Recent Submissions

  • Are displaced distal clavicle fractures associated with inferior clinical outcomes following non-operative management? A systematic review

    Haque, Aziz (2024-01-26)
    Background: Management of displaced distal clavicle fractures remains a topic of discussion due to notoriously high non-union rates, but there is little documented in the literature as to what effect this may have on patient-reported function. The aim of this systematic review was to look at non-operative management following displaced distal clavicle fractures to determine union rates, complications and patient reported outcome measures. Method: A review of the online databases MEDLINE and Embase was conducted, according to PRISMA guidelines. Clinical studies which included a cohort of non-operatively managed displaced distal clavicle fractures, and reported on union rate, complications, and patient-reported functional scores, were included. Results: 11 studies were eligible for inclusion (2 randomized controlled trials, 1 prospective non-comparative cohort study, 5 retrospective comparative cohort studies, and 3 case series) with a total of 779 patients included in this review. Average union rate was 63.2% (22.2% - 94.4%) in non-operatively managed patients, compared with 96.3% (87.9% - 100%) in operatively managed patients. The Constant-Murley Score, and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder & Hand Score were the most frequently used outcome measure tools. No study demonstrated any significant difference in any outcome measure when comparing non-operative with operative treatment. Complication rate (including non-union) in non-operatively managed patients was 45.1%, with 11.1% requiring delayed surgery. Average complication rate in the operatively managed groups was 41.2%, with 40.1% requiring a second operation. Conclusion: Non-operative management of displaced distal clavicle fractures results in higher non-union rates, but shoulder function remains excellent, and risk of complications and delayed surgery are low. Decision-making must take into account patient factors and expectations to provide high-quality, individualized care.
  • Learning curve of total ankle arthroplasty: a systematic review

    Arshad, Zaki; Haq, Ibrahim I; Bhatia, Maneesh (2024-02)
    Introduction: Together with ankle arthrodesis, total ankle arthroplasty is now accepted as a first-line intervention in the management of end-stage arthritis of the ankle. The evidence regarding how outcomes are affected by surgeon experience is inconsistent; we performed a systematic review to evaluate the effect of a learning curve in total ankle arthroplasty outcomes. Methods: An electronic database search was performed in PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane trials. Two reviewers independently conducted a two-stage title/abstract and full text screening. English-language original research studies comparing patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), complication/revision rates, operative time, length of stay or radiation exposure according to surgeon experience were included. Quality assessment was performed using the methodological index for non-randomised studies. Results: All but one included study report either improved PROMs, reduced complication/revision rate, reduced hospital stay length/operative time or reduced radiation exposure with increasing surgeon experience. However, the majority of these findings lack statistical significance. Two studies assessing the plateau of the learning curve report a wide range of plateau thresholds between 9 and 39 cases. Conclusion: This review finds a largely non-significant trend towards improvements in PROMs, complication, and revision rates with improved surgeon experience. The lack of statistical significance in a number of studies may be partially explained by methodological flaws, with more suitably designed studies reporting significant improvements. Future research into the effect of advancements in implant design and insertion guides is required to further characterise the magnitude of the learning curve and guide both mitigation and learning strategies.
  • The STAR care pathway for patients with pain at 3 months after total knee replacement: a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial

    Esler, Colin (2022-01-28)
    Background: Approximately 20% of people experience chronic pain after total knee replacement, but effective treatments are not available. We aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care pathway for chronic pain after total knee replacement. Methods: We did an unmasked, parallel group, pragmatic, superiority, randomised, controlled trial at eight UK National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. People with chronic pain at 3 months after total knee replacement surgery were randomly assigned (2:1) to the Support and Treatment After Replacement (STAR) care pathway plus usual care, or to usual care alone. The STAR intervention aimed to identify underlying causes of chronic pain and enable onward referrals for targeted treatment through a 3-month post-surgery assessment with an extended scope practitioner and telephone follow-up over 12 months. Co-primary outcomes were self-reported pain severity and pain interference in the replaced knee, assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) pain severity and interference scales at 12 months (scored 0-10, best to worst) and analysed on an as-randomised basis. Resource use, collected from electronic hospital records and participants, was valued with UK reference costs. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated from EQ-5D-5L responses. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN92545361. Findings: Between Sept 6, 2016, and May 31, 2019, 363 participants were randomly assigned to receive the intervention plus usual care (n=242) or to receive usual care alone (n=121). Participants had a median age of 67 years (IQR 61 to 73), 217 (60%) of 363 were female, and 335 (92%) were White. 313 (86%) patients provided follow-up data at 12 months after randomisation (213 assigned to the intervention plus usual care and 100 assigned to usual care alone). At 12 months, the mean between-group difference in the BPI severity score was -0·65 (95% CI -1·17 to -0·13; p=0·014) and the mean between-group difference in the BPI interference score was -0·68 (-1·29 to -0·08; p=0·026), both favouring the intervention. From an NHS and personal social services perspective, the intervention was cost-effective (greater improvement with lower cost), with an incremental net monetary benefit of £1256 (95% CI 164 to 2348) at £20 000 per QALY threshold. One adverse reaction of participant distress was reported in the intervention group. Interpretation: STAR is a clinically effective and cost-effective intervention to improve pain outcomes over 1 year for people with chronic pain at 3 months after total knee replacement surgery. Funding: National Institute for Health Research.
  • Acute fracture of an extensively ossified segment of the Achilles tendon

    Mangwani, Jitendra (2024-01-09)
    Extensive tendon ossification is thought to be rare and is hypothesised to occur due to cell-mediated tissue remodelling. Literature outlining risk factors for the development of an ossified segment, and then a consequent fracture is limited to case reports and case series. A woman in her fifties with a background of several autoimmune disorders presented to a sports and exercise medicine clinic with posterior ankle pain following a bout of brisk walking a month prior. CT and MRI imaging demonstrated a fractured extensively ossified segment of the corresponding Achilles tendon. Conservative treatment was trialled for six months, however, was unsuccessful. Surgical excision of the calcified fragment and flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer were suggested as a potential solution. This case is compared with and builds on current literature surrounding pathophysiology and optimal treatment of extensively ossified segments of the Achilles tendon.
  • Hip arthroscopy in patients with generalized joint hypermobility yields successful outcomes: a Systematic Review

    Arshad, Zaki (2023-11-11)
    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of hip arthroscopy in patients with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). Methods: A systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. An electronic record search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase. A 2-stage title/abstract and full-text screening was performed using the following inclusion criteria: (1) observational studies, cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials; (2) describing more than 5 patients with a mean age over 18 years and GJH; (3) undergoing arthroscopy of the hip; (4) reporting patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), return to sport, or complications/reoperations; and (5) published in English. Results: Of the 517 articles identified, 10 studies meeting all selection criteria were included. Included studies report significant improvements in a range of different functional and pain-based PROMs. Most patients (25.0%-97.0%) in each study achieved a clinically important improvement postoperatively in at least 1 PROM. No complications were described in any of the 4 studies reporting this metric. One study each found an association between GJH and an increased risk of postoperative deep gluteal syndrome and iliopsoas tendinitis. The rate of revision arthroscopy ranged from 0% to 11.4%, and only 2 patients in a single study of 11 hips required conversion to total hip arthroplasty. No statistically significant differences were reported between patients with and without GJH with respect to any of the described outcomes. Conclusions: Patients with GJH may achieve good outcomes following hip arthroscopy with respect to PROMs, perioperative complications, reoperation, and return to sport. With effective labral repair and capsular closure, outcomes achieved in patients with GJH are comparable to those reported in patients without hypermobility. Level of evidence: Level IV, systematic review of level III to IV studies. Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Radiological criteria for acceptable alignment in paediatric mid-shaft forearm fractures: a systematic review

    Chong, Han Hong (2023-11)
    Introduction: Forearm fractures are common in children. The remodelling capacity of growing long bones in children makes these potentially forgiving injuries, recovering with good outcomes despite minimal intervention. Clinicians rely on radiological characteristics that vary with age to guide treatment decisions and minimise adverse sequelae. The purpose of this review was to consolidate the evidence base of radiological indications for intervention in paediatric mid-shaft forearm fractures. Materials and methods: The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for this review. Citable research output reporting radiological criteria for mid-shaft forearm fractures in paediatric patients (age ≤16 years) was screened and analysed to ascertain acceptable radiological criteria for non-operative management. Results: A total of 2,059 papers were initially identified; 14 were selected following screening. Sagittal angulation >15°, coronal angulation >10°, and/or >50% (or >1cm) translation were the most common radiological indications for intervention in children aged 0 to 10 years. For children over 10 years of age, the most common radiological indication for intervention was sagittal angulation >10°, coronal angulation >10°, and/or >50% (or >1cm) translation. Conclusion: This study revealed a scarcity of high-quality evidence to guide management and significant variation in outcome reporting throughout the published literature. Since Noonan and Price's 1998 recommendations, there has been no significant evolution in the evidence-base guided threshold for intervention in paediatric mid-shaft forearm fractures. There remains a pressing need for a robust multicentre observational study using the patient-reported outcome measurement information system (PROMIS) to address this complex and controversial area of uncertainty in paediatric trauma management.
  • Postoperative mobilization after terrible triad injury: systematic review and single-arm meta-analysis

    Shepherd, Jenna; Al-Shahwani, Awf; Abourisha, Eslam; Singh, Harvinder (2023-11-28)
    Background: Terrible triad is a complex injury of the elbow, involving elbow dislocation with associated fracture of the radial head, avulsion or tear of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament and fracture of the coronoid. These injuries are commonly managed surgically with fixation or replacement of the radial head, repair of collateral ligaments, with or without fixation of the coronoid. Postoperative mobilization is a significant factor that may affect patient outcomes; however the optimal postoperative mobilization protocol is unclear. This study aims to systematically review the available literature regarding postoperative rehabilitation of terrible triad injuries to aid clinical decision-making. Methods: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and CINAHL in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Inclusion criteria were studies with populations aged 16 years or over with terrible triad injury, underwent operative treatment, defined a clear postoperative mobilization protocol and reported the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). Secondary outcomes were pain, instability, and range of motion (ROM). Postoperative mobilization was classified as 'early', defined as active ROM commenced up to 14 days, or 'late', defined as active ROM commenced after 14 days. Results: A total of 119 articles were identified from the initial search, of which 11 (301 patients) were included in the final review. The most common protocols (6 studies) favored early mobilization, whilst 5 studies undertook late mobilization. Meta-regression analysis including mobilization as covariate showed an estimated mean difference of pooled mean MEPS between early and late mobilization of 6.1 points (95% CI 0.2 - 12) with higher pooled mean MEPS in early mobilization (MEPS 91.2) compared to late mobilization (MEPS 85), p = 0.041. Rate of instability reported ranged from 4.5 - 19%, (8-11.5% early mobilization, 4.5-19% late mobilization). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that early postoperative mobilization may confer a benefit in terms of functional outcome following surgical management of terrible triad injuries, without appearing to confer an increased instability risk. Further research in the form of randomized controlled trials between early and late mobilization is advised to provide a higher level of evidence.
  • Orthopaedic trauma hospital outcomes - patient operative delays (ORTHOPOD) study: the management of day-case orthopaedic trauma in the United Kingdom

    Nichols, Jennifer; Wildin, Clare (2023-06)
    Introduction: ORTHOPOD: Day Case Trauma is a multicentre prospective service evaluation of day-case trauma surgery across four countries. It is an epidemiological assessment of injury burden, patient pathways, theatre capacity, time to surgery and cancellation. It is the first evaluation of day-case trauma processes and system performance at nationwide scale. Methods: Data was prospectively recorded through a collaborative approach. Arm one captured weekly caseload burden and operating theatre capacity. Arm two detailed patient and injury demographics, and time to surgery for specific injury groups. Patients scheduled for surgery between 22/08/22 and 16/10/22 and operated on before 31/10/22, were included. For this analysis, hand and spine injuries were excluded. Results: Data was obtained from 86 Data Access Groups (70 in England, 2 in Wales, 10 in Scotland and 4 in Northern Ireland). After exclusions, 709 weeks worth of data representing 23,138 operative cases were analysed. Day-case trauma patients (DCTP) accounted for 29.1% of overall trauma burden and utilised 25.7% of general trauma list capacity. They were predominantly adults aged 18 to 59 (56.7%) with upper limb Injuries (65.7%). Across the four nations, the median number of day-case trauma lists (DCTL) available per week was 0 (IQR 1). 6 of 84 (7.1%) hospitals had at least five DCTLs per week. Rates of cancellation (13.2% day-case; 11.9% inpatient) and escalation to elective operating lists (9.1% day-case; 3.4% inpatient) were higher in DCTPs. For equivalent injuries, DCTPs waited longer for surgery. Distal radius and ankle fractures had median times to surgery within national recommendations: 3 days and 6 days respectively. Outpatient route to surgery was varied. Dominant pathways (>50% patients listed at that episode) in England and Wales were uncommon but the most frequently seen was listing patients in the emergency department, 16 of 80 hospitals (20%). Conclusion: There is significant mismatch in DCTP management and resource availability. There is also considerable variation in DCTP route to surgery. Suitable DCTL patients are often managed as inpatients. Improving day-case trauma services reduces the burden on general trauma lists and this study demonstrates there is considerable scope for service and pathway development and improved patient experience.
  • The impact of pre-operative mental health on outcomes of foot and ankle surgery: A scoping review

    Haq, Ibrahim I; Bhatia, Maneesh; Arshad, Zaki (2023-11-08)
    Background: Evidence suggests that certain groups of orthopaedic patients have an increased prevalence of mental health disorders than the general population. This scoping review aims to evaluate the effect of pre-operative mental health on outcomes of foot and ankle surgery. Methods: A literature search was performed in four databases. Studies investigating a relationship between preoperative mental health and postoperative patient reported outcome measures (PROMs), complications, readmissions or reoperations were included. Results: Of the 19 studies investigating the effect of preoperative mental health on PROMs, 16 (84.2%) reported a significant relationship between poorer preoperative mental health and inferior postoperative PROMs. Poorer mental health was associated with an increased rate of complications, readmissions and/or reoperations in four studies. Conclusions: Poorer preoperative mental health is associated with significantly inferior outcomes following foot and ankle surgery. Clinicians should evaluate mental health to stratify likely outcomes and aid in the management of patient expectations. Level of evidence: Level IV: Scoping review of Level II-IV studies.
  • No clinical advantage with customized individually made implants over conventional off-the-shelf implants in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Aujla, Randeep (2023-11-18)
    Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be performed with either conventional off-the-shelf (OTS) or customized individually-made (CIM) implants. The evidence for CIM implants is limited and variable, and the aim of this review was to compare clinical and radiological outcomes between CIM and OTS implants. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies reporting on clinical, radiological, or alignment outcomes for CIM and OTS implants were selected. The studies were appraised using the Methodical index for non-randomized studies tool. Results: Twenty-three studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The studies comprised 2856 CIM and 1877 OTS TKAs. Revision rate was higher with CIM (5.9%) compared to OTS (3.7%) implants [OR 1.23(95% CI 0.69-2.18)]. Manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) was higher in CIM (2.2%) compared to OTS (1.1%) group [OR 2.95(95% CI 0.95-9.13)] and complications rate was higher in CIM (5%) vs. OTS (4.5%) [OR 1.45(95% CI 0.53-3.96)] but neither reached statistical significance. Length of stay was significantly shorter in CIM group 2.9 days vs. 3.5 days [MD - 0.51(95% CI - 0.82 to - 0.20)]. Knee Society Score showed no difference between CIM and OTS groups for Knee 90.5 vs. 90.6 [MD - 0.27(95% CI - 4.27 to 3.73)] and Function 86.1 vs. 83.1 [MD 1.51(95% CI - 3.69 to 6.70)]. Conclusion: CIM implants in TKA have theoretical benefits over OTS prostheses. However, in this present review, CIM implants were associated with higher revisions, MUA, and overall complication rates. There was no difference in outcome score and CIM implants did not improve overall target alignment; however, more CIM TKAs were found to be in the HKA target zone compared to OTS TKAs. The findings of this review do not support the general utilization of CIM over OTS implants in TKA.
  • Lack of regional pathways impact on surgical delay: analysis of the Orthopaedic Trauma Hospital Outcomes-Patient Operative Delays (ORTHOPOD) study

    Nichols, Jennifer; Wildin, Clare (2023-08-22)
    Introduction: Current practice following injury within the United Kingdom is to receive surgery, at the institution of first contact regardless of ability to provide timely intervention and inconsiderate of neighbouring hospital resource and capacity. This can lead to a mismatch of demand and capacity, delayed surgery and stress within hospital systems, particularly with regards to elective services. We demonstrate through a multicentre, multinational study, the impact of this at scale. Methodology: ORTHOPOD data collection period was between 22/08/2022 and 16/10/2022 and consisted of two arms. Arm 1 captured orthopaedic trauma caseload and capacity in terms of sessions available per centre and patients awaiting surgery per centre per given week. Arm 2 recorded patient and injury demographics, time of decision making, outpatient and inpatient timeframes as well as time to surgery. Hand and spine cases were excluded. For this regional comparison, regional trauma networks with a minimum of four centres enroled onto the ORTHOPOD study were exclusively analysed. Results: Following analysis of 11,202 patient episodes across 30 hospitals we found no movement of any patient between hospitals to enable prompt surgery. There is no current system to move patients, between regional centres despite clear discrepancies in workload per capacity across the United Kingdom. Many patients wait for days for surgery when simple transfer to a neighbouring hospital (within 10 miles in many instances) would result in prompt care within national guidelines. Conclusion: Most trauma patients in the United Kingdom are managed exclusively at the place of first presentation, with no consideration of alternative pathways to local hospitals that may, at that time, offer increased operative capacity and a shorter waiting time. There is no oversight of trauma workload per capacity at neighbouring hospitals within a regional trauma network. This leads to a marked disparity in waiting time to surgery, and subsequently it can be inferred but not proven, poorer patient experience and outcomes. This inevitably leads to a strain on the overall trauma system and across several centres can impact on elective surgery recovery. We propose the consideration of inter-regional network collaboration, aligned with the Major Trauma System.
  • A Rare Case of Exostosis of the Medial Sesamoid Bone

    Akram, Nimra; Mangwani, Jitendra (2023-06)
    Introduction: Exostoses in the foot and ankle are extremely rare with no current literature of exostosis of the sesamoid bone. Case report: A middle-aged woman was referred to orthopedic foot surgeons following a long-standing issue of a painful non-fluctuant swelling beneath her left hallux with normal imaging. Repeat X-rays, with sesamoid views of the foot, were conducted due to the patient's ongoing symptoms. The patient underwent a surgical excision and made a complete recovery. The patient is now able to comfortably walk for longer distances with no restrictions to her mobility. Conclusion: Conservative management should be initially trialed to preserve the foot's functions and limit the risk of surgical complications. As in this case, when surgical options are explored, it is critical to preserve as much of the sesamoid bone as possible to restore and sustain function.
  • Learning curve of total ankle arthroplasty: a systematic review

    Haq, Ibrahim I; Bhatia, Maneesh (2023-11-02)
    Introduction: Together with ankle arthrodesis, total ankle arthroplasty is now accepted as a first-line intervention in the management of end-stage arthritis of the ankle. The evidence regarding how outcomes are affected by surgeon experience is inconsistent; we performed a systematic review to evaluate the effect of a learning curve in total ankle arthroplasty outcomes. Methods: An electronic database search was performed in PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane trials. Two reviewers independently conducted a two-stage title/abstract and full text screening. English-language original research studies comparing patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), complication/revision rates, operative time, length of stay or radiation exposure according to surgeon experience were included. Quality assessment was performed using the methodological index for non-randomised studies. Results: All but one included study report either improved PROMs, reduced complication/revision rate, reduced hospital stay length/operative time or reduced radiation exposure with increasing surgeon experience. However, the majority of these findings lack statistical significance. Two studies assessing the plateau of the learning curve report a wide range of plateau thresholds between 9 and 39 cases. Conclusion: This review finds a largely non-significant trend towards improvements in PROMs, complication, and revision rates with improved surgeon experience. The lack of statistical significance in a number of studies may be partially explained by methodological flaws, with more suitably designed studies reporting significant improvements. Future research into the effect of advancements in implant design and insertion guides is required to further characterise the magnitude of the learning curve and guide both mitigation and learning strategies.
  • Surgical treatment of high-grade acute intramuscular hamstring tendon injuries in athletes leads to predictable return to sports and no re-injuries

    Aujla, Randeep (2023-10)
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the post-operative return to sport and re-injury rates following surgical repair of acute, first-time, high-grade intramuscular hamstring tendon injuries in high level athletes. Methods: Patients were identified using the databases of two sports surgeons. Once patients were identified their clinical notes and imaging were reviewed to confirm that all patients had injuries to the intramuscular portion of the distal aspect of the proximal biceps femoris tendon. All imaging was reviewed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist to confirm diagnosis. Surgery for such injuries was indicated in high-level athletes presenting with acute hamstring injuries. All patients were operated on within 4 weeks. Outcomes included Tegner scores, return to sport, Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS), current hamstring symptoms and complications including re-injury. Results: Eleven injuries (10 patients) were included in the study. All patients were male and Australian Rules Football players. Six patients were professional athletes and 4 semi-professional athletes. Median age was 24.5 (range 21-29) and median follow-up period was 33.7 months (range; 16-65). 91% were British Athletic Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC) 3c and 9% were BAMIC 4c. 91% were classed as MR2 and 9% as MR3 on the simplified four-grade injury classification. Athletes achieved return to play (RTP) at an average of 3.1 months (SD 1.0) post repair. All but one patient achieved a Tegner score equal to pre-injury levels. Maximum LEFS was achieved by all patients. Minor pain scores (all with VAS < 1/10) on sciatic and functional stretch were recorded in 36% and 27% of patients respectively, with subtle neural symptoms (9%) and subjective tightness (36%) also noted. There were no surgical complications in our patient cohort. No patients had a re-injury or re-operation. Conclusions: Surgical repair of high-grade intramuscular tendon injuries of the biceps femoris hamstring muscle in athletes resulted in high levels of return to pre-injury sporting levels and no re-injuries. The intra-muscular tendon should be scrutinized when assessing hamstring injuries in elite sport and offer surgery in high-grade cases.
  • Comparison between intra-articular injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, PRP and placebo for thumb base osteoarthritis: A frequentist network meta-analysis

    Thakker, Arjura; Sharma, Sanjeev Chand; Dias, Joseph (2023-10-11)
    Background and aims: Current evidence for the use of intra-articular injections for thumb base osteoarthritis (TBOA) is equivocal. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma. Methods: A Frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted comparing outcomes at short (≤3 months) and medium-term (>3-12 months) time points. Results: Data from 7 RCTs and 1 non-RCT (446 patients) were collected, consisting of corticosteroids (n = 7), hyaluronic acid (n = 7), platelet-rich plasma (n = 2) and placebo (n = 2). At the short-term time point, no intra-articular injection demonstrated superiority over placebo at reducing pain. At the medium-term time point, superiority of platelet-rich plasma at reducing pain over placebo and corticosteroids was seen following sensitivity analysis (RCTs only) (SMD -1.48 95 % CI -2.71; -0.25). No injection proved superior at improving function at short or medium-term time points. Conclusions: Overall, despite the promising result for platelet-rich plasma, the evidence quality was limited to two studies only justifying the need for further and larger methodologically robust trials investigating corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma vs each other and placebo.
  • Surgical treatment of chronic achilles tendon rupture: An anatomical consideration of various autograft options

    Adukia, Vidhi; Akram, Nimra; Ahmed Kamel, Sherif; Mangwani, Jitendra (12/09/2023)
    Background: Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a common injury and when missed leads to the development of a chronic Achilles tendon rupture. Studies suggest surgical treatment (either repair or reconstruction) for most patients with a chronic Achilles rupture due to the functional deficit caused by the lack of an intact Achilles tendon. Numerous autograft options such as the flexor hallucis longus, hamstrings, peroneal and quadriceps tendon have been used to reconstruct the Achilles tendon, either as a tendon transfer or as an interposition graft. The choice of autograft used usually depends on the size of the defect left after debridement of the Achilles tendon edges, but is often dictated by surgeon preference and tissue availability. Currently, there is no consensus as to the best autograft option. Aims and methodology: The aim of this study was to evaluate the various autograft options used to reconstruct the Achilles tendon, and the advantages and disadvantages of using each tendon, focussing specifically on the harvesting technique, anatomical and biomechanical properties. This was done by reviewing the current published literature, supplemented by carrying out anatomical dissection in the cadaveric lab. Results: The flexor hallucis longus is synergistically related to the Achilles tendon and biomechanically strong, however harvesting can result in weakness in big toe flexion. The peroneus brevis whilst being biomechanically strong is a much shorter tendon compared to the other autograft options. Similarly, the quadriceps tendon is also a strong tendon option, but may not be appropriate for larger chronic Achilles tendon rupture gaps. The semitendinosus tendon can be tripled/quadrupled to resemble the Achilles tendon, but is associated with higher risks of patient morbidity when harvesting the tendon. Conclusion: Treatment of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures remains a challenge. Each autograft option has its own unique advantages and disadvantages which should be considered on a case-specific basis. Further work is required to analyse the biomechanical properties of the autograft options to determine if one option is superior.
  • Reporting quality of abstracts and inconsistencies with full text articles in pediatric orthopedic publications

    Ahmed Kamel, Sherif (23/08/2023)
    Background: Abstracts should provide a brief yet comprehensive reporting of all components of a manuscript. Inaccurate reporting may mislead readers and impact citation practices. It was our goal to investigate the reporting quality of abstracts of interventional observational studies in three major pediatric orthopedic journals and to analyze any reporting inconsistencies between those abstracts and their corresponding full-text articles. Methods: We selected a sample of 55 abstracts and their full-text articles published between 2018 and 2022. Included articles were primary therapeutic research investigating the results of treatments or interventions. Abstracts were scrutinized for reporting quality and inconsistencies with their full-text versions with a 22-itemized checklist. The reporting quality of titles was assessed by a 3-items categorical scale. Results: In 48 (87%) of articles there were abstract reporting inaccuracies related to patient demographics. The study's follow-up and complications were not reported in 21 (38%) of abstracts each. Most common inconsistencies between the abstracts and full-text articles were related to reporting of inclusion or exclusion criteria in 39 (71%) and study correlations in 27 (49%) of articles. Reporting quality of the titles was insufficient in 33 (60%) of articles. Conclusions: In our study we found low reporting quality of abstracts and noticeable inconsistencies with full-text articles, especially regarding inclusion or exclusion criteria and study correlations. While the current sample is likely not representative of overall pediatric orthopedic literature, we recommend that authors, reviewers, and editors ensure abstracts are reported accurately, ideally following the appropriate reporting guidelines, and that they double check that there are no inconsistencies between abstracts and full text articles. To capture essential study information, journals should also consider increasing abstract word limits.
  • Patient-related risk factors associated with poorer outcomes following total ankle arthroplasty

    Haq, Ibrahim I; Bhatia, Maneesh; Arshad, Zaki (2023-09-01)
    Aims: This scoping review aims to identify patient-related factors associated with a poorer outcome following total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). Methods: A scoping review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A computer-based literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane trials, and Web of Science. Two reviewers independently performed title/abstract and full-text screening according to predetermined selection criteria. English-language original research studies reporting patient-related factors associated with a poorer outcome following TAA were included. Outcomes were defined as patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), perioperative complications, and failure. Results: A total of 94 studies reporting 101,552 cases of TAA in 101,177 patients were included. The most common patient-related risk factor associated with poorer outcomes were younger age (21 studies), rheumatoid arthritis (17 studies), and diabetes (16 studies). Of the studies using multivariable regression specifically, the most frequently described risk factors were younger age (12 studies), rheumatoid arthritis (eight studies), diabetes (eight studies), and high BMI (eight studies). Conclusion: When controlling for confounding factors, the most commonly reported risk factors for poor outcome are younger age, rheumatoid arthritis, and comorbidities such as diabetes and increased BMI. These patient-related risk factors reported may be used to facilitate the refinement of patient selection criteria for TAA and inform patient expectations.
  • Improvements in networking processes for hip or knee revision arthroplasty: a silver lining of the COVID-19 pandemic

    Chatterji, Urjit; Puttock, Darren; Kheiran, Amin; Brown, Andrew (13/09/2023)
    Background: Improvements in outcomes following hip and knee revision arthroplasties have been demonstrated following the introduction of specialised orthopaedic services in the form of 'hub and spoke' networking models. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, these networks have undergone some inevitable adaptations. We investigated the impact of recent adaptations on the performance of our regional revision arthroplasty network. Methods: A retrospective review of all referrals that were discussed at our regional revision arthroplasty meeting, over 2 separate phases, was undertaken. Phase 1 included data between March 2018 and April 2019, representing an interval prior to COVID-19 pandemic. Phase-2 included data between September 2020 and March 2021 (during COVID-19 pandemic). Data were collected from East Midland South Orthopaedic Network (EMSSON) database and included data relating to indication and time to revision surgery, surgeon's proposal plan, network proposal plan, and executed definitive plan. We compared and analysed network performance between 2 phases. Results: In phase 1, 99 cases were discussed in EMSSON meetings, equating to 35.7% of the region's revision arthroplasty volume, according to the National Joint Registry (NJR) records. Plan alterations were recommended in 48/99 cases (48.5%), of which 41/48 (85.4%) were adhered to. Phase 2 included 98 discussed cases, equating to 81.6% of the region's revision arthroplasty volume. Plan alterations were recommended in 20/98 cases (20.4%), all of which were adhered to (100%). Adherence to recommended adaptations showed significant improvement (p < 0.03). Conclusions: Based upon our observations, a greater volume and proportion of revision arthroplasty cases are now being discussed. Adherence to MDT recommendations has significantly improved following the described adaptations. The number of recommended adaptations to management plans have decreased, indicating an educational value of the network.Overall, these findings demonstrate a trend towards NHS England's target of 100% of revision arthroplasty cases undergoing MDT discussion.

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