Theatres and Anaesthetics
Pre-induction Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Gastric Residual Volume in Elective Gastrointestinal Cancer SurgeriesPulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during elective surgery remains a major cause of airway-related mortality and morbidity. The preoperative fasting times for solids and liquids have been standardized across various anesthesia society guidelines. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) guidelines now advocate liberal clear fluid intake with carbohydrate loading up to 2 h preoperatively. The aim of the study was to assess whether practicing both ASA fasting guidelines and ERAS protocol makes the patients prone to a full stomach. The supine position standard curvilinear ultrasound probe (2-5 MHz) with Sonosite M-Turbo ©system was used to obtain the images. Gastric residual volume (GRV) was derived from the cross-sectional area (CSA) using the Perlas and colleagues model. A total of 102 patients were recruited and analyzed. The mean age and BMI were 50.65 years ± 13.35 years and 22.23 kg/m2 ± 3.7 kg/m2, respectively. A total of four patients (3.92%) had gastric volume > 1.5 ml/kg; out of these four patients, three were female and one was male. We did not observe any case of pulmonary aspiration in any of our patients. In conclusion, even though for elective surgeries, the current fasting guidelines are adequate, these findings cannot be extrapolated to patients with risk factors for high gastric residual volume where further studies need to be performed.
Retrospective observational study of patient outcomes with local wound infusion vs epidural analgesia after open hepato-pancreato-biliary surgeryBackground: Epidural analgesia is conventionally used as the mainstay of analgesia in open abdominal surgery but has a small life-changing risk of complications (epidural abscesses or haematomas). Local wound-infusion could be a viable alternative and are associated with fewer adverse effects. Methods: A retrospective observational analysis of individuals undergoing open hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery over 1 year was undertaken. Patients either received epidural analgesia (EP) or continuous wound infusion (WI) + IV patient controlled anaesthesisa (PCA) with an intraoperative spinal opiate. Outcomes analyzed included length of stay, commencement of oral diet and opioid use. Results: Between Jan 2016- Dec 2016, 110 patients were analyzed (WI n=35, EP n=75). The median length of stay (days) was 8 in both the WI and EP group (p=0.846), the median time to commencing oral diet (days) was 3 in WI group and 2 in EP group (p=0.455). There was no significant difference in the amount of oromorph, codeine or tramadol (mg) between WI and EP groups (p=0.829, p=0.531, p=0.073, respectively). Conclusions: Continuous wound infusion + IV PCA provided adequate analgesia to patients undergoing open hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery. It was non-inferior to epidural analgesia with respect to hospital stay, commencement of oral diet and opioid use.