Collections in this community

Recent Submissions

  • Timing of elective surgery and risk assessment after SARS-CoV-2 infection: an update: A multidisciplinary consensus statement on behalf of the Association of Anaesthetists, Centre for Perioperative Care, Federation of Surgical Specialty Associations, Royal College of Anaesthetists, Royal College of Surgeons of England

    Summerton, Duncan (2022)
    The impact of vaccination and new SARS-CoV-2 variants on peri-operative outcomes is unclear. We aimed to update previously published consensus recommendations on timing of elective surgery after SARS-CoV-2 infection to assist policymakers, administrative staff, clinicians and patients. The guidance remains that patients should avoid elective surgery within 7 weeks of infection, unless the benefits of doing so exceed the risk of waiting. We recommend individualised multidisciplinary risk assessment for patients requiring elective surgery within 7 weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This should include baseline mortality risk calculation and assessment of risk modifiers (patient factors; SARS-CoV-2 infection; surgical factors). Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection with previous variants increased peri-operative mortality risk three-fold throughout the 6 weeks after infection, and assumptions that asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic omicron SARS-CoV-2 infection does not add risk are currently unfounded. Patients with persistent symptoms and those with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 may require a longer delay than 7 weeks. Elective surgery should not take place within 10 days of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, predominantly because the patient may be infectious, which is a risk to surgical pathways, staff and other patients. We now emphasise that timing of surgery should include the assessment of baseline and increased risk, optimising vaccination and functional status, and shared decision-making. While these recommendations focus on the omicron variant and current evidence, the principles may also be of relevance to future variants. As further data emerge, these recommendations may be revised.
  • Pre-induction Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Gastric Residual Volume in Elective Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgeries

    Rana, Meenal
    Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during elective surgery remains a major cause of airway-related mortality and morbidity. The preoperative fasting times for solids and liquids have been standardized across various anesthesia society guidelines. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) guidelines now advocate liberal clear fluid intake with carbohydrate loading up to 2 h preoperatively. The aim of the study was to assess whether practicing both ASA fasting guidelines and ERAS protocol makes the patients prone to a full stomach. The supine position standard curvilinear ultrasound probe (2-5 MHz) with Sonosite M-Turbo ©system was used to obtain the images. Gastric residual volume (GRV) was derived from the cross-sectional area (CSA) using the Perlas and colleagues model. A total of 102 patients were recruited and analyzed. The mean age and BMI were 50.65 years ± 13.35 years and 22.23 kg/m2 ± 3.7 kg/m2, respectively. A total of four patients (3.92%) had gastric volume > 1.5 ml/kg; out of these four patients, three were female and one was male. We did not observe any case of pulmonary aspiration in any of our patients. In conclusion, even though for elective surgeries, the current fasting guidelines are adequate, these findings cannot be extrapolated to patients with risk factors for high gastric residual volume where further studies need to be performed.
  • Retrospective observational study of patient outcomes with local wound infusion vs epidural analgesia after open hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery

    Issa, Eyad; Isherwood, john; Graff-Baker, Philippa; Garcea, Giuseppe
    Background: Epidural analgesia is conventionally used as the mainstay of analgesia in open abdominal surgery but has a small life-changing risk of complications (epidural abscesses or haematomas). Local wound-infusion could be a viable alternative and are associated with fewer adverse effects. Methods: A retrospective observational analysis of individuals undergoing open hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery over 1 year was undertaken. Patients either received epidural analgesia (EP) or continuous wound infusion (WI) + IV patient controlled anaesthesisa (PCA) with an intraoperative spinal opiate. Outcomes analyzed included length of stay, commencement of oral diet and opioid use. Results: Between Jan 2016- Dec 2016, 110 patients were analyzed (WI n=35, EP n=75). The median length of stay (days) was 8 in both the WI and EP group (p=0.846), the median time to commencing oral diet (days) was 3 in WI group and 2 in EP group (p=0.455). There was no significant difference in the amount of oromorph, codeine or tramadol (mg) between WI and EP groups (p=0.829, p=0.531, p=0.073, respectively). Conclusions: Continuous wound infusion + IV PCA provided adequate analgesia to patients undergoing open hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery. It was non-inferior to epidural analgesia with respect to hospital stay, commencement of oral diet and opioid use.
  • Impact of major bleeding and thrombosis on 180-day survival in patients with severe COVID-19 supported with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the United Kingdom: a multicentre observational study

    Isgro, Graziella; Yusuff, Hakeem (2022-02)
    Bleeding and thrombosis are major complications in patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In this multicentre observational study of 152 consecutive patients (≥18 years) with severe COVID-19 supported by veno-venous (VV) ECMO in four UK commissioned centres during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (1 March to 31 May 2020), we assessed the incidence of major bleeding and thrombosis and their association with 180-day mortality. Median age (range) was 47 years (23-65) and 75% were male. Overall, the 180-day survival was 70·4% (107/152). The rate of major bleeding was 30·9% (47/152), of which intracranial bleeding (ICH) was 34% (16/47). There were 96 thrombotic events (63·1%) consisting of venous 44·7% [68/152 of which 66·2% were pulmonary embolism (PE)], arterial 18·6% (13/152) and ECMO circuit thrombosis 9·9% (15/152). In multivariate analysis, only raised lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at the initiation of VV ECMO was associated with an increased risk of thrombosis [hazard ratio (HR) 1·92, 95% CI 1·21-3·03]. Major bleeding and ICH were associated with 3·87-fold (95% CI 2·10-7·23) and 5·97-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·36-15·04] increased risk of mortality and PE with a 2·00-fold (95% CI1·09-3·56) risk of mortality. This highlights the difficult balancing act often encountered when managing coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO.