden in patients with AS. KEY MESSAGES: (1) Lifestyle modifications, especially increased physical activity (PA), exercise, and smoking cessation, are critical in managing AS. (2) Smoking is negatively associated with patient reported outcome measures with AS, plus pharmaceutical treatment adherence, but links with structural radiographic progression are inconclusive. (3) Paucity of data warrant structured studies measuring inflammatory cytokine responses to lifestyle modification in AS. Conclusion: Increased PA, exercise, and smoking cessation should be supported at every given opportunity to improve health outcomes in patients with AS. The link between smoking and radiographic progression needs further investigation. Studies investigating the longitudinal effect of body weight, alcohol, and psychosocial factors on disease activity and physical function in patients with AS are needed. Given the link between inflammation and AS, future studies should also incorporate markers of chronic inflammation beyond the standard C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate measurements.
  • Toxic epidermal necrolysis-like lupus

    Roberts, Elizabeth; Melchionda, Veronica; Saldanha, Gerald; Shaffu, Shireen; Royle, Jeremy; Harman, Karen
    Toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN)-like lupus is a rare condition characterized by epidermal loss and mucosal ulceration occurring in patients with acute severe flares of systemic lupus erythematosus. The clinical picture may mimic drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome/TEN; however, the absence of a suitable culprit drug, and the context of acute lupus point to the correct diagnosis. In a case series of three patients, further discriminating features included a slower onset of epidermal loss, more limited mucosal ulceration and a lack of ocular involvement when compared with drug-induced TEN. Histology may show similar features, including basal layer vacuolation, apoptosis and full-thickness epidermal necrosis. Patients with TEN-like lupus may have additional features of lupus, and a lupus band on direct immunofluorescence. It is important to identify this condition correctly, so that these patients can be appropriately managed with early input from Rheumatologists and prompt treatment with high-dose combined immunosuppressant therapy.