Recent Submissions

  • Incidence of synchronous contralateral tonsillar malignancy in a known case of unilateral tonsillar carcinoma

    Mahmood, Sara; Ahmed, Tauseef; Oladejo, Olaleye; Mair, Manish; Fagiry, Rihab; Hussain, Mohammed Hassan; Eltayeb, Mandy; Ahmad, Shoaib; Baker, Andrew; Vaidhyanth, Ram; et al.
    Objective: The literature is divided with regards to contralateral tonsillectomy in a known/suspected case of ipsilateral tonsillar malignancy. In this study, we evaluate the incidence of indolent synchronous contralateral tonsillar malignancy (SCTC) in patients with known ipsilateral tonsillar malignancy. Methods: All patients diagnosed with ipsilateral tonsillar carcinoma (TC) at a tertiary teaching center between January 2016 and December 2019 were screened. None of the patients were suspected to have bilateral TC. All patients underwent appropriate imaging in the form of Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of head and neck region and then underwent bilateral tonsillectomy. The prevalence of bilateral tonsillar malignancy and the factors predicting them were analyzed. Results: In all 59 patients were included in the study. The mean and median age of the patient population was 60.8 and 59 years, respectively, with a male to female ratio of 3.2:1. The incidence of bilateral tonsillar malignancy in carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) was 3/10 (33.3%). Among the remaining 49 patients, incidence of synchronous contralateral tonsillar carcinoma (SCTC) was 2/49 (4.08%). Overall, 5/59 (8.5%) patients had synchronous bilateral tonsillar malignancy. Furthermore, dysplasia was found in the contralateral tonsil in 4/10 (40%) CUP patients. Among the remaining 49 patients, dysplasia was seen in the contralateral tonsil in 20/49 (40.8%) patients. The absence of p16 expression predicted higher probability of SCTC. Factors like gender, T stage, nodal status or smoking did not predict SCTC. Conclusion: We recommend bilateral tonsillectomy in all patients with suspected or proven TC (unilateral or bilateral) and CUP as it helps identify indolent SCTC and it does not add any significant morbidity to the patients.
  • Pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid of the upper aerodigestive tract: a review article and novel approaches to management

    Hussain, Mohammed Hassan; Tanwir, Faiz; Sakagiannis, Georgios; Mair, Manish; Mahmood, Sara; Ashokkumar, Sithamparappillai (2021)
    Background: Autoimmune bullous diseases are rare conditions characterized by blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. The 2 commonest forms are pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. The oral cavity or oropharynx may be the initial site of presentation or often the only site involved. Summary: These conditions are often misdiagnosed or overlooked leading to poorer patient outcomes. Due to the chronic nature of these conditions and the systemic effects of treatment, there is a significant associated morbidity and mortality. As such, an understanding of the fundamentals of autoimmune bullous diseases is vital to those working in otolaryngology. The mainstay of management in both conditions is topical and systemic corticosteroids. There is also a role for immunomodulating and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as adjunct or alternative therapies. Surgical intervention may be required to protect the airway. Often multimodality treatment is required involving multidisciplinary input from otolaryngologists, oral surgeons, dermatologists, and rheumatologists. This review article will highlight the aetiology, pathology, clinical features, investigations, and management of both pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid including recent advances in management.
  • A rare case of advanced sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma with intracranial and intradural extension

    Rassam, Joseph; Sood, Tarun
    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer of the head and neck that primarily occurs in the salivary glands. Sino-nasal ACC (SNACC) is a much rarer entity; this paper presents an exceedingly rare case of SNACC with both intracranial and intradural extension which was ultimately treated with palliative radiotherapy due to its extensive invasion. In addition to this, a review of the literature has been performed to delineate specific learning points for the management of intracranial SNACC.
  • Throat and voice problems in Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and hypermobility spectrum disorders

    Lam, Chon Meng (2021)
    A small number of case reports and observational studies describe chronic nasal congestion, upper airway obstruction, dysphonia, vocal cord abnormalities, and swallowing abnormalities in the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. Little is known of the causes and therefore treatments of these, yet they are not uncommon findings in persons with hypermobility-related conditions presenting in the healthcare setting. We have a specialist multidisciplinary ear, nose, and throat and speech therapy practice with accumulating observational and empirical experience of managing these conditions, which include altered voice, choking, high dysphagia and anterior and deep neck pains. Here, we present our experience, some illustrative cases, and suggestions for future work in this evolving field.