Recent Submissions

  • Non-surgical treatments for Morton's neuroma: A systematic review

    Thomson, Lauren; Divall, Pip; Bhatia, Maneesh (2020-10)
    Background: Morton's neuroma (MN) is an entrapment degenerative neuropathy with a strong predilection for the 3rd interdigital web space. The objective of our study was to identify the most significant evidence produced for the non-operative treatment of Morton's neuroma and assess outcomes of these interventions. Method: The electronic databases Medline, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to October 2018 were searched. Two independent reviewers assessed the quality of the studies using the Modified Coleman Criteria. Statistics were combined across cohort studies to calculate pooled mean results, and improvements in outcomes. Results: Initial electronic and hand search identified 486 studies. After title and abstract review there were 38 that went on to full-text review. Finally, 22 studies were included in the final review. We identified 9 different non-operative treatment modalities; Corticosteroid injection, Alcohol injection, Extra-corporeal Shockwave therapy (ESWT), Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA), Cryoablation, Capsaicin injection, Botulinum toxin, Orthosis and YAG Laser Therapy. Corticosteroid showed a statistically significant reduction in mean VAS over all their studies (p < 0.01), with 50% success at 12 months. Alcohol showed promising short-term pain-relieving results only. Orthotics, Capsaicin injections, Cryoablation, Botulinum toxin, RFA and ESWT did show statistically significant improvements, but with limitation to their application. Conclusion: Following review, the authors would recommend the use of corticosteroid injections to treat Morton's neuromas. The authors feel that radio-frequency ablation and cryoablation would benefit from further well designed randomised controlled trials.
  • Risk of hip fracture following a wrist fracture-A meta-analysis

    Johnson, Nick; Stirling, Euan; Thompson, John R.; Ullah, Aamer; Divall, Pip; Dias, Joseph (2017-02)
    Aims: This purpose of this meta analysis was to investigate and quantify the relative risk of hip fracture in patients who have sustained a wrist fracture. Method: Studies were identified by searching Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL database and CINAHL from their inception to August 2015. Studies reporting confirmed hip fracture following wrist fracture were included. Data extraction was carried out using a modified Cochrane data collection form by two reviewers independently. Quality assessment was carried out using a modified Coleman score and the Newcastle Ottawa scale for cohort studies. An assessment of bias was performed for each study using a modified Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. A pooled relative risk(RR) was estimated with 95% CI from the RR/HRs and CIs reported in the studies. Results: 12 studies were included in the final meta-analysis (4 male, 8 female only). Relative risk of hip fracture following wrist fracture for women was 1.43 (CI 1.27 to 1.60). In men it was not significantly increased (RR 2.11, 95% CI: 0.93-4.85). Heterogeneity was low (I squared 0%) for both groups so a fixed effects model was used. Conclusion: Risk of a subsequent hip fracture is increased for women who suffer a wrist fracture (RR 1.43). Resources and preventative measures should be targeted towards these high risk patients to prevent the catastrophic event of a hip fracture. This meta analysis confirms and quantifies the increased relative risk of hip fracture after wrist fracture in women.
  • Origins of the threshold for surgical intervention in intra-articular distal radius fractures.

    Esworthy, George; Johnson, Nick; Divall, Pip; Dias, Joseph (2021-09)
    AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify the origin and development of the threshold for surgical intervention, highlight the consequences of residual displacement, and justify the importance of accurate measurement. METHODS: A systematic review of three databases was performed to establish the origin and adaptations of the threshold, with papers screened and relevant citations reviewed. This search identified papers investigating functional outcome, including presence of arthritis, following injury. Orthopaedic textbooks were reviewed to ensure no earlier mention of the threshold was present. RESULTS: Knirk and Jupiter (1986) were the first to quantify a threshold, with all their patients developing arthritis with > 2 mm displacement. Some papers have discussed using 1 mm, although 2 mm is most widely reported. Current guidance from the British Society for Surgery of the Hand and a Delphi panel support 2 mm as an appropriate value. Although this paper is still widely cited, the authors published a re-examination of the data showing methodological flaws which is not as widely reported. They claim their conclusions are still relevant today; however, radiological arthritis does not correlate with the clinical presentation. Function following injury has been shown to be equivalent to an uninjured population, with arthritis progressing slowly or not at all. Joint space narrowing has also been shown to often be benign. CONCLUSION: Knirk and Jupiter originated the threshold value of 2 mm. The lack of correlation between the radiological and clinical presentations warrants further modern investigation. Measurement often varies between observers, calling a threshold concept into question and showing the need for further development in this area. The principle of treatment remains restoration of normal anatomical position.
  • Dorsal bridge plating versus. Transarticular screw fixation for lisfranc injuries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Boksh, Khalis; Divall, Pip; Mangwani, Jitendra; Sharma, Ashwini (2020)
    Lisfranc injuries are relatively uncommon but carry devastating consequences if left untreated. Although many surgical techniques have been proposed for best operative management, there is an ongoing debate over which procedure is superior. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the outcomes of transarticular screw fixation and dorsal bridge plating in management of Lisfranc injuries. Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing the outcomes between screw and dorsal plate fixation. The pooled outcome data were calculated by random and fixed effect models. One prospective cohort and three retrospective studies were identified with a total of 210 patients with mean follow up of 40.6 months. All papers were analysed for quality using the modified Newcastle Ottawa score. The results show that dorsal bridge plating is associated with better American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score (AOFAS) compared with transarticular screw fixation (OR - 0.71, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.10, p = 0.02). Dorsal plating may also be associated with fewer cases of arthritis, although this was not significant (OR 2.46, 95% CI 0.89 to 6.80, p = 0.08). We found no significant differences between the groups in terms of Foot Function Index (FFI), post traumatic arthritis and failure of hardware material. Although our results suggest dorsal bridge plating may provide superior functional outcomes, there is a scarcity of literature with little robustness to make definitive conclusions. High quality randomised trials are required.
  • Use of Suture Tapes Versus Conventional Sutures for Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Boksh, Khalis; Haque, Aziz; Sharma, Ashwini; Divall, Pip; Singh, Harvinder (2021)
    Background: Various suture materials are available for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. More recently, suture tapes have become popular as they are perceived to be easier to use with less soft tissue irritation. However, little is known about their biomechanical and clinical properties compared with conventional sutures in rotator cuff repairs. Purpose: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on whether suture tapes are biomechanically superior to conventional sutures in arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs and whether this translates to superior functional outcomes and a lower incidence of retears. Study design: Meta-analysis. Methods: The Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, PubMed, Medline, and Embase were used to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria with the following search terms: (rotator cuff repair OR arthroscopic rotator cuff repair) AND ("tape" OR "wire" OR "cord" OR "suture"). Data pertaining to certain biomechanical properties (contact area, contact pressure, gap formation, load to failure, and stiffness), retears, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were extracted. The pooled outcome data were analyzed by random- and fixed-effects models. Results: After abstract and full-text screening, 7 biomechanical and 6 clinical studies were included. All biomechanical studies were on animals, with 91 suture tapes and 91 conventional sutures compared. Suture tapes had higher contact pressure (mean difference [MD], 0.04 MPa; 95% CI, 0.01-0.08; P = .02), higher load to failure (MD, 52.62 N; 95% CI, 27.34-77.90; P < .0001), greater stiffness (MD, 4.47 N/mm; 95% CI, 0.57-8.38; P = .02), and smaller gap formation (MD, -0.30 mm; 95% CI, -0.45 to -0.15; P < .0001) compared with conventional sutures. From the clinical analysis of the 681 rotator cuff repairs treated with a suture tape (n = 380) or conventional suture (n = 301), there were no differences in retear rates between the groups (16% vs 20% suture tape and wire, respectively; P = .26) at a mean of 11.2 months. Qualitatively, there were no differences in PROMs between the groups at a mean of 36.8 months. Conclusion: Although biomechanically superior, suture tapes showed similar retear rates and postoperative function to conventional sutures. However, higher-quality clinical studies are required to investigate whether there are no true differences.
  • Unconstrained metacarpophalangeal joint arthroplasties: a systematic review

    Divall, Pip; Aujla, Randeep; Sheikh, Nomaan; Bhowal, Bhaskar; Dias, Joseph (2017)
    Aims: We performed a systematic review of the current literature regarding the outcomes of unconstrained metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) arthroplasty. Materials and methods: We initially identified 1305 studies, and 406 were found to be duplicates. After exclusion criteria were applied, seven studies were included. Outcomes extracted included pre- and post-operative pain visual analogue scores, range of movement (ROM), strength of pinch and grip, satisfaction and patient reported outcome measures (PROMs). Clinical and radiological complications were recorded. The results are presented in three groups based on the design of the arthroplasty and the aetiology (pyrocarbon-osteoarthritis (pyro-OA), pyrocarbon-inflammatory arthritis (pyro-IA), metal-on-polyethylene (MoP)). Results: Results show that pyrocarbon implants provide an 85% reduction in pain, 144% increase of pinch grip and 13° improvements in ROM for both OA and IA combined. Patients receiving MoP arthroplasties had a reduction in pinch strength. Satisfaction rates were 91% and 92% for pyrocarbon-OA and pyrocarbon-IA groups, respectively. There were nine failures in 87 joints (10.3%) over a mean follow-up of 5.5 years (1.0 to 14.3) for pyro-OA. There were 18 failures in 149 joints (12.1%) over a mean period of 6.6 years (1.0 to 16.0) for pyro-IA. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the studies and the limited presentation of data. Conclusion: We would recommend prospective data collection for small joint arthroplasties of the hand consisting of PROMs that would allow clinicians to come to stronger conclusions about the impact on function of replacing the MCPJs. A national joint registry may be the best way to achieve this.