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  • Best practice recommendations for medically assisted reproduction in patients with known cardiovascular disease or at high risk of cardiovascular disease

    Elton, Chris (2023-12)
    Increasing numbers of people are seeking assisted conception. In people with known cardiac disease or risk factors for cardiac disease, assisted conception may carry increased risks during treatment and any subsequent pregnancy. These risks should be assessed, considered and minimized prior to treatment.
  • Twenty-four-hour physical behaviour profiles across type 2 diabetes mellitus subtypes

    Davies, Melanie J; Hall, Andrew P; Henson, Joseph (2024-01-08)
    Aim: To investigate how 24-h physical behaviours differ across type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subtypes. Materials and methods: We included participants living with T2DM, enrolled as part of an ongoing observational study. Participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days to quantify physical behaviours across 24 h. We used routinely collected clinical data (age at onset of diabetes, glycated haemoglobin level, homeostatic model assessment index of beta-cell function, homeostatic model assessment index of insulin resistance, body mass index) to replicate four previously identified subtypes (insulin-deficient diabetes [INS-D], insulin-resistant diabetes [INS-R], obesity-related diabetes [OB] and age-related diabetes [AGE]), via k-means clustering. Differences in physical behaviours across the diabetes subtypes were assessed using generalized linear models, with the AGE cluster as the reference. Results: A total of 564 participants were included in this analysis (mean age 63.6 ± 8.4 years, 37.6% female, mean age at diagnosis 53.1 ± 10.0 years). The proportions in each cluster were as follows: INS-D: n = 35, 6.2%; INS-R: n = 88, 15.6%; OB: n = 166, 29.4%; and AGE: n = 275, 48.8%. Compared to the AGE cluster, the OB cluster had a shorter sleep duration (-0.3 h; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.5, -0.1), lower sleep efficiency (-2%; 95% CI -3, -1), lower total physical activity (-2.9 mg; 95% CI -4.3, -1.6) and less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (-6.6 min; 95% CI -11.4, -1.7), alongside greater sleep variability (17.9 min; 95% CI 8.2, 27.7) and longer sedentary time (31.9 min; 95% CI 10.5, 53.2). Movement intensity during the most active continuous 10 and 30 min of the day was also lower in the OB cluster. Conclusions: In individuals living with T2DM, the OB subtype had the lowest levels of physical activity and least favourable sleep profiles. Such behaviours may be suitable targets for personalized therapeutic lifestyle interventions.
  • Independent sector and peri-operative cardiac arrest as reported to the 7th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists

    Bouch, C (2024-01-04)
    The 7th National Audit Project (NAP7) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists studied peri-operative cardiac arrest including those that occurred in the independent healthcare sector, which provides around 1 in 6 NHS-funded care episodes. In total, 174 (39%) of 442 independent hospitals contacted agreed to participate. A survey examining provider preparedness for cardiac arrest had a response rate of 23 (13%), preventing useful analysis. An activity survey with 1912 responses (from a maximum of 45% of participating hospitals) showed that, compared with the NHS caseload, the independent sector caseload was less comorbid, with fewer patients at the extremes of age or who were severely obese, and with a large proportion of elective orthopaedic surgery undertaken during weekday working hours. The survey suggested suboptimal compliance rates with monitoring recommendations. Seventeen reports of independent sector peri-operative cardiac arrest comprised 2% of NAP7 reports and underreporting is likely. These patients were lower risk than NHS cases, reflecting the sector's case mix, but included cases of haemorrhage, anaphylaxis, cardiac arrhythmia and pulmonary embolus. Good and poor quality care were seen, the latter including delayed recognition and treatment of patient deterioration, and poor care delivery. Independent sector outcomes were similar to those in the NHS, though due to the case mix, improved outcomes might be anticipated. Assessment of quality of care was less often favourable for independent sector reports than NHS reports, though assessments were often uncertain, reflecting poor quality reports. Overall, NAP7 is unable to determine whether peri-operative care relating to cardiac arrest is more, equally or less safe than in the NHS.
  • Management of acute cervical spinal cord injury in the non-specialist intensive care unit: a narrative review of current evidence

    Wynn-Hebden, A (2024-02)
    Each year approximately one million people suffer spinal cord injury, which has significant physical, psychosocial and economic impacts on patients and their families. Spinal cord rehabilitation centres are a well-established part of the care pathway for patients with spinal cord injury and facilitate improvements in functional independence and reductions in healthcare costs. Within the UK, however, there are a limited number of spinal cord injury centres, which delays admission. Patients and their families often perceive that they are not receiving specialist care while being treated in non-specialist units. This review aimed to provide clinicians who work in non-specialist spinal injury centres with a summary of contemporary studies relevant to the critical care management of patients with cervical spinal cord injury. We undertook a targeted literature review including guidelines, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials and randomised controlled trials published in English between 1 June 2017 and 1 June 2023. Studies involving key clinical management strategies published before this time, but which have not been updated or repeated, were also included. We then summarised the key management themes: acute critical care management approaches (including ventilation strategies, blood pressure management and tracheostomy insertion); respiratory weaning techniques; management of pain and autonomic dysreflexia; and rehabilitation.
  • Baseline haemoglobin variability by measurement technique in pregnant people on the day of childbirth

    McMahon, Orlaith (2023-11-21)
    Point-of-care haemoglobin measurement devices may play an important role in the antenatal detection of anaemia in pregnant people and may be useful in guiding blood transfusion during resuscitation in obstetric haemorrhage. We compared baseline haemoglobin variability of venous and capillary HemoCue® haemoglobin, and Masimo® Rad-67 Pulse CO-Oximeter haemoglobin with laboratory haemoglobin in people on the day of their planned vaginal birth. A total of 180 people undergoing planned vaginal birth were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Laboratory haemoglobin was compared with HemoCue and Masimo Rad-67 Pulse CO-Oximeter measurements using Bland-Altman analysis, calculating mean difference (bias) and limits of agreement. Five (2.8%) people had anaemia (haemoglobin < 110 g.l-1 ). Laboratory haemoglobin and HemoCue venous haemoglobin comparison showed an acceptable bias (SD) 0.7 (7.54) g.l-1 (95%CI -0.43-1.79), with limits of agreement -14.10-15.46 g.l-1 and acceptable agreement range of 29.6 g.l-1 . Laboratory and HemoCue capillary haemoglobin comparison showed an unacceptable bias (SD) 13.3 (14.12) g.l-1 (95%CI 11.17-15.34), with limits of agreement - 14.42-40.93 g.l-1 and unacceptable agreement range of 55.3 g.l-1 . Laboratory and Masimo haemoglobin comparison showed an unacceptable bias (SD) -14.0 (11.15) g.l-1 (95%CI -15.63 to -12.34), with limits of agreement to -35.85 to 7.87 g.l-1 and acceptable agreement range of 43.7 g.l-1 . Venous HemoCue, with its acceptable bias and limits of agreement, should be applied more widely in the antenatal setting to detect, manage and risk stratify pregnant people with anaemia. HemoCue capillary measurement under-estimated haemoglobin and Masimo haemoglobin measurement over-estimated, limiting their clinical use. Serial studies are needed to determine if the accuracy of venous HemoCue haemoglobin measurement is sustained in other obstetric settings.
  • Robotic-assisted surgery in high-risk surgical patients with endometrial cancer

    Moss, Esther (2023-11-04)
    Many patients diagnosed with an endometrial cancer are at high-risk for surgery due to factors such as advanced age, raised body mass index or frailty. Minimally-invasive surgery, in particular robotic-assisted, is increasingly used in the surgical management of endometrial cancer however, there are a lack of clinical trials investigating outcomes in high-risk patient populations. This article will review the current evidence and identify areas of uncertainty where future research is needed.
  • Thrombosis, major bleeding, and survival in COVID-19 supported by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the first vs second wave: a multicenter observational study in the United Kingdom

    Isgro, Graziella; Yusuff, Hakeem (2023-10)
    Background: Bleeding and thrombosis are major complications of veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Objectives: To assess thrombosis, major bleeding (MB), and 180-day survival in patients supported by VV-ECMO between the first (March 1 to May 31, 2020) and second (June 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021) waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An observational study of 309 consecutive patients (aged ≥18years) with severe COVID-19 supported by VV-ECMO was performed in 4 nationally commissioned ECMO centers in the United Kingdom. Results: Median age was 48 (19-75) years, and 70.6% were male. Probabilities of survival, thrombosis, and MB at 180 days in the overall cohort were 62.5% (193/309), 39.8% (123/309), and 30% (93/309), respectively. In multivariate analysis, an age of >55 years (hazard ratio [HR], 2.29; 95% CI, 1.33-3.93; P = .003) and an elevated creatinine level (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.19-3.08; P = .008) were associated with increased mortality. Correction for duration of VV-ECMO support, arterial thrombosis alone (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9; P = .002) or circuit thrombosis alone (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.4-6.3; P < .001) but not venous thrombosis increased mortality. MB during ECMO had a 3-fold risk (95% CI, 2.6-5.8, P < .001) of mortality. The first wave cohort had more males (76.7% vs 64%; P = .014), higher 180-day survival (71.1% vs 53.3%; P = .003), more venous thrombosis alone (46.4% vs 29.2%; P = .02), and lower circuit thrombosis (9.2% vs 28.1%; P < .001). The second wave cohort received more steroids (121/150 [80.6%] vs 86/159 [54.1%]; P < .0001) and tocilizumab (20/150 [13.3%] vs 4/159 [2.5%]; P = .005). Conclusion: MB and thrombosis are frequent complications in patients on VV-ECMO and significantly increase mortality. Arterial thrombosis alone or circuit thrombosis alone increased mortality, while venous thrombosis alone had no effect. MB during ECMO support increased mortality by 3.9-fold.
  • Mechanisms of acute right ventricular injury in cardiothoracic surgical and critical care settings: part 2

    Yusuff, Hakeem; Zochios, Vasileios (22/07/2023)
    The right ventricle (RV) is intricately linked in the clinical presentation of critical illness; however, the basis of this is not well-understood and has not been studied as extensively as the left ventricle. There has been an increased awareness of the need to understand how the RV is affected in different critical illness states. In addition, the increased use of point-of-care echocardiography in the critical care setting has allowed for earlier identification and monitoring of the RV in a patient who is critically ill. The first part of this review describes and characterizes the RV in different perioperative states. This second part of the review discusses and analyzes the complex pathophysiologic relationships between the RV and different critical care states. There is a lack of a universal RV injury definition because it represents a range of abnormal RV biomechanics and phenotypes. The term "RV injury" (RVI) has been used to describe a spectrum of presentations, which includes diastolic dysfunction (early injury), when the RV retains the ability to compensate, to RV failure (late or advanced injury). Understanding the mechanisms leading to functional 'uncoupling' between the RV and the pulmonary circulation may enable perioperative physicians, intensivists, and researchers to identify clinical phenotypes of RVI. This, consequently, may provide the opportunity to test RV-centric hypotheses and potentially individualize therapies.
  • Thombosis, major bleeding, and survival in COVID-19 supported by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the first vs second wave: a multicenter observational study in the United Kingdom

    Yusuff, Hakeem; Isgro, Graziella (2023-07-07)
    Background: Bleeding and thrombosis are major complications of veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Objectives: To assess thrombosis, major bleeding (MB), and 180-day survival in patients supported by VV-ECMO between the first (March 1 to May 31, 2020) and second (June 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021) waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An observational study of 309 consecutive patients (aged ≥ 18years) with severe COVID-19 supported by VV-ECMO was performed in 4 nationally commissioned ECMO centers in the United Kingdom. Results: Median age was 48 (19-75) years, and 70.6% were male. Probabilities of survival, thrombosis, and MB at 180 days in the overall cohort were 62.5% (193/309), 39.8% (123/309), and 30% (93/309), respectively. In multivariate analysis, an age of >55 years (hazard ratio [HR], 2.29; 95% CI, 1.33-3.93; P = .003) and an elevated creatinine level (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.19-3.08; P = .008) were associated with increased mortality. Correction for duration of VV-ECMO support, arterial thrombosis alone (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9; P = .002) or circuit thrombosis alone (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.4-6.3; P < .001) but not venous thrombosis increased mortality. MB during ECMO had a 3-fold risk (95% CI, 2.6-5.8, P < .001) of mortality. The first wave cohort had more males (76.7% vs 64%; P = .014), higher 180-day survival (71.1% vs 53.3%; P = .003), more venous thrombosis alone (46.4% vs 29.2%; P = .02), and lower circuit thrombosis (9.2% vs 28.1%; P < .001). The second wave cohort received more steroids (121/150 [80.6%] vs 86/159 [54.1%]; P < .0001) and tocilizumab (20/150 [13.3%] vs 4/159 [2.5%]; P = .005). Conclusion: MB and thrombosis are frequent complications in patients on VV-ECMO and significantly increase mortality. Arterial thrombosis alone or circuit thrombosis alone increased mortality, while venous thrombosis alone had no effect. MB during ECMO support increased mortality by 3.9-fold.
  • Anesthetic challenges of pregnant obesity women

    Knight, Georgia; Mushambi, Mary (2023-08-11)
    Obesity causes significant morbidity and increases the mortality risk for both mother and fetus. With an increasing projected prevalence, it is vital that the obstetric anesthetist is equipped with the knowledge and tools to manage these women. A multi-disciplinary team approach and early planning is required. Neuraxial analgesia for labor helps to negate the need for general anesthesia, which is associated with increased risk in this subset of women. Catheter techniques for neuraxial anesthesia allow for titration, manipulation, and prolongation of the anesthetic block to reduce the risk of conversion to general anesthesia.
  • Duration of type 2 diabetes and incidence of cancer: an observational study in England

    Zaccardi, Francesco; Brown, Karen; Davies, Melanie (2023-08-28)
    Objective: To investigate the association between duration of type 2 diabetes and cancer incidence. Research design and methods: In the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database, we identified 130,764 individuals with type 2 diabetes aged ≥35 years at diagnosis who were linked to hospital and mortality records. We used sex-stratified Royston-Parmar models with two time scales to estimate incidence rates of all cancers, the four commonest cancers in the United Kingdom (colorectal, lung, prostate, breast), and the obesity-related cancers (e.g., liver, ovary) between 1 January 1998 and 14 January 2019, by age and diabetes duration. Results: During 1,089,923 person-years, 18,977 incident cancers occurred. At the same age, rates of all cancers in men and women did not vary across durations ranging from diagnosis to 20 years; conversely, for any duration, there was a strong, positive association between age and cancer rates. In men, the rate ratio (95% CI) comparing 20 with 5 years of duration was 1.18 (0.82-1.69) at 60 years of age and 0.90 (0.75-1.08) at 80 years; corresponding ratios in women were 1.07 (0.71-1.63) and 0.84 (0.66-1.05). This pattern was observed also for the four commonest cancers. For obesity-related cancers, although rates were generally higher in individuals with a higher BMI, there was no association with duration at any level of BMI. Conclusions: In this study, we did not find evidence of an association between duration of type 2 diabetes and risk of cancer, with the higher risk observed for longer durations related to ageing.
  • Con: artificial intelligence-derived algorithms to guide perioperative blood management decision making

    Yusuff, Hakeem; Zochios, Vasileios (2023-10)
    Artificial intelligence has the potential to improve the care that is given to patients; however, the predictive models created are only as good as the base data used in their design. Perioperative blood management presents a complex clinical conundrum in which significant variability and the unstructured nature of the required data make it difficult to develop precise prediction models. There is a potential need for training clinicians to ensure they can interrogate the system and override when errors occur. Current systems created to predict perioperative blood transfusion are not generalizable across clinical settings, and there is a considerable cost implication required to research and develop artificial intelligence systems that would disadvantage resource-poor health systems. In addition, a lack of strong regulation currently means it is difficult to prevent bias.
  • Effectiveness of intermediate cervical plexus block in whiplash-associated disorder: a prospective observational trial in fifty patients

    Lee, Hayun; Shruti, Niraj; Kukreja, Yuvraj; Niraj, G (2023-07)
    Background: Whiplash trauma can result in a range of symptoms, including chronic neck pain, headache, facial pain, upper back pain, and tinnitus, which comprises whiplash-associated disorder (WAD). Intermediate cervical plexus block (iCPB) is a novel intervention that targets the upper cervical nerves and anecdotal reports suggest benefits in WAD. Objectives: We hypothesized that the cervical plexus may have a role in the pathogenesis of WAD and blocking the cervical plexus may provide analgesia. Study design: Prospective observational trial. Setting: Tertiary pain medicine unit at a university teaching hospital. Methods: Adult patients who presented with refractory chronic neck pain following whiplash were included in a prospective observational trial. The pragmatic trial studied the effectiveness of 2 sequential cervical plexus blocks (iCPB with local anesthetic [iCPB-LA] and iCPB with steroid and LA mixture [iCPB-Steroid]) in refractory chronic neck pain following whiplash. Patients who reported < 50% relief at 12 weeks after iCPB-LA were offered iCPB-Steroid. Primary outcome was "neck pain at its worst in the last 24 hours" at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included change in neck disability index, employment status, and mood. Results: After excluding cervical zygapophyseal joint dysfunction, 50 patients underwent the iCPB-LA between June 2020 and August 2022. Five patients reported > 50% relief (durable relief) at 12 weeks and 3 patients were lost to follow-up. Forty-two patients received iCPB-Steroid. iCPB-Steroid was associated with significant reduction in neck pain, neck disability, and improvement in mood at 12 weeks when compared to the block with LA. In addition, iCPB-Steroid was associated with significant reduction in neck pain and disability at 24 weeks. Due to functional improvement, 34 patients (34/50, 78%) were able to maintain employment. Limitations: This is an open-label, observational, single-center study in a limited cohort under a single physician. Cervical facet joint dysfunction was ruled out clinically and radiologically. Conclusions: Cervical plexus may play a central role in the pathogenesis of WAD. iCPB could potentially be a treatment option in this cohort. Keywords: chronic headache; neck pain; trigemino-cervical complex; whiplash; whiplash-associated disorder; Intermediate cervical plexus block. Publication types
  • Pulling the plug on a pseudomonas outbreak: ancillary equipment as vectors of infection

    Veater, James; Manning, Claire; Mellon, John; Collins, Elizabeth; Jenkins, David (2023-08-08)
    Objectives: Outbreaks of infection related to flexible endoscopes are well described. However, flexible endoscopy also requires the use of ancillary equipment such as irrigation plugs. These are potential vectors of infection but are infrequently highlighted in the literature. We report a cystoscopy associated outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from contaminated irrigation plugs, in a UK tertiary care centre. Methods: Laboratory, clinical, and decontamination unit records were reviewed, and audits of the decontamination unit were performed. The flexible cystoscopes and irrigation plugs were assessed for contamination. Retrospective and prospective case finding was performed utilising the microbiology laboratory information management system. Available P.aeruginosa isolates underwent Variable Nucleotide Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing. Confirmed cases were defined as P.aeruginosa infection with an identical VNTR profile to an outbreak strain. Results: Three strains of P.aeruginosa were isolated from five irrigation plugs, but none of the flexible cystoscopes. No acquired resistance mechanisms were detected. Fifteen confirmed infections occurred, including bacteraemia, septic arthritis and urinary tract infection. While failure of decontamination likely occurred because the plugs were not dismantled prior to reprocessing, the manufacturer's reprocessing instructions were also incompatible with standard UK practice. The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) were informed. A field safety notice was issued, and the manufacturer issued updated reprocessing instructions. Conclusions: Ancillary equipment are important vectors for infection, and should be considered during outbreakinvestigations. Users should review the manufacturer's instructions for reprocessing ancillary equipment to ensure they are compatible with available procedures.
  • The use of processed electroencephalography (pEEG) in obstetric anaesthesia: a narrative review

    Corner, Henry (2023-03-06)
    Accidental awareness under general anaesthesia (AAGA) remains a major complication of anaesthesia. The incidence of AAGA during obstetric anaesthesia is high relative to other specialities. The use of processed electroencephalography (pEEG) in the form of "depth of anaesthesia" monitoring has been shown to reduce the incidence of AAGA in the non-obstetric population. The evidence for using pEEG to prevent AAGA in the obstetric population is poor and requires further exploration. Furthermore, pregnancy and disease states affecting the central nervous system, such as pre-eclampsia, may alter the interpretation of pEEG waveforms although this has not been fully characterised. National guidelines exist for pEEG monitoring with total intravenous anaesthesia and for "high-risk" cases regardless of technique, including the obstetric population. However, none of the currently available guidelines relates specifically to obstetric anaesthesia. Using pEEG monitoring for obstetric anaesthesia may also provide additional benefits beyond a reduction in risk of AAGA. These potential benefits include reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduced anaesthetic agent use, and a shorter post-anaesthetic recovery stay. In addition, pEEG acts as a surrogate marker of cerebral perfusion, and thus as an additional monitor for impending cardiovascular collapse, as seen in amniotic fluid embolism. The subtle physiological and pathological changes in EEG activity that may occur during pregnancy are an unexplored research area in the context of anaesthetic pEEG monitors. We believe that the direction of clinical practice is moving towards greater use of pEEG monitoring and individualisation of anaesthesia.
  • Sedation and analgesia for reduction of pediatric ileocolic intussusception

    Roland, Damian (2023-06-07)
    Importance: Ileocolic intussusception is an important cause of intestinal obstruction in children. Reduction of ileocolic intussusception using air or fluid enema is the standard of care. This likely distressing procedure is usually performed without sedation or analgesia, but practice variation exists. Objective: To characterize the prevalence of opioid analgesia and sedation and assess their association with intestinal perforation and failed reduction. Design, setting, and participants: This cross-sectional study reviewed medical records of children aged 4 to 48 months with attempted reduction of ileocolic intussusception at 86 pediatric tertiary care institutions in 14 countries from January 2017 to December 2019. Of 3555 eligible medical records, 352 were excluded, and 3203 medical records were eligible. Data were analyzed in August 2022. Exposures: Reduction of ileocolic intussusception. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcomes were opioid analgesia within 120 minutes of reduction based on the therapeutic window of IV morphine and sedation immediately before reduction of intussusception. Results: We included 3203 patients (median [IQR] age, 17 [9-27] months; 2054 of 3203 [64.1%] males). Opioid use was documented in 395 of 3134 patients (12.6%), sedation 334 of 3161 patients (10.6%), and opioids plus sedation in 178 of 3134 patients (5.7%). Perforation was uncommon and occurred in 13 of 3203 patients (0.4%). In the unadjusted analysis, opioids plus sedation (odds ratio [OR], 5.92; 95% CI, 1.28-27.42; P = .02) and a greater number of reduction attempts (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.03-2.11; P = .03) were significantly associated with perforation. In the adjusted analysis, neither of these covariates remained significant. Reductions were successful in 2700 of 3184 attempts (84.8%). In the unadjusted analysis, younger age, no pain assessment at triage, opioids, longer duration of symptoms, hydrostatic enema, and gastrointestinal anomaly were significantly associated with failed reduction. In the adjusted analysis, only younger age (OR, 1.05 per month; 95% CI, 1.03-1.06 per month; P < .001), shorter duration of symptoms (OR, 0.96 per hour; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99 per hour; P = .002), and gastrointestinal anomaly (OR, 6.50; 95% CI, 2.04-20.64; P = .002) remained significant. Conclusions and relevance: This cross-sectional study of pediatric ileocolic intussusception found that more than two-thirds of patients received neither analgesia nor sedation. Neither was associated with intestinal perforation or failed reduction, challenging the widespread practice of withholding analgesia and sedation for reduction of ileocolic intussusception in children.
  • Exploring perceptions regarding family-based delirium management in the intensive care unit

    Kaur, Jasmin (2021-09-06)
    Background: Delirium is a common complication in patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Family members can help alleviate patient anxiety and may be able to aid in the management of delirium. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of former ICU patients and their families together, regarding the involvement of family in delirium management. Method: Nine audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews took place with former ICU patients together with a family member. Participants were interviewed after their intensive care follow-up clinic appointment in an East Midlands hospital in England. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Three themes were identified: 'understanding about delirium'; 'influencers of delirium management: family and healthcare professionals' and 'family-based delirium care'. Participants expressed that family have a valuable role to play in the management of delirium in the ICU. However, education and guidance is needed to support the family in how delirium can be managed and the current treatment options available. It is important for ICU staff to gain an understanding of the patient's life and personality to personalise delirium management to the needs of the patient and their family. Conclusion: This study found that family presence and knowledge about the patient may be beneficial to delirium management in the ICU. Further research should investigate the effectiveness of the strategies and interventions to understand their influence on delirium management in ICU patients.
  • Management of severe peri-operative bleeding: Guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care: Second update 2022

    Ahmed, Aamer (2023-04)
    Background: Management of peri-operative bleeding is complex and involves multiple assessment tools and strategies to ensure optimal patient care with the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality. These updated guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (ESAIC) aim to provide an evidence-based set of recommendations for healthcare professionals to help ensure improved clinical management. Design: A systematic literature search from 2015 to 2021 of several electronic databases was performed without language restrictions. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies and to formulate recommendations. A Delphi methodology was used to prepare a clinical practice guideline. Results: These searches identified 137 999 articles. All articles were assessed, and the existing 2017 guidelines were revised to incorporate new evidence. Sixteen recommendations derived from the systematic literature search, and four clinical guidances retained from previous ESAIC guidelines were formulated. Using the Delphi process on 253 sentences of guidance, strong consensus (>90% agreement) was achieved in 97% and consensus (75 to 90% agreement) in 3%. Discussion: Peri-operative bleeding management encompasses the patient's journey from the pre-operative state through the postoperative period. Along this journey, many features of the patient's pre-operative coagulation status, underlying comorbidities, general health and the procedures that they are undergoing need to be taken into account. Due to the many important aspects in peri-operative nontrauma bleeding management, guidance as to how best approach and treat each individual patient are key. Understanding which therapeutic approaches are most valuable at each timepoint can only enhance patient care, ensuring the best outcomes by reducing blood loss and, therefore, overall morbidity and mortality. Conclusion: All healthcare professionals involved in the management of patients at risk for surgical bleeding should be aware of the current therapeutic options and approaches that are available to them. These guidelines aim to provide specific guidance for bleeding management in a variety of clinical situations.

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