Recent Submissions

  • Feasibility of using a GENEActiv accelerometer with triaxial acceleration and temperature sensors to monitor adherence to shoulder sling wear following surgery

    Barakat, Ahmed (2024-01-29)
    Background: Self-reported adherence to sling wear is unreliable due to recall bias. We aim to assess the feasibility and accuracy of quantifying sling wear and non-wear utilising slings pre-fitted with a GENEActiv accelerometer that houses triaxial acceleration and temperature sensors. Methods: Ten participants were asked to wear slings for 480 min (8 h) incorporating 180 min of non-wear time in durations varying from 5-120 min. GENEActiv devices were fitted in sutured inner sling pockets and participants logged sling donning and doffing times. An algorithm based on variability in acceleration in three axes and temperature change was developed to identify sling wear and non-wear and compared to participants' logs. Results: There was no significant difference between algorithm detected non-wear duration (mean ± standard deviation = 172.0 ± 6.8 min/participant) and actual non-wear (179.7 ± 1.0 min/participant). Minute-by-minute agreement of sensor-detected wear and non-wear with participant reported wear was 97.3 ± 1.5% (range = 93.9-99.0), with mean sensitivity 94.3 ± 3.5% (range = 86.1-98.3) and specificity 99.1 ± 0.8% (range = 93.7-100). Conclusion: An algorithm based on accelerometer-assessed acceleration and temperature can accurately identify shoulder sling wear/non-wear times. This method may have potential for assessing whether sling wear adherence after shoulder surgeries have any bearing on patient functional outcomes.
  • When should patients with T1N0 oral squamous cell carcinoma be considered for elective neck dissection?

    Mair, Manish (2024-01-30)
    Aims: To identify adverse pathological features (APF) predicting nodal failure in clinically node negative T1 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methodology: This study evaluated patients with T1N0 (≤5 mm depth of invasion (DOI) and ≤2 cm diameter) oral cancers from a prospectively maintained database between 1988 and 2020. All patients underwent surgical excision of the primary lesion without neck dissection. Patients underwent three monthly clinical surveillance and salvage neck dissection was performed if nodal relapse was diagnosed. Results: Overall, 141 patients were included. Nodal relapse was reported in 16/141 (11.3%) patients. Factors impacting regional recurrence-free survival were DOI ≥3 mm (HR: 2.4, P < 0.001), maximum tumour diameter ≥12 mm (HR: 1.1, P = 0.009), perineural invasion (PNI) (HR 7.5, P = 0.002) and poor differentiation (HR 5.3, P = 0.01). Rates of nodal relapse increased from 2% amongst patients with no APFs to 100% for those with four APFs. Patients with two or more APFs had significantly poorer 5-year regional recurrence-free survival (94.8% vs. 56.3%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients with T1N0 OSCC with two or more APFs (DOI ≥3 mm, diameter ≥12 mm, PNI or poor differentiations) should be considered for elective neck dissection.
  • Zebrafish optokinetic reflex: minimal reporting guidelines and recommendations

    Rodwell, Vanessa; Thomas, Mervyn (2023-12-20)
    Optokinetic reflex (OKR) assays in zebrafish models are a valuable tool for studying a diverse range of ophthalmological and neurological conditions. Despite its increasing popularity in recent years, there are no clear reporting guidelines for the assay. Following reporting guidelines in research enhances reproducibility, reduces bias, and mitigates underreporting and poor methodologies in published works. To better understand optimal reporting standards for an OKR assay in zebrafish, we performed a systematic literature review exploring the animal, environmental, and technical factors that should be considered. Using search criteria from three online databases, a total of 109 research papers were selected for review. Multiple crucial factors were identified, including larval characteristics, sample size, fixing method, OKR set-up, distance of stimulus, detailed stimulus parameters, eye recording, and eye movement analysis. The outcome of the literature analysis highlighted the insufficient information provided in past research papers and the lack of a systematic way to present the parameters related to each of the experimental factors. To circumvent any future errors and champion robust transparent research, we have created the zebrafish optokinetic (ZOK) reflex minimal reporting guideline.
  • Are displaced distal clavicle fractures associated with inferior clinical outcomes following non-operative management? A systematic review

    Haque, Aziz (2024-01-26)
    Background: Management of displaced distal clavicle fractures remains a topic of discussion due to notoriously high non-union rates, but there is little documented in the literature as to what effect this may have on patient-reported function. The aim of this systematic review was to look at non-operative management following displaced distal clavicle fractures to determine union rates, complications and patient reported outcome measures. Method: A review of the online databases MEDLINE and Embase was conducted, according to PRISMA guidelines. Clinical studies which included a cohort of non-operatively managed displaced distal clavicle fractures, and reported on union rate, complications, and patient-reported functional scores, were included. Results: 11 studies were eligible for inclusion (2 randomized controlled trials, 1 prospective non-comparative cohort study, 5 retrospective comparative cohort studies, and 3 case series) with a total of 779 patients included in this review. Average union rate was 63.2% (22.2% - 94.4%) in non-operatively managed patients, compared with 96.3% (87.9% - 100%) in operatively managed patients. The Constant-Murley Score, and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder & Hand Score were the most frequently used outcome measure tools. No study demonstrated any significant difference in any outcome measure when comparing non-operative with operative treatment. Complication rate (including non-union) in non-operatively managed patients was 45.1%, with 11.1% requiring delayed surgery. Average complication rate in the operatively managed groups was 41.2%, with 40.1% requiring a second operation. Conclusion: Non-operative management of displaced distal clavicle fractures results in higher non-union rates, but shoulder function remains excellent, and risk of complications and delayed surgery are low. Decision-making must take into account patient factors and expectations to provide high-quality, individualized care.
  • Learning curve of total ankle arthroplasty: a systematic review

    Arshad, Zaki; Haq, Ibrahim I; Bhatia, Maneesh (2024-02)
    Introduction: Together with ankle arthrodesis, total ankle arthroplasty is now accepted as a first-line intervention in the management of end-stage arthritis of the ankle. The evidence regarding how outcomes are affected by surgeon experience is inconsistent; we performed a systematic review to evaluate the effect of a learning curve in total ankle arthroplasty outcomes. Methods: An electronic database search was performed in PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane trials. Two reviewers independently conducted a two-stage title/abstract and full text screening. English-language original research studies comparing patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), complication/revision rates, operative time, length of stay or radiation exposure according to surgeon experience were included. Quality assessment was performed using the methodological index for non-randomised studies. Results: All but one included study report either improved PROMs, reduced complication/revision rate, reduced hospital stay length/operative time or reduced radiation exposure with increasing surgeon experience. However, the majority of these findings lack statistical significance. Two studies assessing the plateau of the learning curve report a wide range of plateau thresholds between 9 and 39 cases. Conclusion: This review finds a largely non-significant trend towards improvements in PROMs, complication, and revision rates with improved surgeon experience. The lack of statistical significance in a number of studies may be partially explained by methodological flaws, with more suitably designed studies reporting significant improvements. Future research into the effect of advancements in implant design and insertion guides is required to further characterise the magnitude of the learning curve and guide both mitigation and learning strategies.
  • Visual field deficits in albinism in comparison to idiopathic infantile nystagmus

    McLean, Rebecca; Sheth, Viral (2024-02-01)
    Purpose: This is the first systematic comparison of visual field (VF) deficits in people with albinism (PwA) and idiopathic infantile nystagmus (PwIIN) using static perimetry. We also compare best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography measures of the fovea, parafovea, and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer in PwA. Methods: VF testing was performed on 62 PwA and 36 PwIIN using a Humphrey Field Analyzer (SITA FAST 24-2). Mean detection thresholds for each eye were calculated, along with quadrants and central measures. Retinal layers were manually segmented in the macular region. Results: Mean detection thresholds were significantly lower than normative values for PwA (-3.10 ± 1.67 dB, P << 0.0001) and PwIIN (-1.70 ± 1.54 dB, P < 0.0001). Mean detection thresholds were significantly lower in PwA compared to PwIIN (P < 0.0001) and significantly worse for left compared to right eyes in PwA (P = 0.0002) but not in PwIIN (P = 0.37). In PwA, the superior nasal VF was significantly worse than other quadrants (P < 0.05). PwIIN appeared to show a mild relative arcuate scotoma. In PwA, central detection thresholds were correlated with foveal changes in the inner and outer retina. VF was strongly correlated to BCVA in both groups. Conclusions: Clear peripheral and central VF deficits exist in PwA and PwIIN, and static VF results need to be interpreted with caution clinically. Since PwA exhibit considerably lower detection thresholds compared to PwIIN, VF defects are unlikely to be due to nystagmus in PwA. In addition to horizontal VF asymmetry, PwA exhibit both vertical and interocular asymmetries, which needs further exploration.
  • Phenotypic features determining visual acuity in albinism and the role of amblyogenic factors

    McLean, Rebecca; Sheth, Viral (2024-02-01)
    Albinism is a spectrum disorder causing foveal hypoplasia, nystagmus, and hypopigmentation of the iris and fundus along with other visual deficits, which can all impact vision. Albinism is also associated with amblyogenic factors which could affect monocular visual acuity. The foveal appearance in albinism can range from mild foveal hypoplasia to that which is indistinguishable from the peripheral retina. The appearance can be quickly and easily graded using the Leicester Grading System in the clinic. However, interquartile ranges of 0.3 logMAR for the grades associated with albinism limit the accuracy of the grading system in predicting vision. Here, we discuss the potential role of nystagmus presenting evidence that it may not be a major source of variability in the prediction of visual acuity. We also show that interocular differences in visual acuity are low in albinism despite high levels of amblyogenic factors indicating that active suppression of vision in one eye in albinism is uncommon.
  • Proximal redundant fibula bone template for flap osteotomies in mandibular reconstruction: a novel technique

    Mair, Manish (2024-02)
    Background: Free fibula flap has been the workhouse of reconstruction for segmental mandibular defects. The use of computer aided design helps in achieving the desired aesthetic and functional outcome. It has its advantages but it comes with an extensive financial burden. Purpose: We propose the use of redundant proximal fibula bone segment as a template and a cutting guide for flap osteotomies in mandibular reconstruction. Methods: We have used this surgical technique in a case of T4 oral cancer that required segmental mandibulectomy. Result: Average ischaemia time was 1 hour and 30 minutes. Based on histopathology report, both the patients required adjuvant radiotherapy. Oral competence was maintained in both the patients. Post-operatively, the contour and the orientation of the mandibular reconstruction were comparable both clinically and radiologically to the previously planned 3D cases. Conclusion: This surgical technique provides an accurate guide for end angle osteotomy. In addition, it does not require any extra surgical step and does not increase the ischemia time of the flap with no additional extra cost. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12663-021-01567-4.
  • The STAR care pathway for patients with pain at 3 months after total knee replacement: a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial

    Esler, Colin (2022-01-28)
    Background: Approximately 20% of people experience chronic pain after total knee replacement, but effective treatments are not available. We aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care pathway for chronic pain after total knee replacement. Methods: We did an unmasked, parallel group, pragmatic, superiority, randomised, controlled trial at eight UK National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. People with chronic pain at 3 months after total knee replacement surgery were randomly assigned (2:1) to the Support and Treatment After Replacement (STAR) care pathway plus usual care, or to usual care alone. The STAR intervention aimed to identify underlying causes of chronic pain and enable onward referrals for targeted treatment through a 3-month post-surgery assessment with an extended scope practitioner and telephone follow-up over 12 months. Co-primary outcomes were self-reported pain severity and pain interference in the replaced knee, assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) pain severity and interference scales at 12 months (scored 0-10, best to worst) and analysed on an as-randomised basis. Resource use, collected from electronic hospital records and participants, was valued with UK reference costs. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated from EQ-5D-5L responses. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN92545361. Findings: Between Sept 6, 2016, and May 31, 2019, 363 participants were randomly assigned to receive the intervention plus usual care (n=242) or to receive usual care alone (n=121). Participants had a median age of 67 years (IQR 61 to 73), 217 (60%) of 363 were female, and 335 (92%) were White. 313 (86%) patients provided follow-up data at 12 months after randomisation (213 assigned to the intervention plus usual care and 100 assigned to usual care alone). At 12 months, the mean between-group difference in the BPI severity score was -0·65 (95% CI -1·17 to -0·13; p=0·014) and the mean between-group difference in the BPI interference score was -0·68 (-1·29 to -0·08; p=0·026), both favouring the intervention. From an NHS and personal social services perspective, the intervention was cost-effective (greater improvement with lower cost), with an incremental net monetary benefit of £1256 (95% CI 164 to 2348) at £20 000 per QALY threshold. One adverse reaction of participant distress was reported in the intervention group. Interpretation: STAR is a clinically effective and cost-effective intervention to improve pain outcomes over 1 year for people with chronic pain at 3 months after total knee replacement surgery. Funding: National Institute for Health Research.
  • Acute fracture of an extensively ossified segment of the Achilles tendon

    Mangwani, Jitendra (2024-01-09)
    Extensive tendon ossification is thought to be rare and is hypothesised to occur due to cell-mediated tissue remodelling. Literature outlining risk factors for the development of an ossified segment, and then a consequent fracture is limited to case reports and case series. A woman in her fifties with a background of several autoimmune disorders presented to a sports and exercise medicine clinic with posterior ankle pain following a bout of brisk walking a month prior. CT and MRI imaging demonstrated a fractured extensively ossified segment of the corresponding Achilles tendon. Conservative treatment was trialled for six months, however, was unsuccessful. Surgical excision of the calcified fragment and flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer were suggested as a potential solution. This case is compared with and builds on current literature surrounding pathophysiology and optimal treatment of extensively ossified segments of the Achilles tendon.
  • Advances in the treatment of keratoconus: Epithelial-On (EPI-On) Corneal-Collagen Cross-Linking (CXL) and CXL-Plus Procedures

    Ageed, Ahmed (2024-01-03)
    Keratoconus (KC) incidence is on the increase. The advent of corneal-collagen cross-linking (CXL) has revolutionized the management of KC. This systematic review looks at the efficacy and complications of two novel treatments within CXL: Epithelial-On (Epi-On) and CXL-plus procedures. Two separate literature searches were carried out up until July 1, 2021. Articles only published in the last two years were included to ensure that only the most recent articles were reviewed. A total of 15 articles were selected for this review. There were varied results regarding the efficacy of Epi-On. No significant difference was found between Epi-On and standard Epithelial-Off (Epi-Off) CXL. However, it was found that Epi-On was inferior to standard CXL in terms of reducing KMAX. There was a higher risk of progression in patients treated with Epi-On CXL, with an increased rate of patients requiring re-treatment due to the advancement of their KC. While some studies report CXL-plus procedures demonstrate long-term efficacy and safety, a considerable number of studies advise caution, reporting a significant deterioration in corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). Consequently, a question persists regarding the safest and most efficacious approach, given the lack of robust large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the current literature.
  • EPA Consensus Project Paper: Do implant- supported/retained prostheses improve the quality of life of patients with intraoral maxillofacial defects? - a systematic review

    Amin, K (2023-12-08)
    Background: There is limited evidence available regarding patient satisfaction and quality of life assessment in patients with intraoral maxillofacial defects managed with maxillofacial prostheses. Objectives: This systematic review aims to understand the impact of intraoral implant prostheses in improving the quality of life in patients with intraoral maxillofacial defects/abnormalities. Methods: A comprehensive search was performed of nine electronic databases from January 1970 to August 2022. Hand searching of the reference lists of the included papers and of relevant journal publications between 2012 and 2022 was also undertaken. Key information was extracted from included studies alongside quality and risk of bias assessments. Results: The systematic review encompassed a total of seven studies, comprising five retrospective and two prospective investigations, with one of the prospective studies being a randomised clinical trial. The evaluation of the risk of bias and quality assessment revealed heterogeneity in the results, preventing meaningful comparisons among the included studies. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the systematic review, there is limited evidence to suggest that implant prostheses improve the quality of life in patients with intraoral maxillofacial defects or abnormalities.
  • Hip arthroscopy in patients with generalized joint hypermobility yields successful outcomes: a Systematic Review

    Arshad, Zaki (2023-11-11)
    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of hip arthroscopy in patients with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). Methods: A systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. An electronic record search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase. A 2-stage title/abstract and full-text screening was performed using the following inclusion criteria: (1) observational studies, cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials; (2) describing more than 5 patients with a mean age over 18 years and GJH; (3) undergoing arthroscopy of the hip; (4) reporting patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), return to sport, or complications/reoperations; and (5) published in English. Results: Of the 517 articles identified, 10 studies meeting all selection criteria were included. Included studies report significant improvements in a range of different functional and pain-based PROMs. Most patients (25.0%-97.0%) in each study achieved a clinically important improvement postoperatively in at least 1 PROM. No complications were described in any of the 4 studies reporting this metric. One study each found an association between GJH and an increased risk of postoperative deep gluteal syndrome and iliopsoas tendinitis. The rate of revision arthroscopy ranged from 0% to 11.4%, and only 2 patients in a single study of 11 hips required conversion to total hip arthroplasty. No statistically significant differences were reported between patients with and without GJH with respect to any of the described outcomes. Conclusions: Patients with GJH may achieve good outcomes following hip arthroscopy with respect to PROMs, perioperative complications, reoperation, and return to sport. With effective labral repair and capsular closure, outcomes achieved in patients with GJH are comparable to those reported in patients without hypermobility. Level of evidence: Level IV, systematic review of level III to IV studies. Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Radiological criteria for acceptable alignment in paediatric mid-shaft forearm fractures: a systematic review

    Chong, Han Hong (2023-11)
    Introduction: Forearm fractures are common in children. The remodelling capacity of growing long bones in children makes these potentially forgiving injuries, recovering with good outcomes despite minimal intervention. Clinicians rely on radiological characteristics that vary with age to guide treatment decisions and minimise adverse sequelae. The purpose of this review was to consolidate the evidence base of radiological indications for intervention in paediatric mid-shaft forearm fractures. Materials and methods: The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for this review. Citable research output reporting radiological criteria for mid-shaft forearm fractures in paediatric patients (age ≤16 years) was screened and analysed to ascertain acceptable radiological criteria for non-operative management. Results: A total of 2,059 papers were initially identified; 14 were selected following screening. Sagittal angulation >15°, coronal angulation >10°, and/or >50% (or >1cm) translation were the most common radiological indications for intervention in children aged 0 to 10 years. For children over 10 years of age, the most common radiological indication for intervention was sagittal angulation >10°, coronal angulation >10°, and/or >50% (or >1cm) translation. Conclusion: This study revealed a scarcity of high-quality evidence to guide management and significant variation in outcome reporting throughout the published literature. Since Noonan and Price's 1998 recommendations, there has been no significant evolution in the evidence-base guided threshold for intervention in paediatric mid-shaft forearm fractures. There remains a pressing need for a robust multicentre observational study using the patient-reported outcome measurement information system (PROMIS) to address this complex and controversial area of uncertainty in paediatric trauma management.
  • Postoperative mobilization after terrible triad injury: systematic review and single-arm meta-analysis

    Shepherd, Jenna; Al-Shahwani, Awf; Abourisha, Eslam; Singh, Harvinder (2023-11-28)
    Background: Terrible triad is a complex injury of the elbow, involving elbow dislocation with associated fracture of the radial head, avulsion or tear of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament and fracture of the coronoid. These injuries are commonly managed surgically with fixation or replacement of the radial head, repair of collateral ligaments, with or without fixation of the coronoid. Postoperative mobilization is a significant factor that may affect patient outcomes; however the optimal postoperative mobilization protocol is unclear. This study aims to systematically review the available literature regarding postoperative rehabilitation of terrible triad injuries to aid clinical decision-making. Methods: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and CINAHL in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Inclusion criteria were studies with populations aged 16 years or over with terrible triad injury, underwent operative treatment, defined a clear postoperative mobilization protocol and reported the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). Secondary outcomes were pain, instability, and range of motion (ROM). Postoperative mobilization was classified as 'early', defined as active ROM commenced up to 14 days, or 'late', defined as active ROM commenced after 14 days. Results: A total of 119 articles were identified from the initial search, of which 11 (301 patients) were included in the final review. The most common protocols (6 studies) favored early mobilization, whilst 5 studies undertook late mobilization. Meta-regression analysis including mobilization as covariate showed an estimated mean difference of pooled mean MEPS between early and late mobilization of 6.1 points (95% CI 0.2 - 12) with higher pooled mean MEPS in early mobilization (MEPS 91.2) compared to late mobilization (MEPS 85), p = 0.041. Rate of instability reported ranged from 4.5 - 19%, (8-11.5% early mobilization, 4.5-19% late mobilization). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that early postoperative mobilization may confer a benefit in terms of functional outcome following surgical management of terrible triad injuries, without appearing to confer an increased instability risk. Further research in the form of randomized controlled trials between early and late mobilization is advised to provide a higher level of evidence.
  • Consensus guidelines on the management of musculoskeletal infection affecting children in the UK

    Abraham, Alwyn (2023-07-01)
    Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the consensus best practice approach for the investigation and management of children (aged 0 to 15 years) in the UK with musculoskeletal infection (including septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, pyomyositis, tenosynovitis, fasciitis, and discitis). This consensus can then be used to ensure consistent, safe care for children in UK hospitals and those elsewhere with similar healthcare systems. Methods: A Delphi approach was used to determine consensus in three core aspects of care: 1) assessment, investigation, and diagnosis; 2) treatment; and 3) service, pathways, and networks. A steering group of paediatric orthopaedic surgeons created statements which were then evaluated through a two-round Delphi survey sent to all members of the British Society for Children's Orthopaedic Surgery (BSCOS). Statements were only included ('consensus in') in the final agreed consensus if at least 75% of respondents scored the statement as critical for inclusion. Statements were discarded ('consensus out') if at least 75% of respondents scored them as not important for inclusion. Reporting these results followed the Appraisal Guidelines for Research and Evaluation. Results: A total of 133 children's orthopaedic surgeons completed the first survey, and 109 the second. Out of 43 proposed statements included in the initial Delphi, 32 reached 'consensus in', 0 'consensus out', and 11 'no consensus'. These 11 statements were then reworded, amalgamated, or deleted before the second Delphi round of eight statements. All eight were accepted as 'consensus in', resulting in a total of 40 approved statements. Conclusion: In the many aspects of medicine where relevant evidence is not available for clinicians to base their practice, a Delphi consensus can provide a strong body of opinion that acts as a benchmark for good quality clinical care. We would recommend clinicians managing children with musculoskeletal infection follow the guidance in the consensus statements in this article, to ensure care in all medical settings is consistent and safe.
  • Orthopaedic trauma hospital outcomes - patient operative delays (ORTHOPOD) study: the management of day-case orthopaedic trauma in the United Kingdom

    Nichols, Jennifer; Wildin, Clare (2023-06)
    Introduction: ORTHOPOD: Day Case Trauma is a multicentre prospective service evaluation of day-case trauma surgery across four countries. It is an epidemiological assessment of injury burden, patient pathways, theatre capacity, time to surgery and cancellation. It is the first evaluation of day-case trauma processes and system performance at nationwide scale. Methods: Data was prospectively recorded through a collaborative approach. Arm one captured weekly caseload burden and operating theatre capacity. Arm two detailed patient and injury demographics, and time to surgery for specific injury groups. Patients scheduled for surgery between 22/08/22 and 16/10/22 and operated on before 31/10/22, were included. For this analysis, hand and spine injuries were excluded. Results: Data was obtained from 86 Data Access Groups (70 in England, 2 in Wales, 10 in Scotland and 4 in Northern Ireland). After exclusions, 709 weeks worth of data representing 23,138 operative cases were analysed. Day-case trauma patients (DCTP) accounted for 29.1% of overall trauma burden and utilised 25.7% of general trauma list capacity. They were predominantly adults aged 18 to 59 (56.7%) with upper limb Injuries (65.7%). Across the four nations, the median number of day-case trauma lists (DCTL) available per week was 0 (IQR 1). 6 of 84 (7.1%) hospitals had at least five DCTLs per week. Rates of cancellation (13.2% day-case; 11.9% inpatient) and escalation to elective operating lists (9.1% day-case; 3.4% inpatient) were higher in DCTPs. For equivalent injuries, DCTPs waited longer for surgery. Distal radius and ankle fractures had median times to surgery within national recommendations: 3 days and 6 days respectively. Outpatient route to surgery was varied. Dominant pathways (>50% patients listed at that episode) in England and Wales were uncommon but the most frequently seen was listing patients in the emergency department, 16 of 80 hospitals (20%). Conclusion: There is significant mismatch in DCTP management and resource availability. There is also considerable variation in DCTP route to surgery. Suitable DCTL patients are often managed as inpatients. Improving day-case trauma services reduces the burden on general trauma lists and this study demonstrates there is considerable scope for service and pathway development and improved patient experience.
  • Five-year outcomes for patients with a displaced fracture of the distal tibia

    Kulkarni, Ashwin (2023-07-01)
    Aims: To report the outcomes of patients with a fracture of the distal tibia who were treated with intramedullary nail versus locking plate in the five years after participating in the Fixation of Distal Tibia fracture (FixDT) trial. Methods: The FixDT trial reported the results for 321 patients randomized to nail or locking plate fixation in the first 12 months after their injury. In this follow-up study, we report the results of 170 of the original participants who agreed to be followed up until five years. Participants reported their Disability Rating Index (DRI) and health-related quality of life (EuroQol five-dimension three-level questionnaire) annually by self-reported questionnaire. Further surgical interventions related to the fracture were also recorded. Results: There was no evidence of a difference in patient-reported disability, health-related quality of life, or the need for further surgery between participants treated with either type of fixation at five years. Considering the combined results for all participants, there was no significant change in DRI scores after the first 12 months of follow-up (difference between 12 and 24 months, 3.3 (95% confidence interval -1.8 to 8.5); p = 0.203), with patients reporting around 20% disability at five years. Conclusion: This study shows that the moderate levels of disability and reduced quality of life reported by participants 12 months after a fracture of the distal tibia persist in the medium term, with little evidence of improvement after the first year.
  • The impact of pre-operative mental health on outcomes of foot and ankle surgery: A scoping review

    Haq, Ibrahim I; Bhatia, Maneesh; Arshad, Zaki (2023-11-08)
    Background: Evidence suggests that certain groups of orthopaedic patients have an increased prevalence of mental health disorders than the general population. This scoping review aims to evaluate the effect of pre-operative mental health on outcomes of foot and ankle surgery. Methods: A literature search was performed in four databases. Studies investigating a relationship between preoperative mental health and postoperative patient reported outcome measures (PROMs), complications, readmissions or reoperations were included. Results: Of the 19 studies investigating the effect of preoperative mental health on PROMs, 16 (84.2%) reported a significant relationship between poorer preoperative mental health and inferior postoperative PROMs. Poorer mental health was associated with an increased rate of complications, readmissions and/or reoperations in four studies. Conclusions: Poorer preoperative mental health is associated with significantly inferior outcomes following foot and ankle surgery. Clinicians should evaluate mental health to stratify likely outcomes and aid in the management of patient expectations. Level of evidence: Level IV: Scoping review of Level II-IV studies.

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