### Recent Submissions

• #### The onset, progress and factors influencing degenerative arthritis of the wrist following scaphoid fracture non-union

Background/aims: Scaphoid non-union causes osteoarthritis but factors associated are poorly understood. We investigated the rate of osteoarthritis after scaphoid fracture non-union, and if duration and fracture location influenced arthritis and its severity. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional observational study of 278 consecutive cases with scaphoid fracture non-union retrieved data on demographics, non-union duration, fracture location, dorsal intercalated segment instability (DISI), severity and distribution of wrist arthritis. Patient Evaluation Measure (PEM) and Quality of Life assessed impact on patients. Regression models investigated prediction of osteoarthritis by different variables. Time-to-event analysis investigated osteoarthritis evolution. Missing (MAR) data for the PEM and QoL was imputed and analysed. Results: 278 patients, 246 males, aged 27.9 years (range 11 to 78 years), with a scaphoid fracture non-union confirmed on computed tomography (CT) scans (243) and plain radiographs (35) were reviewed. The interval between injury and imaging was 3.3 years (SD 5.9 years; range 0.1-45). The fracture was proximal to the ridge in 162, distal to the ridge in 83 and in the proximal 20% in 33. DISI (RLA ≥ 10°) occurred in 93.5% (260/278). Osteoarthritis was identified in 62.2% (173/278), and we classified a SNAC pattern in 93.6% (162/173). Of these, 100 (61.7%) had SNAC 1, 22 (13.6%) SNAC 2, 17 (10.5%) SNAC 3, and 23 (14.2%) SNAC 4. The mean duration in years for SNAC 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.5, 6.0, 8.2, and 11.3 years respectively. In fractures proximal to the ridge, 50% had arthritis in 2.2 years. Whereas in proximal pole, and distal to the ridge, 50% developed in 3.8 and 6.6 years, respectively. The PEM score was 42.8% (SD 18.9%) in those without arthritis and 48.8% (SD 21.5%) in those with arthritis. The mean QoL was 0.838 in patients without SNAC and 0.792 with SNAC. Conclusion: Scaphoid fracture non-union caused early carpal collapse, majority had osteoarthritis usually observed within a year following injury and occurred earliest in proximal waist fractures. Distribution of osteoarthritis (SNAC stage) may not always follow a distinctive pattern, as previously described.
• #### Similar Benefits Seen After Radial Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy or Autologous Blood Injection in Patients With Chronic Plantar Fasciitis-A Retrospective Cohort Study

Objective: To compare the outcomes for patients with chronic plantar fasciitis after extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) or autologous blood injection (ABI). Design: Cohort study-retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Setting: Hospital-based Sports Medicine Outpatient Clinic. Patients: One hundred two consecutive patients with chronic plantar fasciitis, treated with either radial-ESWT (rESWT) (n = 54) or ABI (n = 48), with minimum 3-month follow-up and 96% (98/102) having 6-month follow-up. Mean age 49.5 years and mean duration of symptoms 37.5 months before treatment. Interventions: Patients received either 3 sessions of radial ESWT (one session per week for 3 weeks), or a single ultrasound-guided dry needling and ABI (3 mL whole autologous blood). All patients received standardized after-care, including progressive structured home exercise program of flexibility, strengthening, and proprioception exercises. Main outcome measures: 0 to 10 numerical rating scale (NRS) for self-reported "average pain" and "average stiffness" values. Secondary outcome measures included assessments of local foot function [including Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ), revised-Foot Function Index] as well as markers of mental health functioning (HAD), global health (EQ-5D-5L), and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire). Results: This study demonstrated statistically significant improvements in self-reported measures of pain and local foot function after either procedure at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, but no statistically significant differences were seen between groups at any time-period studied. At 6 months, the average pain using a 0 to 10 NRS was improved from 6.8 ± 1.8 to 4.0 ± 2.7 (P < 0.001) after ESWT and from 7.1 ± 1.6 to 3.8 ± 2.7 (P < 0.001) after ABI. At 6 months, significant improvements were seen following either group using a number of different validated patient-rated outcome measures assessing local foot pain and function, eg, the total score for MOXFQ improved from 56.1 ± 12.8 to 42.5 ± 16.6 (P < 0.001) after ESWT and from 58.8 ± 13.2 to 44.2 ± 19.2 (P < 0.001) after ABI. However, measures of physical activity or wider aspects of patient functioning did not consistently improve from baseline values to follow-up periods. Conclusions: Patients with chronic plantar fasciitis improved to statistically significant extent after either rESWT or ABI procedures, with no significant differences seen between groups. The lack of randomization in this pragmatic study is noted, which may have influenced the outcome seen. Potentially larger and more robust studies are required to investigate this treatment comparison further.
• #### Three Sessions of Radial Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Gives No Additional Benefit Over "Minimal-Dose" Radial Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Patients With Chronic Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Trial

Objective: To investigate the outcomes following 3 weekly sessions of radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (rESWT) in patients with chronic greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) presenting to an NHS Sports Medicine Clinic in the United Kingdom. Design: Double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting: A single NHS Sports Medicine Clinic, in the United Kingdom. Patients: One hundred twenty patients in an NHS Sports Medicine clinic presenting with symptoms of GTPS who had failed to improve with a minimum of 3 months of rehabilitation were enrolled in the study and randomized equally to the intervention and treatment groups. Mean age was 60.6 ± 11.5 years; 82% were female, and the mean duration of symptoms was 45.4 ± 33.4 months (range, 6 months to 30 years). Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive either 3 sessions of ESWT at either the "recommended"/"maximally comfortably tolerated" dose or at "minimal dose." All patients received a structured home exercise program involving flexibility, strength, and balance exercises. Main outcome measures: Follow-up was at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Outcome measures included local hip pain, validated hip PROMs (Oxford hip score, non-arthritic hip score, Victorian Institute of Sport assessment questionnaire), and wider measures of function including sleep (Pittsburgh sleep quality index) and mood (hospital anxiety and depression scale). Results: Results were available for 98% of patients at the 6-month period. There were statistically significant within-group improvements in pain, local function, and sleep seen in both groups. However, fewer benefits were seen in other outcome measures, including activity or mood. Conclusion: There were no time × group interaction effects seen between the groups at any time point, indicating that in the 3 sessions, the "recommended-dose" rESWT had no measurable benefit compared with "minimal dose" rESWT in this group of patients with GTPS. The underlying reason remains unclear; it may be that rESWT is ineffective in the treatment of patients with chronic GTPS, that "minimal dose" rESWT is sufficient for a therapeutic effect, or that a greater number of treatment sessions are required for maximal benefit. These issues need to be considered in further research. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02546128.
• #### Autologous Blood Injection With Dry-Needling vs Dry-Needling Alone Treatment for Chronic Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background: Autologous blood injection (ABI) for patients with chronic plantar fasciitis has been promoted as an approach to improve outcomes over standard dry-needling approaches. The purpose of this trial was to investigate if there are improved outcomes following an ultrasonography-guided ABI compared to dry needling alone for patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. Methods: A double-blinded (participant-blinded and observer-blinded) RCT within a single clinic enrolled 90 patients with symptoms of plantar fasciitis that had failed to improve with a minimum of 3 months of rehabilitation. The mean age was 49.5±8.9 years, 67% were female, and the mean symptom duration was 40.0±28.2 months (range: 8 months-10 years). Participants were randomized to receive ABI or an identical dry-needle fenestration-procedure without coadministration of autologous blood. All participants received identical structured rehabilitation and were followed up at 2, 6, 12, and 26 weeks. Outcome measures included local foot pain, validated foot patient-reported outcome measures (Foot Function Index-revised, Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure), measures of general function and "ability" (EuroQol [EQ]-5D-5L, Oswestry Disability Index), specific measures of activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results: There were no significant between-group differences seen at any time-point studied. There were a number of statistically significant within-group improvements for local foot pain and function in both groups comparing baseline/follow-up data. Overall, levels of pain improved by 25% by 6 weeks and by 50% at 6 months. There were improvements in some generalized function markers. Activity rates did not change, demonstrating that improvements in pain did not necessarily influence physical activity. Conclusion: Coadministration of 3 mL of autologous blood had no additional effect compared to a dry-needling procedure alone for patients with chronic plantar fasciitis.
• #### Desmoid fibromatosis associated with Endobutton use for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

No abstract available
• #### Intra-articular steroid injections in large joint arthritis: A survey of current practice

Introduction: Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are widely used as a management modality for mild large joint osteoarthritis (OA). In contrast, there is little guidance or consensus on the use of steroids in moderate to severe disease. The aim of this study is to explore the current practice of surgeons in relation to the use of therapeutic intra-articular steroid injections in patients awaiting large joint arthroplasty for OA. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to consultants performing large joint arthroplasty in four National Health Service Trusts. Participants were questioned on their use of intra-articular therapeutic steroid injections in patients listed for elbow, shoulder, hip or knee arthroplasty. Data was collected over 6 months and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Results: A total of 42 surgeons were included in the study with the majority performing lower limb arthroplasty (73%). About 21 (50%) surgeons indicated they would perform injections in the patient group of interest. Two would perform an unlimited number of injections, whilst the remainder would perform between one and three injections. Respondents most commonly indicated they would tell patients that an injection would provide between 6 and 12 weeks of benefit (14 of 39 surgeons, 36%). Most injecting surgeons (88%) leave 4 months between an injection and subsequent arthroplasty due to increased risk of infection if surgery is performed sooner. Conclusion: This study demonstrates variation in practice in the use of intra-articular steroids in the analysed patient group, and the way surgeons council their patients. National or specialist society guidelines may help to reduce this variation in practice.
• #### Should Arthroscopic Bone Marrow Stimulation Be Used in the Management of Secondary Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus? A Systematic Review

Background: Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common, particularly after trauma. Arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation has emerged as the first-choice surgical treatment for small primary lesions less than 100 mm2. Individual studies on the topic are small and heterogeneous, and they have differed in their main findings; for this reason, systematically reviewing the available evidence seems important. Questions/purposes: In this systematic review, we asked: (1) What patient-reported outcomes and pain scores have been observed after arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation for secondary osteochondral lesions of the talus? (2) What complications were reported? (3) What demographic and clinical factors were reported to be associated with better patient-reported outcome scores? Methods: We performed a systematic review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using Embase, EmCare, PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus (databases last searched June 23, 2021). A two-stage title/abstract and full-text screening process was performed independently by two reviewers. Randomized control trials, cohort studies, and observational studies published in English that evaluated the outcome of arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation for secondary osteochondral lesions of the talus were included. Case reports, review articles, commentaries, abstracts, and letters to the editor were excluded. A total of 12 articles (10 case series and two retrospective comparative studies) involving 446 patients were included. Of these, 111 patients with a mean age of 33 years (range 20 to 49) received arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation for a secondary osteochondral lesion of the talus. The Methodological Index for Non-randomized Studies (MINORS) criteria were used to assess the methodologic quality of included studies. The MINORS is a numerical score ranging from 0 to 16 for studies with no comparison group and 0 to 24 for comparative studies, with higher quality studies receiving higher scores. Of the 10 noncomparative case series, the highest score was 10 of 16, with a median (range) score of 7.5 (4 to 10), while the two comparative studies scored 22 of 24 and 19 of 24, respectively. Results: Studies varied widely in terms of patient-reported outcome measures such as the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score (AOFAS), with inconsistent reporting across studies regarding whether or how much patients improved; there was variation in some effect sizes with regard to improvement seeming close to or below the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Although no perioperative complications were reported in any included studies, 34% (26 of 77, in seven studies that reported on this endpoint) of patients who underwent a revision procedure. One study found a negative association between lesion size and AOFAS and VAS score. No other studies reported on factors associated with patient-reported outcome scores, and most studies were far too small to explore relationships of this sort. Conclusion: We found that arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation for secondary osteochondral lesions of the talus yielded inconsistent and often small improvements in patient-reported outcomes, with approximately one in three patients undergoing a revision procedure. Reported outcomes likely represent a best-case scenario, inflated by low-level study designs and major sources of bias that are known to make treatment effects seem larger than they are. Therefore, the use of arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation in such patients cannot be recommended, unless we are able to refine selection criteria to effectively identify patients who show a substantial clinical benefit.
• #### Alteration of anterior cruciate ligament orientation in knees with trochlear dysplasia: description of a novel angle on MRI

Aim: To assess changes in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) geometry and inclination in trochlear dysplasia (TD) and analyse their significance. Materials and methods: Ninety-nine consecutive knees with TD and 23 normal knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were included as controls (n=122). Varying degrees of TD were classified into four distinct groups (A-D) according to the Dejour classification. MRI images were reviewed independently to measure four ACL angles. Interobserver and intra-observer agreements with statistical significance were determined for TD and various angles. Results: A significant association was found between TD and two measured angles compared with the control group (sagittal ACL and anteromedial ACL angles, p<0.001 for each). The results indicate that TD can predispose to more vertical ACL inclination as measured in the coronal plane on MRI. No association was found with the Blumenstat angle. Conclusion: The present study found significant associations with TD and steeper sagittal ACL, which have been implicated in ACL failure. A novel angle (anteromedial ACL angle) is described which has significant association with TD and is specific for the anteromedial bundle as measured in the coronal plane. Careful consideration of ACL fibre orientation in the coronal plane on MRI is suggested in knees with TD and the use of this newly described angle in assessing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) grafts.
• #### Ulnar variance in distal radial fractures: assessment and interpretation

We explored patterns of shortening of the distal radius and investigated the effect of displacement on 'ulnar variance' in 250 patients with distal radial fractures. A small number of patients (5%) had a fracture that resulted in true shortening. Thirty-two per cent had fractures that appeared short, but lateral radiographs revealed that the articular surface was tilted, with either the anterior or dorsal rim of the articular surface being proximal to the distal ulna but the other rim was distal to it. We recommend initial assessment of variance on lateral radiographs. If the anterior and dorsal rims of the distal radial articular surface are proximal to the distal ulna, then true shortening is present and lengthening and stabilization, to hold the radius distracted, should be considered. If only one rim is proximal to the distal ulna, then correction of the tilt will lessen the apparent positive variance.
• #### The importance of the early appropriate management of foot and ankle soft tissue sarcomas - experiences of a regional sarcoma service

Introduction: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a group of rare malignant tumours that can occur at almost any anatomical location in patients of any age, which often present to health care professional working outside a recognised sarcoma service. A review of foot and ankle STSs was conducted, reporting on patient and tumour characteristics, and patient outcome following surgery performed within and outside our sarcoma service. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of all foot and ankle STSs managed by our sarcoma service over a 14 year period was performed. Patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management and patient outcomes including recurrence rates and survival were analysed. Results: Twenty-six patients were analysed (16F:10M) with a mean age of 57.7 years (range 17-87). The mean follow-up was 6.3 years (range 1-16). Sixteen tumours involved the foot, nine the ankle, and one spanned the foot and ankle. Mean tumour size was 4.3 cm (range 0.8-15), although 61% of cases were smaller than 4 cm, and almost one third of cases smaller than 1 cm. Seven of 26 (27%) cases were diagnosed after an unplanned excision performed by non sarcoma surgeons. These patients were more likely to undergo an incomplete tumour excision (p < 0.001), suffer local recurrence (p = 0.001), and eventually undergo a secondary amputation (p = 0.034) than those patients managed exclusively by a sarcoma service. Overall, 12 (46%) patients died of their disease during follow up, equating to a five-year survival rate of 69%. Conclusion: Our data shows that unplanned excisions continue to be performed on foot and ankle STSs, and that these have detrimental effects on patients. Despite this, our results also show that these complex patients can be managed successfully when referred appropriately to a sarcoma service, prior to any surgical treatment. This highlights the importance of vigilance amongst all health care professionals managing any foot or ankle lumps, regardless of their size.
• #### Clinical variations and therapeutic challenges in the management of symptomatic retinal artery macroaneurysm: a tertiary center experience

Purpose: To find out clinical characteristics, therapeutic options, and visual outcome in symptomatic retinal artery macroaneurysm (RAMA) patients. Method: Newly diagnosed cases of symptomatic RAMA from January 2015 to December 2019 were included. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with mean age 62.46 years ± 14.89 (SD) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Result: Hypertension was present in 66.6% of the patients, and the commonest site was superotemporal (12 eyes, 80%). The most commonly employed treatment was Nd: Yag laser hyaloidotomy in 4 eyes (26.6%). Other treatments were intravitreal bevacizumab in 3 eyes (20%), focal laser with intravitreal bevacizumab in 3 eyes (20%), PPV with focal laser (13.3%) in 2, focal laser only in one (6.6%), PPV with focal and intravitreal bevacizumab in one (6.6%). The mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at baseline was 1.35 ± 0.84 LogMAR, which improved to 0.39 ± 0.53 LogMAR at the last follow-up. Presenting VA 0.77 (±0.40) improved to 0.20 (±0.17) p value (0.180) in intravitreal bevacizumab only group, 1.29 (±0.35) to 0.75 (±0.15) p value 0.66 in Nd: Yag laser group, 2.67 (±0.58) to 0.46 (±0.28) p value 0.019 in PPV group and did not improve in combined anti-VEGF and focal laser group due to dense hard exudates at the fovea in one and persistent cystoid macular edema in another case. Conclusion: With regard to its presentation, which can vary tremendously, there are no approved guidelines for its treatment. The present study reinforces the need for a treatment guideline development. Customization of treatment should be considered depending on the clinical presentation of each case.
• #### Incidence of synchronous contralateral tonsillar malignancy in a known case of unilateral tonsillar carcinoma

Objective: The literature is divided with regards to contralateral tonsillectomy in a known/suspected case of ipsilateral tonsillar malignancy. In this study, we evaluate the incidence of indolent synchronous contralateral tonsillar malignancy (SCTC) in patients with known ipsilateral tonsillar malignancy. Methods: All patients diagnosed with ipsilateral tonsillar carcinoma (TC) at a tertiary teaching center between January 2016 and December 2019 were screened. None of the patients were suspected to have bilateral TC. All patients underwent appropriate imaging in the form of Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of head and neck region and then underwent bilateral tonsillectomy. The prevalence of bilateral tonsillar malignancy and the factors predicting them were analyzed. Results: In all 59 patients were included in the study. The mean and median age of the patient population was 60.8 and 59 years, respectively, with a male to female ratio of 3.2:1. The incidence of bilateral tonsillar malignancy in carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) was 3/10 (33.3%). Among the remaining 49 patients, incidence of synchronous contralateral tonsillar carcinoma (SCTC) was 2/49 (4.08%). Overall, 5/59 (8.5%) patients had synchronous bilateral tonsillar malignancy. Furthermore, dysplasia was found in the contralateral tonsil in 4/10 (40%) CUP patients. Among the remaining 49 patients, dysplasia was seen in the contralateral tonsil in 20/49 (40.8%) patients. The absence of p16 expression predicted higher probability of SCTC. Factors like gender, T stage, nodal status or smoking did not predict SCTC. Conclusion: We recommend bilateral tonsillectomy in all patients with suspected or proven TC (unilateral or bilateral) and CUP as it helps identify indolent SCTC and it does not add any significant morbidity to the patients.
• #### Pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid of the upper aerodigestive tract: a review article and novel approaches to management

Background: Autoimmune bullous diseases are rare conditions characterized by blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. The 2 commonest forms are pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. The oral cavity or oropharynx may be the initial site of presentation or often the only site involved. Summary: These conditions are often misdiagnosed or overlooked leading to poorer patient outcomes. Due to the chronic nature of these conditions and the systemic effects of treatment, there is a significant associated morbidity and mortality. As such, an understanding of the fundamentals of autoimmune bullous diseases is vital to those working in otolaryngology. The mainstay of management in both conditions is topical and systemic corticosteroids. There is also a role for immunomodulating and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as adjunct or alternative therapies. Surgical intervention may be required to protect the airway. Often multimodality treatment is required involving multidisciplinary input from otolaryngologists, oral surgeons, dermatologists, and rheumatologists. This review article will highlight the aetiology, pathology, clinical features, investigations, and management of both pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid including recent advances in management.
• #### Survey on the impact of COVID19 in patients on immunosuppression for ocular and orbital inflammatory disorders

Background: People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience skeletal muscle wasting, reduced levels of physical function and performance, and chronic systemic inflammation. While it is known that a relationship exists between inflammation and muscle wasting, the association between inflammation and physical function or performance in CKD has not been well studied. Exercise has anti-inflammatory effects, but little is known regarding the effect of moderate intensity exercise. This study aimed to (i) compare systemic and intramuscular inflammation between CKD stage G3b-5 and non-CKD controls; (ii) establish whether a relationship exists between physical performance, exercise capacity and inflammation in CKD; (iii) determine changes in systemic and intramuscular inflammation following 12 weeks of exercise; and (iv) investigate whether improving inflammatory status via training contributes to improvements in physical performance and muscle mass. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of previously collected data. CKD patients stages G3b-5 (n = 84, n = 43 males) and non-CKD controls (n = 26, n = 17 males) underwent tests of physical performance, exercise capacity, muscle strength and muscle size. In addition, a subgroup of CKD participants underwent 12 weeks of exercise training, randomized to aerobic (AE, n = 21) or combined (CE, n = 20) training. Plasma and intramuscular inflammation and myostatin were measured at rest and following exercise. Results: Tumour necrosis factor-α was negatively associated with lower $^{^{^{.}}}{\rm V}$O2Peak (P = 0.01), Rectus femoris-cross sectional area (P = 0.002) and incremental shuttle walk test performance (P < 0.001). Interleukin-6 was negatively associated with sit-to-stand 60 performances (P = 0.006) and hand grip strength (P = 0.001). Unaccustomed exercise created an intramuscular inflammatory response that was attenuated following 12 weeks of training. Exercise training did not reduce systemic inflammation, but AE training did significantly reduce mature myostatin levels (P = 0.02). Changes in inflammation were not associated with changes in physical performance. Conclusions: Systemic inflammation may contribute to reduced physical function in CKD. Twelve weeks of exercise training was unable to reduce the level of chronic systemic inflammation in these patients, but did reduce plasma myostatin concentrations. Further research is required to further investigate this.