Recent Submissions

  • Mechanisms of acute right ventricular injury in cardiothoracic surgical and critical care settings: part 2

    Yusuff, Hakeem; Zochios, Vasileios (22/07/2023)
    The right ventricle (RV) is intricately linked in the clinical presentation of critical illness; however, the basis of this is not well-understood and has not been studied as extensively as the left ventricle. There has been an increased awareness of the need to understand how the RV is affected in different critical illness states. In addition, the increased use of point-of-care echocardiography in the critical care setting has allowed for earlier identification and monitoring of the RV in a patient who is critically ill. The first part of this review describes and characterizes the RV in different perioperative states. This second part of the review discusses and analyzes the complex pathophysiologic relationships between the RV and different critical care states. There is a lack of a universal RV injury definition because it represents a range of abnormal RV biomechanics and phenotypes. The term "RV injury" (RVI) has been used to describe a spectrum of presentations, which includes diastolic dysfunction (early injury), when the RV retains the ability to compensate, to RV failure (late or advanced injury). Understanding the mechanisms leading to functional 'uncoupling' between the RV and the pulmonary circulation may enable perioperative physicians, intensivists, and researchers to identify clinical phenotypes of RVI. This, consequently, may provide the opportunity to test RV-centric hypotheses and potentially individualize therapies.
  • Thombosis, major bleeding, and survival in COVID-19 supported by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the first vs second wave: a multicenter observational study in the United Kingdom

    Yusuff, Hakeem; Isgro, Graziella (2023-07-07)
    Background: Bleeding and thrombosis are major complications of veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Objectives: To assess thrombosis, major bleeding (MB), and 180-day survival in patients supported by VV-ECMO between the first (March 1 to May 31, 2020) and second (June 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021) waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An observational study of 309 consecutive patients (aged ≥ 18years) with severe COVID-19 supported by VV-ECMO was performed in 4 nationally commissioned ECMO centers in the United Kingdom. Results: Median age was 48 (19-75) years, and 70.6% were male. Probabilities of survival, thrombosis, and MB at 180 days in the overall cohort were 62.5% (193/309), 39.8% (123/309), and 30% (93/309), respectively. In multivariate analysis, an age of >55 years (hazard ratio [HR], 2.29; 95% CI, 1.33-3.93; P = .003) and an elevated creatinine level (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.19-3.08; P = .008) were associated with increased mortality. Correction for duration of VV-ECMO support, arterial thrombosis alone (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9; P = .002) or circuit thrombosis alone (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.4-6.3; P < .001) but not venous thrombosis increased mortality. MB during ECMO had a 3-fold risk (95% CI, 2.6-5.8, P < .001) of mortality. The first wave cohort had more males (76.7% vs 64%; P = .014), higher 180-day survival (71.1% vs 53.3%; P = .003), more venous thrombosis alone (46.4% vs 29.2%; P = .02), and lower circuit thrombosis (9.2% vs 28.1%; P < .001). The second wave cohort received more steroids (121/150 [80.6%] vs 86/159 [54.1%]; P < .0001) and tocilizumab (20/150 [13.3%] vs 4/159 [2.5%]; P = .005). Conclusion: MB and thrombosis are frequent complications in patients on VV-ECMO and significantly increase mortality. Arterial thrombosis alone or circuit thrombosis alone increased mortality, while venous thrombosis alone had no effect. MB during ECMO support increased mortality by 3.9-fold.
  • Duration of type 2 diabetes and incidence of cancer: an observational study in England

    Zaccardi, Francesco; Brown, Karen; Davies, Melanie (2023-08-28)
    Objective: To investigate the association between duration of type 2 diabetes and cancer incidence. Research design and methods: In the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database, we identified 130,764 individuals with type 2 diabetes aged ≥35 years at diagnosis who were linked to hospital and mortality records. We used sex-stratified Royston-Parmar models with two time scales to estimate incidence rates of all cancers, the four commonest cancers in the United Kingdom (colorectal, lung, prostate, breast), and the obesity-related cancers (e.g., liver, ovary) between 1 January 1998 and 14 January 2019, by age and diabetes duration. Results: During 1,089,923 person-years, 18,977 incident cancers occurred. At the same age, rates of all cancers in men and women did not vary across durations ranging from diagnosis to 20 years; conversely, for any duration, there was a strong, positive association between age and cancer rates. In men, the rate ratio (95% CI) comparing 20 with 5 years of duration was 1.18 (0.82-1.69) at 60 years of age and 0.90 (0.75-1.08) at 80 years; corresponding ratios in women were 1.07 (0.71-1.63) and 0.84 (0.66-1.05). This pattern was observed also for the four commonest cancers. For obesity-related cancers, although rates were generally higher in individuals with a higher BMI, there was no association with duration at any level of BMI. Conclusions: In this study, we did not find evidence of an association between duration of type 2 diabetes and risk of cancer, with the higher risk observed for longer durations related to ageing.
  • Con: artificial intelligence-derived algorithms to guide perioperative blood management decision making

    Yusuff, Hakeem; Zochios, Vasileios (2023-10)
    Artificial intelligence has the potential to improve the care that is given to patients; however, the predictive models created are only as good as the base data used in their design. Perioperative blood management presents a complex clinical conundrum in which significant variability and the unstructured nature of the required data make it difficult to develop precise prediction models. There is a potential need for training clinicians to ensure they can interrogate the system and override when errors occur. Current systems created to predict perioperative blood transfusion are not generalizable across clinical settings, and there is a considerable cost implication required to research and develop artificial intelligence systems that would disadvantage resource-poor health systems. In addition, a lack of strong regulation currently means it is difficult to prevent bias.
  • Exploring perceptions regarding family-based delirium management in the intensive care unit

    Kaur, Jasmin (2021-09-06)
    Background: Delirium is a common complication in patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Family members can help alleviate patient anxiety and may be able to aid in the management of delirium. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of former ICU patients and their families together, regarding the involvement of family in delirium management. Method: Nine audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews took place with former ICU patients together with a family member. Participants were interviewed after their intensive care follow-up clinic appointment in an East Midlands hospital in England. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Three themes were identified: 'understanding about delirium'; 'influencers of delirium management: family and healthcare professionals' and 'family-based delirium care'. Participants expressed that family have a valuable role to play in the management of delirium in the ICU. However, education and guidance is needed to support the family in how delirium can be managed and the current treatment options available. It is important for ICU staff to gain an understanding of the patient's life and personality to personalise delirium management to the needs of the patient and their family. Conclusion: This study found that family presence and knowledge about the patient may be beneficial to delirium management in the ICU. Further research should investigate the effectiveness of the strategies and interventions to understand their influence on delirium management in ICU patients.
  • Right ventricular injury increases mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Chad, Thomas; Yusuff, Hakeem; Zochios, Vasileios (2023-01)
    Right ventricular injury (RVI) in the context of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is well recognized as an important determinant risk factor of mortality. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is part of the algorithm for the management of patients with severe ARDS and severely impaired gas exchange. Although VV-ECMO may theoretically protect the RV it is uncertain to what degree RVI persists despite VV-ECMO support, and whether it continues to influence mortality after ECMO initiation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of RVI on mortality in this context, testing the hypothesis that RVI worsens mortality in this cohort. We performed a systematic search that identified seven studies commenting on RVI and mortality in patients with ARDS receiving VV-ECMO. The presence of RVI was associated with greater mortality overall (odds ratios [OR]: 2.72; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.52-4.85; p < 0.00) and across three subgroups (RV dilatational measures: OR: 3.51; 95% CI: 1.51-8.14; p < 0.01, RV functional measures: OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 0.99-3.42; p = 0.05, RV measurements post-ECMO initiation: OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.01-3.72; p < 0.05). Prospective studies are needed to investigate the causal relationship between RVI and mortality in this patient group and the best management strategies to reduce mortality.
  • Experience with the Crescent® cannula for adult respiratory VV ECMO: a case series

    Faulkner, Gail; Harvey, Chris
    Introduction: The Crescent® is a recently introduced dual lumen cannula by which veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) is delivered. It has a number of features that enhance its ease of placement, pressure-flow dynamics and may reduce catheter-related complication rates. Methods: We present the first case series of its kind analysing this device by means of a retrospective observational study of prospectively collected data from the first year of its use in a high volume severe acute respiratory failure centre (Glenfield, UK). We compare complication rates of the Crescent®, with data from the international ELSO database and our own historic centre data and discuss subjective clinician experience of introducing this device. Results: Over the first 12 months of its use (23/09/2019-23/09/2020), 54 patients were cannulated using a Crescent® catheter. There were no serious/life-threatening adverse events and a low number of minor cannula-related complications. Subjectively users found it has a number of advantages over other devices and configurations, not captured within current data collection frameworks. Conclusion: The Crescent® is a safe and effective device by which to deliver VV ECMO support to patients with severe acute respiratory failure.
  • Temperature management of adult burn patients in intensive care: findings from a retrospective cohort study in a tertiary centre in the United Kingdom

    Fielding, Alexandra
    Introduction: Patients with major burn injury are prone to hypothermia, potentially resulting in an increase in mortality and length of hospital stay. Our study comprehensively evaluates the practicalities of physiological thermoregulation and temperature control in the largest cohort of critically ill adult burn patients to date. Material and methods: This retrospective study of routinely collected patient data from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the West Midlands Burn Centre was conducted over a three-year period (2016-2019). Data were analysed to assess temperature control against local and International Society for Burn Injury (ISBI) standards. Results: Thirty-one patients with significant burn injuries, requiring active critical care treatment for more than 48 hours were included (total body surface area [TBSA] mean = 42.7%, SD = 18.1%; revised Baux score [rBaux] = 99, SD = 25). The majority were male (77.29%) with an average age of 44 years (17-77 years). The patients were cared for in the ICU for a total of 15 119 hours. Hypothermia, defined as core temperature below 36.0°C, was recorded for 251 hours (2% of total stay). Only 27 patients (87%) had their temperature ≥ 36°C for more than 95% of their admission. Non-survivors were more prone to hypothermia during their stay in ICU. There was an association between rBaux score and post-opera-tive temperature, with a 0.12°C decrease per 10 points increase in rBaux score (P = 0.04). Conclusions: We have observed a high variability of temperature control between individual patients, especially in non-survivors, and have demonstrated an association between high rBaux score and poor temperature control, specifically during the postoperative period.
  • FUSIC HD. Comprehensive haemodynamic assessment with ultrasound

    Conway, Hannah (2021-04-23)
    FUSIC haemodynamics (HD) - the latest Focused Ultrasound in Intensive Care (FUSIC) module created by the Intensive Care Society (ICS) - describes a complete haemodynamic assessment with ultrasound based on ten key clinical questions: 1. Is stroke volume abnormal? 2. Is stroke volume responsive to fluid, vasopressors or inotropes? 3. Is the aorta abnormal? 4. Is the aortic valve, mitral valve or tricuspid valve severely abnormal? 5. Is there systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve? 6. Is there a regional wall motion abnormality? 7. Are there features of raised left atrial pressure? 8. Are there features of right ventricular impairment or raised pulmonary artery pressure? 9. Are there features of tamponade? 10. Is there venous congestion? FUSIC HD is the first system of its kind to interrogate major cardiac, arterial and venous structures to direct time-critical interventions in acutely unwell patients. This article explains the rationale for this accreditation, outlines the training pathway and summarises the ten clinical questions. Further details are included in an online supplementary appendix.
  • Haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets: Diagnosis and management in critical care

    Poimenidi, Evangelia; Archer, Natasha (2021-06-17)
    A thirty-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to hospital with headache and gastrointestinal discomfort. She developed peripheral oedema and had an emergency caesarean section following an episode of tonic-clonic seizures. Her delivery was further complicated by postpartum haemorrhage and she was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for further resuscitation and seizure control which required infusions of magnesium and multiple anticonvulsants. Despite haemodynamic optimisation she developed an acute kidney injury with evidence of liver damage, thrombocytopenia and haemolysis. Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets (HELLP) syndrome, a multisystem disease of advanced pregnancy which overlaps with pre-eclampsia, was diagnosed. HELLP syndrome is associated with a range of complications which may require critical care support, including placental abruption and foetal loss, acute kidney injury, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, acute liver failure and liver capsule rupture. Definitive treatment of HELLP is delivery of the fetus and in its most severe forms requires admission to the ICU for multiorgan support. Therapeutic strategies in ICU are mainly supportive and include blood pressure control, meticulous fluid balance and possibly escalation to renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, neuroprotection, seizure control, and management of liver failure-related complications. Multidisciplinary input is essential for optimal treatment.
  • Invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving extracorporeal support: a narrative review of strategies to mitigate lung injury

    Zochios, Vasileios (2022-07-21)
    Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is indicated in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and severely impaired gas exchange despite evidence-based lung protective ventilation, prone positioning and other parts of the standard algorithm for treating such patients. Extracorporeal support can facilitate ultra-lung-protective ventilation, meaning even lower volumes and pressures than standard lung-protective ventilation, by directly removing carbon dioxide in patients needing injurious ventilator settings to maintain sufficient gas exchange. Injurious ventilation results in ventilator-induced lung injury, which is one of the main determinants of mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Marked reductions in the intensity of ventilation to the lowest tolerable levels under extracorporeal support may be achieved and could thereby potentially mitigate ventilator-induced lung injury and theoretically patient self-inflicted lung injury in spontaneously breathing patients with high respiratory drive. However, the benefits of this strategy may be counterbalanced by the use of continuous deep sedation and even neuromuscular blocking drugs, which may impair physical rehabilitation and impact long-term outcomes. There are currently a lack of large-scale prospective data to inform optimal invasive ventilation practices and how to best apply a holistic approach to patients receiving veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, while minimising ventilator-induced and patient self-inflicted lung injury. We aimed to review the literature relating to invasive ventilation strategies in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving extracorporeal support and discuss personalised ventilation approaches and the potential role of adjunctive therapies in facilitating lung protection.
  • Vascular thrombosis in severe COVID-19 requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A multicenter study

    Brozik, Jan; Machin, Ruth; Das, Indrajeet (2022-04-01)
    Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 has been reported to be a prothrombotic condition; however, multicenter data comparing this with other viral pneumonias in those requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are lacking. We conducted a multicenter study using whole-body CT to examine the prevalence, severity, and nature of vascular complications in coronavirus disease 2019 in comparison with patients with other viral pneumonias. Design: We analyzed whole-body CT scans for the presence of vascular thrombosis (defined as pulmonary artery thrombus, venous thrombus, systemic arterial thrombus, or end-organ infarct). The severity, distribution, and morphology of pulmonary artery thrombus were characterized. Competing risk cumulative incidence analysis was used to compare survival with discharge. Setting: Three centers of the English national extracorporeal membrane oxygenation service. Patients: Consecutive patients admitted with either coronavirus disease 2019 or noncoronavirus disease 2019 viral pneumonia admitted from January 2019. Interventions: None. Measurements and main results: One-hundred thirty-six patients (45.2 ± 10.6 yr old, 39/146 [27%] female) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support underwent whole-body CT scans at admission. Of these, 86 had coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, and 50 had noncoronavirus disease 2019 viral pneumonia. Vascular thrombosis was seen more often in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (odds ratio, 12.9 [95% CI 4.5-36.8]). In those with coronavirus disease 2019, 57 (73%) demonstrated pulmonary artery thrombus or pulmonary perfusion defects. Eighty-two percent of thrombus exhibited emboli-like morphology. The location of pulmonary artery thrombus and parenchymal perfusion defects was only concordant in 30% of cases. The risk of mortality was higher in those with coronavirus disease 2019 compared with noncoronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia (χ2 = 3.94; p = 0.047). Mortality was no different in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with or without vascular thrombosis (χ2 = 0.44; p = 0.51). Conclusions: In patients who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with a higher prevalence of vascular thrombosis compared with noncoronavirus disease viral pneumonias. The pattern of pulmonary vascular changes suggests concurrent embolic disease and small vessel disease. Despite this, vascular thrombosis was not linked to poorer short-term prognosis in those with coronavirus disease 2019.
  • Long-term follow-up of survivors of extracorporeal life support therapy for cardiogenic shock: Are they really survivors?

    Acharya, Metesh (2022-03-15)
    Background and Objectives: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a medical emergency associated with a high mortality rate. Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) has become an accepted therapy for CS. Despite widely available data for short-term survival rates, there are only limited data available regarding long-term outcomes following successful VA-ECMO therapy. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the demographics, past medical history, adverse events, and outcomes of survivors who received VA-ECMO support for CS at our center from January 2012 to December 2019. Post-cardiotomy cases were excluded. Results: A total of 578 VA-ECMO implantations on 564 consecutive patients due to CS were identified during the study period. Successful weaning was achieved in 207 (36.7%) patients. Among the survivors, 126 (63%) patients received VA-ECMO therapy without preceding cardiac surgery during their current admission. A follow-up exceeding 12 (mean: 36 ± 20.9) months was available in a total of 55 (43.7%) survivors. The mean VA-ECMO perfusion time was 10.9 (±7.7) days with a mean intensive care unit (ICU) stay of 38.2 (±29.9) days and a mean hospital stay of 49.9 (±30.5) days. A total of 3 deaths were recorded during long-term follow-up (mean survival of 26 ± 5.3 months). Conclusions: Despite the high mortality associated with VA-ECMO therapy, a long-term follow-up with an acceptably low rate of negative cardiac events can be achieved in many survivors. We observed an acceptable low rate of new cardiac events. Further evaluation, including a quality-of-life assessment and a close follow-up for rarer complications in these patients, is needed to elucidate the longer-term outcomes for survivors of invasive VA-ECMO therapy.
  • Effect of serial awake prone positioning on oxygenation in patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19

    Pan, Daniel (2021-04-30)
    Introduction: Awake prone positioning (APP) might benefit patients with COVID-19 by improving oxygenation, but it is unknown whether this improvement can be sustained with serial proning episodes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of adults with COVID-19 admitted to one intensive care unit, in those who underwent APP and controls. Patients in both groups had type 1 respiratory failure requiring oxygen (but not initially intubated), confirmed SARS-CoV-2 PCR by nasopharyngeal swab and findings of multifocal ground-glass opacities on imaging. For the APP group, serial SpO2/FiO2 measurements were recorded after each proning episode. Results: Of 77 patients admitted, 50 (65%) were excluded because they had already been intubated. Another 7 (9%) had undergone APP prior to admission. Of the remaining 20, 10 underwent APP and 10 were controls. Patients in both groups had similar demographics, subsequent intubation and survival. Of those who underwent APP, SpO2/FiO2 was most likely to increase after the first episode (before median: 152, IQR 135-185; after: median 192, IQR 156-234, p=0.04). Half of participants (5) in the APP group were unable to tolerate more than two APP episodes. Conclusions: Most patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care are not suitable for APP. Of those who are, many cannot tolerate more than two episodes. Improvements in SpO2/FiO2 secondary to APP are transient and most likely in the first episode. Our findings may explain why other studies have failed to show improvements in mortality from APP despite improvements in oxygenation.
  • Covid-19 ICU remote-learning course (CIRLC): Rapid ICU remote training for frontline health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK

    Johnson, Ruth (2022-05)
    Background: The unprecedented increase in critically ill patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic mandated rapid training in critical care for redeployed staff to work safely in intensive care units (ICU). Methods: The COVID-19 ICU Remote-Learning Course (CIRLC) is a remote delivery course developed in response to the pandemic. This was a one-day course focused on the fundamentals of Intensive Care. The course used blended learning with recorded lectures and interactive tutorials delivered by shielding and frontline ICU trained professionals. The course was developed within one week and piloted at three NHS Trusts. It was then made publicly available free of charge to redeployed healthcare professionals across the UK and Ireland. An iterative cycle of improvement was used to update the course content weekly. A course confidence questionnaire with quantitative and qualitative questions was used to evaluate effectiveness. Data is reported as n (%), means (SD) and thematic analysis was used for the open questions. Results: 1,269 candidates from 171 organisations completed the course, with 99 volunteer trainers. 96% of respondents rated the course as very or extremely useful. 86% rated the online platform as excellent. Overall confidence improved from 2.7/5 to 3.9/5. Qualitative data showed that the course was pitched at the appropriate level, accessible and built clinicians confidence to work in intensive care. Conclusion: This model of educational delivery with a rapid iteration cycle was a pragmatic, effective solution to knowledge-based training under social distancing measures. Whilst full course evaluation was not possible, we believe that this work demonstrates practical guidance on educational response in a pandemic as well as highlighting the altruistic nature of the critical care community.
  • Miller-Fisher syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2: a case report

    Faulkner, Lucy; Scott, Simon; Flint, Neil (2022-02-28)
    SARS-CoV-2 infections are increasingly associated with neurological complications, including immune-mediated neuropathies. Miller-Fisher syndrome is a rare variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome characterised by the triad of ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and areflexia. Here we present a case of Miller-Fisher syndrome following COVID-19 infection. The clinical presentation was a short history of a rapidly-progressive peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy with bulbar dysfunction and facial weakness following mild COVID infection. Examination revealed global areflexia and a broad-based ataxic gait. CSF analysis revealed albuminocytological dissociation and neurophysiological testing later supported the diagnosis. The patient required high flow nasal oxygen therapy for respiratory dysfunction in a level 2 care setting and received immunological treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins. We conclude that Miller-Fisher syndrome needs to be considered in patients presenting with new sensorimotor dysfunction following SARS-COV-2 infection. Early recognition is key given the propensity to cause life-threatening respiratory failure, and early administration of immunological treatment is associated with improved prognosis.
  • Thrombosis and coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients receiving ECMO: A narrative review of current literature

    Yusuff, Hakeem; Zochios, Vasileios (2022-03-31)
    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an established part of the treatment algorithm for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. An intense inflammatory response may cause an imbalance in the coagulation cascade making both thrombosis and bleeding common and notable features of the clinical management of these patients. Large observational and retrospective studies provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology and management of bleeding and thrombosis in COVID-19 patients requiring ECMO. Clinically significant bleeding, including intracerebral hemorrhage, is an independent predictor of mortality, and thrombosis (particularly pulmonary embolism) is associated with mortality, especially if occurring with right ventricular dysfunction. The incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is higher than the general patient cohort with acute respiratory distress syndrome or other indications for ECMO. The use of laboratory parameters to predict bleeding or thrombosis has a limited role. In this review, the authors discuss the complex pathophysiology of bleeding and thrombosis observed in patients with COVID-19 during ECMO support, and their effects on outcomes.
  • Outcome of repeat venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock

    Yusuff, Hakeem; Mariscalco, Giovanni (2021-03-05)
    Objective: Data on patients requiring a second run of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support in patients affected by postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock (PCS) are very limited. The authors aimed to investigate the effect of a second run of VA-ECMO on PCS patient survival. Design: Retrospective analysis of an international registry. Setting: Multicenter study, tertiary university hospitals. Participants: Data on adult PCS patients receiving a second run of VA-ECMO. Measurements and main results: A total of 674 patients with a mean age of 62.9 ± 12.7 years were analyzed, and 21 (3.1%) patients had a second run of VA-ECMO. None of them required more than two VA-ECMO runs. The median duration of VA-ECMO therapy was 135 hours (interquartile range [IQR] 61-226) in patients who did not require a VA-ECMO rerun. In the rerun VA-ECMO group the median overall duration of VA-ECMO therapy was 183 hours (IQR 107-344), and the median duration of the first run was 114 hours (IQR 66-169). Nine (42.9%) of the patients who required a second run of VA-ECMO died during VA-ECMO therapy, whereas five (23.8%) survived to hospital discharge. No differences between patients treated with single or second VA-ECMO runs were observed in terms of hospital mortality and late survival. In patients requiring a second VA-ECMO run, the actuarial survival estimates at three and 12 months after VA-ECMO weaning were 23.8% ± 9.3% and 19.6% ± 6.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Repeat VA-ECMO therapy is a valid treatment strategy for PCS patients. Early and late survivals are similar between patients who have undergone a single or second run of VA-ECMO.

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