Recent Submissions

  • Predictive factors for subjective vertigo following cochlear implantation: a regional multicenter cohort study of 395 patients

    Mair, Manish (2023-10-19)
    Introduction: Cochlear implantation (CI) is generally accepted as having a low rate of postoperative complications, but between 9.3% and 13% of cases experience vertigo postoperatively. This study aimed to examine patient, surgical, and device factors contributing toward the risk of postoperative vertigo. Methodology: A retrospective review was conducted of adult patients who underwent cochlear implant in a regional area of New South Wales from 2007 to 2018. A total of 395 cochlear implant cases were included in the final study. Results: The overall incidence of vertigo at 3 months of follow-up was 7.1% (n = 28/395). No difference was identified in this study between rates of postoperative vertigo between device factors, including implant make (Cochlear vs. Med-El), electrode shape (perimodiolar vs. straight), and electrode model. No significant difference was found also for surgical factors such as the number of electrode rings inserted, side of implantation, or surgical approach of tympanic ramp (round window insertion vs. cochleostomy).A higher percentage of patients with preoperative vertigo experienced vertigo postoperatively (18.4%, n = 7/38), compared with the population without preoperative vertigo (6.0%, n = 21/352) (p = 0.005). Patients with previous mastoid surgery also reported a higher rate of postoperative vertigo (20%, n = 9/45) compared with those who had not had mastoid surgery (5.43%, n = 19/350) (p = 0.006). The mean age of patients experiencing postoperative vertigo was higher than the population without postoperative symptoms (67 vs. 63). Conclusion: This study of a large multicenter population outlines that patient factors are more critical than surgical or device factors when considering risk factors for vertigo post-cochlear implant.
  • Rare cause of skull base osteomyelitis: a challenging diagnosis and management with a literature review

    Hussain, Syed Zohaib Maroof; Ekonola, Ayomide; Haq, Ibrahim I; Das, Sudip; Arshad, Zaki (2023-09-24)
    This is a case of skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) caused by a rare fungal species, Scedosporium apiospermum. This is a clinical case report with a review of the literature. SBO is a potentially life-threatening infection of the temporal bone. The patient presented to our hospital with a two-month history of left otalgia, otorrhea and reduced hearing, after failed initial intravenous antibiotic therapy. Thorough examination and further investigation confirmed the diagnosis of SBO caused by a rare fungal species, S. apiospermum. The patient was subsequently started on a long-term course of antifungals which led to an improvement of symptoms. This case highlights the importance of early recognition and considering early antifungal treatment in patients with persistent otalgia and otorrhea, particularly in those who have failed to respond to intravenous antibiotics. Further research is needed to better understand the optimal timing and duration of antifungal therapy in these patients.
  • Risk factors for the development of bilateral ménière's disease

    Rea, Peter (2023-08-15)
    Objective: To identify key risk factors for the development of bilateral Ménière's disease. Study designs: Observational study. Setting: Four NHS Trusts and four independent hospitals or clinics, within three distinct urban and rural regions within the United Kingdom (Norfolk, Leicestershire, and London). Methods: Patients with Ménière's disease were identified at ENT or audiovestibular medicine secondary/tertiary care and specialist private clinics. A range of patient-reported data, questionnaire data, and clinical data (audiometric, radiological, and specialist balance testing data) was inputted into a bespoke database. A logistic regression model was used to identify potential risk factors for bilateral Ménière's disease compared with unilateral Ménière's disease. Results: A total of 411 participants were recruited into this study, 263 from NHS Trusts and 148 from independent hospitals or clinics. In our cohort of patients, 22% of individuals were identified as having bilateral Ménière's disease. Two statistically significant independent variables were identified as risk factors for the development of bilateral Ménière's disease: the presence of psoriasis and a history of ear infections. Conclusions: Psoriasis and a history of ear infection have been identified as key risk factors for the development of bilateral Ménière's disease. It is anticipated that further work based on this finding will allow a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that predispose to the development of Ménière's disease symptoms.
  • Altered visual conscious awareness in patients with vestibular dysfunctions; a cross-sectional observation study

    Saman, Yougan; Rea, Peter (2023-03-21)
    Background: Patients with vestibular dysfunctions often experience visual-induced symptoms. Here we asked whether such visual dependence can be related to alterations in visual conscious awareness in these patients. Methods: To measure visual conscious awareness, we used the effect of motion-induced blindness (MIB,) in which the perceptual awareness of the visual stimulus alternates despite its unchanged physical characteristics. In this phenomenon, a salient visual target spontaneously disappears and subsequently reappears from visual perception when presented against a moving visual background. The number of perceptual switches during the experience of the MIB stimulus was measured for 120 s in 15 healthy controls, 15 patients with vestibular migraine, 15 patients with benign positional paroxysmal vertigo (BPPV) and 15 with migraine without vestibular symptoms. Results: Patients with vestibular dysfunctions (i.e., both vestibular migraine and BPPV) exhibited increased perceptual fluctuations during MIB compared to healthy controls and migraine patients without vertigo. In VM patients, those with more severe symptoms exhibited higher fluctuations of visual awareness (i.e., positive correlation), whereas, in BPPV patients, those with more severe symptoms had lower fluctuations of visual awareness (i.e., negative correlation). Implications: Taken together, these findings show that fluctuations of visual awareness are linked to the severity of visual-induced symptoms in patients with vestibular dysfunctions, and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms may mediate visual vertigo in peripheral versus central vestibular dysfunctions.
  • Sex-disease dimorphism underpins enhanced motion sickness susceptibility in primary adrenal insufficiency: a cross-sectional observational study

    Rea, Peter (2023-03-09)
    Environmental motion can induce physiological stress and trigger motion sickness. In these situations, lower-than-normal levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) have been linked with increased susceptibility to motion sickness in healthy individuals. However, whether patients with primary adrenal insufficiency, who typically have altered ACTH levels compared to the normal population, exhibit alterations in sickness susceptibility remains unknown. To address this, we recruited 78 patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and compared changes in the motion sickness susceptibility scores from 10 years prior to diagnosis (i.e. retrospective sickness rating) with the current sickness measures (post-diagnosis), using the validated motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire (MSSQ). Group analysis revealed that motion sickness susceptibility pre-diagnosis did not differ between controls and patients. We observed that following treatment, current measures of motion sickness were significantly increased in patients and subsequent analysis revealed that this increase was primarily in female patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. These observations corroborate the role of stress hormones in modulating sickness susceptibility and support the notion of a sexually dimorphic adrenal cortex as we only observed selective enhancement in females. A potential mechanism to account for our novel observation remains obscure, but we speculate that it may reflect a complex sex-disease-drug interaction.
  • Development of a questionnaire to assess mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to childhood hearing loss and Universal Newborn Hearing Screening

    Saman, Yougan (2023-02)
    Background: The assessment of the validity and reliability of measurement tools in research provides quality data. However, evidence of the validity and reliability of parental knowledge and attitude regarding childhood hearing loss and newborn hearing screening is scarce. Objective: To design a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) survey tool regarding childhood hearing loss and a Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programme of the rural Amajuba district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and then test for validity and test-retest repeatability. Methods: Face validity was conducted with 20 mothers and a content validity index was determined by two rounds of assessments, the first by 7 experts and the second by 3 experts. The kappa statistic was used to measure the stability of the tool using data from 160 mothers where repeated measurements were applied at two-week intervals. The feasibility of developing a tool was assessed by applying the criteria of science, population and resources. Results: The KAP tool was developed with twenty-nine items. For face validity, 97% of the participants reported that the items were clear, wording was appropriate and easy to read and the language was natural. Content validity produced excellent results with a scale and content validity index of 1. Test-retest repeatability for the KAP tool was good with a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.87). Individually, the knowledge scale had a kappa of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95); the attitude scale had a kappa of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.99): the practice scale had a kappa of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.97) and the awareness scale had a kappa of 0.92 (0.83, 1.00). The development of a KAP tool was shown to be feasible, given sufficient time, funds, motivation and a study population. Conclusion: The study produced a valid and reliable tool that can be useful in generating quality evidence of a community's KAP with respect to childhood hearing loss and newborn hearing screening. Evidence gathered could be used to tailor health education and health promotion material for a Universal New-born Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme in a culturally sensitive manner to promote service uptake.
  • Two-week-wait referrals in otolaryngology in a tertiary centre: cross-sectional study of benign outcomes, with a systematic review

    Mettias, Bassem; Charlton, Alexander; Ashokkumar, Sithamparappillai
    Objective: The two-week-wait referral is designed to improve early detection in cancer patients. This retrospective study analysed those ENT two-week-wait referrals to out-patient clinics in a tertiary head and neck oncology centre, from January to June 2018, which were not compliant with National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (2015 update). Methods: Referral symptoms were statistically analysed against National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines, with detailed analysis of reasons for non-compliance. In addition, a systematic review of similar previously published articles was conducted. Results: There were 1107 patients referred through the two-week-wait pathway. Of these referrals, 52 per cent were compliant with National Institute for Health and Care Excellence 2015 guidelines. Six errors were identified for non-compliant referrals, most commonly inconsistencies in referral (e.g. globus sensation) and intermittent disease course (e.g. intermittent hoarseness). Of all patients referred, 93 per cent were diagnosed with benign conditions, with laryngopharyngeal reflux being the commonest. Twenty-two per cent of referred patients were discharged after the first visit. Conclusion: Two-week-wait referral is inappropriately overused. There are many non-compliant referrals, and most of the outcomes are benign.
  • Antihistamines for motion sickness

    Saman, Yougan (2022-10-17)
    Background: Motion sickness is a syndrome that occurs as a result of passive body movement in response to actual motion, or the illusion of motion when exposed to virtual and moving visual environments. The most common symptoms are nausea and vomiting. Antihistamines have been used in the management of motion sickness for decades, however studies have shown conflicting results regarding their efficacy. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of antihistamines in the prevention and treatment of motion sickness in adults and children. Search methods: The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; Web of Science;; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 7 December 2021. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in susceptible adults and children in whom motion sickness was induced under natural conditions such as air, sea and land transportation. We also included studies in which motion sickness was induced under experimental conditions (analysed separately). Antihistamines were included regardless of class, route or dosage and compared to no treatment, placebo or any other pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis: We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were 1) the proportion of susceptible participants who did not experience any motion sickness symptoms; 2) the proportion of susceptible participants who experienced a reduction or resolution of existing symptoms. Secondary outcomes were 1) physiological measures (heart rate, core temperature and gastric tachyarrhythmia (electrogastrography)) and 2) adverse effects (sedation, impaired cognition, blurred vision). We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. Main results: We included nine RCTs (658 participants). Studies were conducted across seven countries, with an overall age range of 16 to 55 years. Motion sickness was induced naturally in six studies and experimentally in four studies (rotating chair). All the naturally induced studies only evaluated first-generation antihistamines (cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate). Risk of bias across the studies varied, with mostly low risk for random sequence generation and allocation concealment, and mostly high risk for selective reporting. Only the experimentally induced studies measured physiological parameters and only the naturally induced studies evaluated adverse effects. There were no studies that clearly assessed the paediatric population. Antihistamines versus placebo or no treatment Antihistamines are probably more effective than placebo at preventing motion sickness symptoms under natural conditions (symptoms prevented: 25% placebo; 40% antihistamines) (risk ratio (RR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 to 2.66; 3 studies; 240 participants) (moderate-certainty). The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of antihistamines on preventing motion sickness under experimental conditions (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.32, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.83; 2 studies; 62 participants) (very low-certainty). No studies reported results on the resolution of existing motion sickness symptoms. Antihistamines may result in little or no difference in gastric tachyarrhythmia under experimental conditions (mean difference (MD) -2.2, 95% CI -11.71 to 7.31; 1 study; 42 participants) (low-certainty). No studies reported results for any other physiological measures. When compared to placebo, antihistamines may be more likely to cause sedation (sedation: 44% placebo; 66% antihistamines) (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.02; 2 studies; 190 participants) (low-certainty); they may result in little or no difference in blurred vision (blurred vision: 12.5% placebo; 14% antihistamines) (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.48; 2 studies; 190 participants) (low-certainty); and they may result in little or no difference in terms of impaired cognition (impaired cognition: 33% placebo; 29% antihistamines) (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.38; 2 studies; 190 participants) (low-certainty). Antihistamines versus scopolamine The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of antihistamines on preventing motion sickness under natural conditions when compared to scopolamine (symptoms prevented: 81% scopolamine; 71% antihistamines) (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.16; 2 studies; 71 participants) (very low-certainty). No studies were performed under experimental conditions. No studies reported results on the resolution of existing motion sickness symptoms. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of antihistamines on heart rate under natural conditions (narrative report, 1 study; 20 participants; "No difference in pulse frequency"; very low-certainty). No studies reported results for any other physiological measures. When compared to scopolamine, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of antihistamines on sedation (sedation: 21% scopolamine; 30% antihistamines) (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.07 to 9.25; 2 studies; 90 participants) (very low-certainty) and on blurred vision (narrative report: not a significant difference; 1 study; 51 participants; very low-certainty). No studies evaluated impaired cognition. Antihistamines versus antiemetics Antihistamines may result in little or no difference in the prevention of motion sickness under experimental conditions (MD -0.20, 95% CI -10.91 to 10.51; 1 study; 42 participants) (low-certainty). The evidence is of low certainty due to imprecision as the sample size is small and the confidence interval crosses the line of no effect. No studies assessed the effects of antihistamines versus antiemetics under natural conditions. No studies reported results on the resolution of existing motion sickness symptoms. Antihistamines may result in little or no difference in gastric tachyarrhythmia (MD 4.56, 95% CI -3.49 to 12.61; 1 study; 42 participants) (low-certainty). No studies reported results for any other physiological measures. No studies evaluated sedation, impaired cognition or blurred vision. One study reported physiological data for this outcome, evaluating gastric tachyarrhythmia specifically. Antihistamines may result in little or no difference in gastric tachyarrhythmia (MD 4.56, 95% CI -3.49 to 12.61; 1 study; 42 participants; low-certainty evidence). This evidence is of low certainty due to imprecision as the sample size is small and the confidence interval crosses the line of no effect. Antihistamines versus acupuncture The evidence is very uncertain about the effects of antihistamines on the prevention of motion sickness under experimental conditions when compared to acupuncture (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.57; 1 study; 100 participants) (very low-certainty). This study did not assess the prevention of motion sickness under natural conditions, nor the resolution of existing motion sickness symptoms. There was no study performed under natural conditions. Physiological measures and adverse effects were not reported. Authors' conclusions: There is probably a reduction in the risk of developing motion sickness symptoms under naturally occurring conditions of motion when using first-generation antihistamines, in motion sickness-susceptible adults, compared to placebo. Antihistamines may be more likely to cause sedation when compared to placebo. No studies evaluated the treatment of existing motion sickness, and there are few data on the effect of antihistamines in children. The evidence for all other outcomes and comparisons (versus scopolamine, antiemetics and acupuncture) was of low or very low certainty and we are therefore uncertain about these effects of antihistamines.
  • Comparison of clinical estimations and radiological measurements in the context of paediatric cervical masses: How accurate are we?

    Wilkinson, Sophie; Stubington, Thomas; Cole, Simon; Elloy, Marianne (2022-10-20)
    Objectives: Cervical masses represent a common presentation to the paediatric ENT outpatient clinic. Despite their high prevalence, few represent an underlying malignant pathology. Currently, there is no universally accepted algorithm for management of such cases in the United Kingdom. Local guidance often centres around clinical interpretation of size when determining the need for investigation. With such emphasis placed on size, the authors sought to investigate the accuracy of physician palpation and in turn explore the validity of common referral pathways. Methods: A retrospective methodology was used to address the research objective. All paediatric ultrasound scans conducted during a 24-month period were reviewed to compare the clinical and radiological assessments of diameter. A 2 tailed paired student's t-test was selected to evaluate the differences between the two measurements and ultimately assess clinician accuracy. Results: 753 paediatric cervical ultrasound scans were conducted during the 2-year period. Initial analysis identified three discrete ultrasonographically diagnostic groups: lymph nodes (n = 532), non-lymph node masses (n = 162) and normal anatomy (n = 59). Further analysis of clinical estimation and radiological measurement demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p < 0.02) for the lymph-node group. A statistically significant difference was not demonstrated within the non-lymph node group (p = 0.66). When clinician assessment resulted in a value outside of what was considered accurate, lymph node sizes were predominantly overestimated (62/91, 68%). Conversely, non-lymph node masses where the clinical measurement was not within 5 mm of the ultrasound measurement were more commonly underestimated in size (11/45, 55%) but this was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a statistically significant tendency for clinicians to overestimate paediatric cervical lymphadenopathy. Calliper measurement may further improve accuracy of assessment.
  • COVID-19: Extensive epithelial damage and ciliary dyskinesia in hospitalised patients

    Saman, Yougan; Wilson, N; Deharo, T; Rea, Peter; Corden, Victoria (2022-02-03)
    Infection with SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe respiratory disease and it is predicted that the COVID-19 pandemic will leave a substantial number of patients with long-term respiratory complications (1).
  • Acute paediatric mastoiditis in the UK before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: A national observational study

    Rea, Peter (2022-01)
    Objectives: To explore the impact of COVID-19 on the management and outcomes of acute paediatric mastoiditis across the UK. Design: National retrospective and prospective audit. Setting: 48 UK secondary care ENT departments. Participants: Consecutive children aged 18 years or under, referred to ENT with a clinical diagnosis of mastoiditis. Main outcome measures: Cases were divided into Period 1 (01/11/19-15/03/20), before the UK population were instructed to reduce social contact, and Period 2 (16/03/20-30/04/21), following this. Periods 1 and 2 were compared for population variables, management and outcomes. Secondary analyses compared outcomes by primary treatment (medical/needle aspiration/surgical). Results: 286 cases met criteria (median 4 per site, range 0-24). 9.4 cases were recorded per week in period 1 versus 2.0 in period 2, with no winter increase in cases in December 2020-Febraury 2021. Patient age differed between periods 1 and 2 (3.2 vs 4.7 years respectively, p < 0.001). 85% of children in period 2 were tested for COVID-19 with a single positive test. In period, 2 cases associated with P. aeruginosa significantly increased. 48.6% of children were scanned in period 1 vs 41.1% in period 2. Surgical management was used more frequently in period 1 (43.0% vs 24.3%, p = 0.001). Treatment success was high, with failure of initial management in 6.3%, and 30-day re-admission for recurrence in 2.1%. The adverse event rate (15.7% overall) did not vary by treatment modality or between periods 1& 2. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant change in the presentation and case mix of acute paediatric mastoiditis in the UK.
  • Safety of otological operating during the COVID-19 pandemic: A national prospective audit of 1130 cases from 79 centers

    Rea, Peter (2022-07-01)
    Background: To assess compliance with guidance produced by the UK body representing all ENT Surgeons (ENT UK) and the British Society of Otology (BSO) on restarting otological surgery after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Safety was assessed by recording surgical complica- tions and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 transmission during this period. Methods: A prospective multicenter audit of otological surgery was conducted over a 12-week period, from June 15, 2020, to September 6, 2020. Results: One thousand one hundred thirty cases from 79 hospital sites across Great Britain were involved in the study; 91.1% were tested for SARS-CoV-2 pre-operatively, none of whom tested positive; 70.4% were isolated for 7-14 days prior to surgery; 28.2% of surgeons wore full personal protective equipment, compared with 66.6% of anesthetists and 68.2% of scrub staff. The endoscope was used in 75 (6.7%) of all proce- dures, operations were changed to be performed under local rather than a general anesthetic in 3 cases (0.3%) and the "double drape" to protect against aerosol was used in 321 (27.4%) of cases. Trainees were present in 80.3% of cases. Complications occurred in 4% of cases. No patients or staff contracted SARS-CoV-2 during the audit. Conclusion: ENT UK and BSO guidance was variably followed, with the highest compliance for the use of an FFP3 mask, a negative SARS-CoV-2 swab, and trainee presence in theater. Surgeons did not use full personal protective equipment as frequently as their anesthetic and scrub team colleagues. There were only minimal changes in surgical and anesthetic techniques. Otological operation after the first wave of the SARS- CoV-2 pandemic was performed safely with no reported COVID transmission or increase in major complications despite changes in operating practice.
  • Ten-year prevalence of acute hospital ENT infections and the impact of COVID: A large population study

    Jenkins, David; Rea, Peter (2023-01)
    Background: Acute ear, nose and throat (ENT) infections were the commonest referrals from accident and emergency to ENT services. The referral rate changed dramatically with season, year, national outbreaks and during the COVID pandemic. Method: Retrospective longitudinal study of the epidemiology of seven acute ENT infections in secondary care over 10 years. A mixed city and rural population of over 650 000 in central England was studied. The risk factors for each wave of infection during the surge of infection were sought. A statistical analysis of their significance was undertaken. This included analysis and correlation of group A-beta haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) in hospital and community. Seasonal variations, hospital admissions and the impact of the COVID were analysed. Results: There were 16 883 reported cases of the seven index ENT infections during the 10-year period. Great seasonal and year-to-year variations were recorded. There was an incremental rise in 2018. Spring had the highest season of acute ENT infections. An outbreak of GABHS was noted in the community in 2014. The mean duration of hospital admission was 1.5 days. There was no statistical ethnic or gender predominance. A dramatically lower number of acute ENT infections were recorded during the COVID-19 pandemic, and this continued after lifting of lockdown restrictions. Conclusion: A resurgence in scarlet fever directly and indirectly contributed to an incremental rise in acute ENT infections in the following years. Both hospital and community B-haemolytic cultures have declined during the COVID-19 pandemic due to a reduction in infections as opposed to reduced case ascertainment.
  • Incidence of synchronous contralateral tonsillar malignancy in a known case of unilateral tonsillar carcinoma

    Mahmood, Sara; Ahmed, Tauseef; Oladejo, Olaleye; Mair, Manish; Fagiry, Rihab; Hussain, Mohammed H.; Eltayeb, Mandy; Ahmad, Shoaib; Baker, Andrew; Vaidhyanath, Ram; et al.
    Objective: The literature is divided with regards to contralateral tonsillectomy in a known/suspected case of ipsilateral tonsillar malignancy. In this study, we evaluate the incidence of indolent synchronous contralateral tonsillar malignancy (SCTC) in patients with known ipsilateral tonsillar malignancy. Methods: All patients diagnosed with ipsilateral tonsillar carcinoma (TC) at a tertiary teaching center between January 2016 and December 2019 were screened. None of the patients were suspected to have bilateral TC. All patients underwent appropriate imaging in the form of Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of head and neck region and then underwent bilateral tonsillectomy. The prevalence of bilateral tonsillar malignancy and the factors predicting them were analyzed. Results: In all 59 patients were included in the study. The mean and median age of the patient population was 60.8 and 59 years, respectively, with a male to female ratio of 3.2:1. The incidence of bilateral tonsillar malignancy in carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) was 3/10 (33.3%). Among the remaining 49 patients, incidence of synchronous contralateral tonsillar carcinoma (SCTC) was 2/49 (4.08%). Overall, 5/59 (8.5%) patients had synchronous bilateral tonsillar malignancy. Furthermore, dysplasia was found in the contralateral tonsil in 4/10 (40%) CUP patients. Among the remaining 49 patients, dysplasia was seen in the contralateral tonsil in 20/49 (40.8%) patients. The absence of p16 expression predicted higher probability of SCTC. Factors like gender, T stage, nodal status or smoking did not predict SCTC. Conclusion: We recommend bilateral tonsillectomy in all patients with suspected or proven TC (unilateral or bilateral) and CUP as it helps identify indolent SCTC and it does not add any significant morbidity to the patients.
  • Pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid of the upper aerodigestive tract: a review article and novel approaches to management

    Hussain, Mohammed H.; Tanwir, Faiz; Sakagiannis, Georgios; Mair, Manish; Mahmood, Sara; Ashokkumar, Sithamparappillai (2021)
    Background: Autoimmune bullous diseases are rare conditions characterized by blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. The 2 commonest forms are pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. The oral cavity or oropharynx may be the initial site of presentation or often the only site involved. Summary: These conditions are often misdiagnosed or overlooked leading to poorer patient outcomes. Due to the chronic nature of these conditions and the systemic effects of treatment, there is a significant associated morbidity and mortality. As such, an understanding of the fundamentals of autoimmune bullous diseases is vital to those working in otolaryngology. The mainstay of management in both conditions is topical and systemic corticosteroids. There is also a role for immunomodulating and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as adjunct or alternative therapies. Surgical intervention may be required to protect the airway. Often multimodality treatment is required involving multidisciplinary input from otolaryngologists, oral surgeons, dermatologists, and rheumatologists. This review article will highlight the aetiology, pathology, clinical features, investigations, and management of both pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid including recent advances in management.
  • A report on quality of life outcomes following transmastoid plugging of superior semicircular canal dehiscence in a newly established service in a UK hospital

    Hussain, Mohammed H.; Baruah, Paramita
    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the quality-of-life outcomes following transmastoid plugging of semicircular canal dehiscence in a newly established service in a UK hospital. Method: Quality-of-life outcomes were measured using the Glasgow benefit Inventory score in three patients who underwent transmastoid plugging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence between September 2019 and March 2020. Patients also completed pre- and post-operative symptomatic questionnaires and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential testing. Results: All three patients reported an improvement in overall quality-of-life outcomes with a mean overall Glasgow Benefit Inventory score of +37 (range, +22.2-66.6). There were no immediate post-operative complications and hearing was preserved in all patients. Conclusion: This study reported an initial successful experience with transmastoid plugging of superior semicircular canal dehiscence. In all patients, improvement in quality-of-life measures and symptoms was reported. Keywords: Otolaryngology; Semicircular Canals; Vertigo.
  • A rare case of advanced sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma with intracranial and intradural extension

    Rassam, Joseph; Sood, Tarun
    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer of the head and neck that primarily occurs in the salivary glands. Sino-nasal ACC (SNACC) is a much rarer entity; this paper presents an exceedingly rare case of SNACC with both intracranial and intradural extension which was ultimately treated with palliative radiotherapy due to its extensive invasion. In addition to this, a review of the literature has been performed to delineate specific learning points for the management of intracranial SNACC.
  • Throat and voice problems in Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and hypermobility spectrum disorders

    Lam, Chon Meng (2021)
    A small number of case reports and observational studies describe chronic nasal congestion, upper airway obstruction, dysphonia, vocal cord abnormalities, and swallowing abnormalities in the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. Little is known of the causes and therefore treatments of these, yet they are not uncommon findings in persons with hypermobility-related conditions presenting in the healthcare setting. We have a specialist multidisciplinary ear, nose, and throat and speech therapy practice with accumulating observational and empirical experience of managing these conditions, which include altered voice, choking, high dysphagia and anterior and deep neck pains. Here, we present our experience, some illustrative cases, and suggestions for future work in this evolving field.