Recent Submissions

  • Contemporary outcomes of chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention in Europe: the ERCTO registry

    Ladwiniec, Andrew (2024-02-05)
    Background: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTO) have reached high procedural success rates thanks to dedicated equipment, evolving techniques, and worldwide adoption of state-of-the-art crossing algorithms. Aims: We report the contemporary results of CTO PCIs performed by a large European community of experienced interventionalists. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of different risk factors for procedural major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and trends of employment of specific devices like dual lumen microcatheters, guiding catheter extensions, intravascular ultrasound and calcium-modifying tools. Methods: We evaluated data from 8,673 CTO PCIs included in the European Registry of Chronic Total Occlusion (ERCTO) between January 2021 and October 2022. Results: The overall technical success rate was 89.1% and was higher in antegrade as compared with retrograde cases (92.8% vs 79.3%; p<0.001). Compared with antegrade procedures, retrograde procedures had a higher complexity of attempted lesions (Japanese CTO [J-CTO] score: 3.0±1.0 vs 1.9±1.2; p<0.001), a higher procedural and in-hospital MACCE rate (3.1% vs 1.2%; p<0.018) and a higher perforation rate with and without tamponade (1.5% vs 0.4% and 8.3% vs 2.1%, respectively; p<0.001). As compared with mid-volume operators, high-volume operators had a higher technical success rate in antegrade and retrograde procedures (93.4% vs 91.2% and 81.5% vs 69.0%, respectively; p<0.001), and had a lower MACCE rate (1.47% vs 2.41%; p<0.001) despite a higher mean complexity of the attempted lesions (J-CTO score: 2.42±1.28 vs 2.15±1.27; p<0.001). Conclusions: The adoption of different recanalisation techniques, operator experience and the use of specific devices have contributed to a high procedural success rate despite the high complexity of the lesions documented in the ERCTO.
  • Identification of allergens from aspergillus fumigatus-potential association with lung damage in asthma

    Bourne, Michelle; Monteiro, William (2024-02-09)
    Background: Component-resolved diagnosis allows detection of IgE sensitization having the advantage of reproducibility and standardization compared to crude extracts. The main disadvantage of the traditional allergen identification methods, 1- or 2-dimensional western blotting and screening of expression cDNA libraries with patients' IgEs, is that the native structure of the protein is not necessarily maintained. Methods: We used a novel immunoprecipitation technique in combination with mass spectrometry to identify new allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus. Magnetic Dynabeads coupled with anti-human IgE antibodies were used to purify human serum IgE and subsequently allergens from A. fumigatus protein extract. Results: Of the 184 proteins detected by subsequent mass peptide fingerprinting, a subset of 13 were recombinantly expressed and purified. In a panel of 52 A. fumigatus-sensitized people with asthma, 23 non-fungal-sensitized asthmatics and 18 healthy individuals, only the former showed an IgE reaction by immunoblotting and/or ELISA. We discovered 11 proteins not yet described as A. fumigatus allergens, with fructose-bisphosphate aldolase class II (FBA2) (33%), NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (31%) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (27%) being the most prevalent. With respect to these three allergens, native versus denatured protein assays indicated a better recognition of the native proteins. Seven of 11 allergens fulfilled the WHO/IUIS criteria and were accepted as new A. fumigatus allergens. Conclusion: In conclusion, we introduce a straightforward method of allergen identification from complex allergenic sources such as A. fumigatus by immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry, which has the advantage over traditional methods of identifying allergens by maintaining the structure of the proteins.
  • Improving self-management behaviour through a digital lifestyle intervention: An internal pilot study

    Davies, Melanie; Graham-Brown, Matthew P M; Lightfoot, Courtney; Vadaszy, Noemi (2024-01-31)
    Background: Self-management is a key component of successful chronic kidney disease (CKD) management. Here, we present the findings from the internal pilot of a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed to test the effect of a digital self-management programme ('My Kidneys & Me' (MK&M)). Methods: Participants (aged ≥18 years and CKD stages 3-4) were recruited from hospital kidney services across England. Study processes were completed virtually. Participants were randomised 2:1 to either intervention (MK&M) or control group. The first 60 participants recruited were included in a 10-week internal pilot which assessed study feasibility and acceptability against pre-specified progression criteria: 1) eligibility and recruitment, acceptability of 2) randomisation and 3) outcomes, 4) MK&M activation, and 5) retention and attrition rates. Semi-structured interviews further explored views on trial participation. Results: Of the 60 participants recruited, 41 were randomised to MK&M and 19 to control. All participants completed baseline measures and 62% (n=37) completed post-intervention outcome measures. All progression criteria met the minimum thresholds to proceed. Nine participants were interviewed. The themes identified were satisfaction with study recruitment processes (openness to participate, reading and agreeing to "terms and conditions"), acceptability of study design (remote study participation, acceptability of randomisation, completion of online assessment(s)), and methods to improve recruitment and retention (personalised approach, follow-up communication). Conclusion: This internal pilot demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of a virtually run RCT. Progression criteria thresholds to proceed to the definitive RCT were met. Areas for improvement were identified and protocol amendments were made to improve trial delivery.
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-assisted surgery for traumatic bronchial rupture: a report of three cases

    Sef, Davarin (2023-12-30)
    Background: Traumatic tracheal rupture is a severe closed chest injury that often causes major respiratory and circulatory disturbances requiring emergency surgery. We have found that veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) employs lung-protective ventilation strategies to facilitate lung rest, aiming to minimize the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury, while ensuring adequate oxygenation. Case description: We presented 3 critically ill patients who presented with traumatic bronchial rupture between 2019 and 2021, and underwent emergency thoracic surgery with the help of VV-ECMO. The ECMO support time, the operative time, the duration of postoperative hospital stay, and the postoperative mechanical ventilation time were collected in this study. All patients were successfully treated and discharged home. The duration of surgery ranged from 135 to 180 min, the duration of ECMO use ranged from 98 to 123 h, the duration of postoperative ventilator use ranged from 5 to 8 days, and the duration of postoperative hospital stay ranged from 14 to 30 days. All 3 patients had good postoperative pulmonary re-expansion, with no residual tracheal or bronchial stenosis, and good physical activity following the surgery. Conclusions: We reported successful use of VV-ECMO in critically ill patients with traumatic bronchial rupture presenting in acute respiratory and circulatory failure. Performing emergency surgery with ECMO-assisted support can provide more time to stabilize the patient and ensure the safety of the procedure. However, considering the small sample size of this study, larger cohorts with long-term follow-up data are needed to further evaluate its application.
  • Pulmonary Rehabilitation for individuals with persistent symptoms following COVID-19

    Daynes, Enya; Mills, George; McAuley, Hamish J C; Singh, Sally J; Greening, Neil J (2024-01-19)
    Topic importance: COVID-19 can cause ongoing and persistent symptoms (such as breathlessness and fatigue) that lead to reduced functional capacity. There are parallels in symptoms and functional limitations in adults with post-COVID symptoms and adults with chronic respiratory diseases. Pulmonary Rehabilitation is a key treatment for adults with chronic respiratory diseases with the aims to improve symptom management, increase functional capacity. Given the similarities in presentation and aims, a Pulmonary Rehabilitation programme may be optimally placed to meet the needs of those with ongoing symptoms following COVID-19. Review findings: Aerobic and strength training has shown benefit for adults living with Long COVID though there is little evidence on structured education in this population. Breathing pattern disorder is common in adults with Long COVID and considerations to treatment prior to rehabilitation, or alongside rehabilitation are necessary. Considerations to Post Exertional Malaise is important in this population and evidence from the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome literature supports the need for individualisation of exercise programmes, and considerations for those that have an adverse reaction to activity and/or exercise. Summary: This narrative review summarises the current evidence of Pulmonary Rehabilitation programmes in a long COVID population. Where the evidence is lacking in long COVID the supporting evidence of these programmes in chronic respiratory diseases has highlighted the importance of aerobic and strength training, considerations for fatigue, potential mechanism for immunology improvement and management of breathing pattern disorders in these programmes.
  • PET-CT-guided characterisation of progressive, preclinical tuberculosis infection and its association with low-level circulating mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in household contacts in Leicester, UK: a prospective cohort study

    Haldar, Pranabashis; Kamil, Anver; Nazareth, Joshua; Sharifpour, Meedya; Verma, Raman; Woltmann, Gerrit (2024-01-17)
    Background: Incipient tuberculosis, a progressive state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with an increased risk of developing into tuberculosis disease, remains poorly characterised. Animal models suggest an association of progressive infection with bacteraemia. Circulating M tuberculosis DNA has previously been detected in pulmonary tuberculosis by use of Actiphage, a bacteriophage-based real-time PCR assay. We aimed to investigate whether serial [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG)-PET-CT could be used to characterise the state and progressive trajectory of incipient tuberculosis, and examine whether these PET-CT findings are associated with Actiphage-based detection of circulating M tuberculosis DNA. Methods: We did a prospective 12-month cohort study in healthy, asymptomatic adults (aged ≥16 years) who were household contacts of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, and who had a clinical phenotype of latent tuberculosis infection, in Leicester, UK. Actiphage testing of participants' blood samples was done at baseline, and [18F]FDG PET-CT at baseline and after 3 months. Baseline PET-CT features were classified as positive, indeterminate, or negative, on the basis of the quantitation (maximum standardised uptake value [SUVmax]) and distribution of [18F]FDG uptake. Microbiological sampling was done at amenable sites of [18F]FDG uptake. Changes in [18F]FDG uptake after 3 months were quantitatively categorised as progressive, stable, or resolving. Participants received treatment if features of incipient tuberculosis, defined as microbiological detection of M tuberculosis or progressive PET-CT change, were identified. Findings: 20 contacts were recruited between Aug 5 and Nov 5, 2020; 16 of these participants had a positive result on IFNγ release assay (QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus [QFT]) indicating tuberculosis infection. Baseline PET-CT scans were positive in ten contacts (all QFT positive), indeterminate in six contacts (three QFT positive), and negative in four contacts (three QFT positive). Four of eight PET-CT-positive contacts sampled had M tuberculosis identified (three through culture, one through Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra test) from intrathoracic lymph nodes or bronchial wash and received full antituberculosis treatment. Two further unsampled PET-CT-positive contacts were also treated: one with [18F]FDG uptake in the lung (SUVmax 9·4) received empirical antituberculosis treatment and one who showed progressive [18F]FDG uptake received preventive treatment. The ten untreated contacts with [18F]FDG uptake at baseline (seven QFT positive) had stable or resolving changes at follow-up and remained free of tuberculosis disease after 12 months. A positive baseline Actiphage test was associated with the presence of features of incipient tuberculosis requiring treatment (p=0·018). Interpretation: Microbiological and inflammatory features of incipient tuberculosis can be visualised on PET-CT and are associated with M tuberculosis detection in the blood, supporting the development of pathogen-directed blood biomarkers of tuberculosis risk. Funding: MRC Confidence in Concept.
  • Advance care planning for patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis: narrative review of the current evidence, and future considerations

    Adenwalla, Sherna; Faull, Christina; Graham-Brown, MPM (2024-01-18)
    Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have a high symptom-burden and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite this, evidence has shown that this patient group does not have timely discussions to plan for deterioration and death, and at the end of life there are unmet palliative care needs. Advance care planning is a process that can help patients share their personal values and preferences for their future care and prepare for declining health. Earlier, more integrated and holistic advance care planning has the potential to improve access to care services, communication, and preparedness for future decision-making and changing circumstances. However, there are many barriers to successful implementation of advance care planning in this population. In this narrative review we discuss the current evidence for advance care planning in patients on dialysis, the data around the barriers to advance care planning implementation, and interventions that have been trialled. The review explores whether the concepts and approaches to advance care planning in this population need to be updated to encompass current and future care. It suggests that a shift from a problem-orientated approach to a goal-orientated approach may lead to better engagement, with more patient-centred and satisfying outcomes.
  • Real-world experience of nintedanib for progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease in the UK

    Khan, Fasihu; Toor, Sameen (2024-01-15)
    Background: Nintedanib slows progression of lung function decline in patients with progressive fibrosing (PF) interstitial lung disease (ILD) and was recommended for this indication within the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service in Scotland in June 2021 and in England, Wales and Northern Ireland in November 2021. To date, there has been no national evaluation of the use of nintedanib for PF-ILD in a real-world setting. Methods: 26 UK centres were invited to take part in a national service evaluation between 17 November 2021 and 30 September 2022. Summary data regarding underlying diagnosis, pulmonary function tests, diagnostic criteria, radiological appearance, concurrent immunosuppressive therapy and drug tolerability were collected via electronic survey. Results: 24 UK prescribing centres responded to the service evaluation invitation. Between 17 November 2021 and 30 September 2022, 1120 patients received a multidisciplinary team recommendation to commence nintedanib for PF-ILD. The most common underlying diagnoses were hypersensitivity pneumonitis (298 out of 1120, 26.6%), connective tissue disease associated ILD (197 out of 1120, 17.6%), rheumatoid arthritis associated ILD (180 out of 1120, 16.0%), idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (125 out of 1120, 11.1%) and unclassifiable ILD (100 out of 1120, 8.9%). Of these, 54.4% (609 out of 1120) were receiving concomitant corticosteroids, 355 (31.7%) out of 1120 were receiving concomitant mycophenolate mofetil and 340 (30.3%) out of 1120 were receiving another immunosuppressive/modulatory therapy. Radiological progression of ILD combined with worsening respiratory symptoms was the most common reason for the diagnosis of PF-ILD. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the use of nintedanib for the treatment of PF-ILD across a broad range of underlying conditions. Nintedanib is frequently co-prescribed alongside immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapy. The use of nintedanib for the treatment of PF-ILD has demonstrated acceptable tolerability in a real-world setting.
  • Accelarated immune ageing is associated with COVID-19 disease severity

    Brightling, Christopher; Elneima, Omer; Evans, Rachael; Greening, Neil; McAuley, Hamish J C; Singapuri, Amisha (2024-01-11)
    Background: The striking increase in COVID-19 severity in older adults provides a clear example of immunesenescence, the age-related remodelling of the immune system. To better characterise the association between convalescent immunesenescence and acute disease severity, we determined the immune phenotype of COVID-19 survivors and non-infected controls. Results: We performed detailed immune phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 103 COVID-19 survivors 3-5 months post recovery who were classified as having had severe (n = 56; age 53.12 ± 11.30 years), moderate (n = 32; age 52.28 ± 11.43 years) or mild (n = 15; age 49.67 ± 7.30 years) disease and compared with age and sex-matched healthy adults (n = 59; age 50.49 ± 10.68 years). We assessed a broad range of immune cell phenotypes to generate a composite score, IMM-AGE, to determine the degree of immune senescence. We found increased immunesenescence features in severe COVID-19 survivors compared to controls including: a reduced frequency and number of naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells (p < 0.0001); increased frequency of EMRA CD4 (p < 0.003) and CD8 T cells (p < 0.001); a higher frequency (p < 0.0001) and absolute numbers (p < 0.001) of CD28-ve CD57+ve senescent CD4 and CD8 T cells; higher frequency (p < 0.003) and absolute numbers (p < 0.02) of PD-1 expressing exhausted CD8 T cells; a two-fold increase in Th17 polarisation (p < 0.0001); higher frequency of memory B cells (p < 0.001) and increased frequency (p < 0.0001) and numbers (p < 0.001) of CD57+ve senescent NK cells. As a result, the IMM-AGE score was significantly higher in severe COVID-19 survivors than in controls (p < 0.001). Few differences were seen for those with moderate disease and none for mild disease. Regression analysis revealed the only pre-existing variable influencing the IMM-AGE score was South Asian ethnicity ([Formula: see text] = 0.174, p = 0.043), with a major influence being disease severity ([Formula: see text] = 0.188, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Our analyses reveal a state of enhanced immune ageing in survivors of severe COVID-19 and suggest this could be related to SARS-Cov-2 infection. Our data support the rationale for trials of anti-immune ageing interventions for improving clinical outcomes in these patients with severe disease.
  • Frailty in acute coronary syndromes. A systematic review and narrative synthesis of frailty assessment tools and interventions from randomised controlled trials

    Layton, Georgia; Murphy, Gavin; Roman, Marius; Sze, Shirley (2024-01-09)
    Aim: We aimed to review all randomised controlled trial (RCT) data to explore optimal identification and treatment strategies of frail patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS). Methods: The protocol was preregistered (PROSPERO - CRD42021250235). We performed a systematic review including RCT's that 1; used at least one frailty assessment tool to assess frailty and its impact on outcomes in patients diagnosed with ACS and 2; used at least one intervention where change in frailty was measured in patients diagnosed with ACS. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched on the 1st April 2021 and updated on 4th July 2023. Owing to low search output results are presented as a narrative synthesis of available evidence. Results: A single RCT used a frailty assessment tool. A single RCT specifically targeted frailty with their intervention. This precluded further quantitative analysis. There was indication of selection bias against frail participants, and a signal of value for physical activity measurement in frail ACS patients. There was a high level of uncertainty and low level of robustness of this evidence. Conclusions: Data from RCT's alone is inadequate in answering the reviews question. Future RCT's need to address ways to incorporate frail participants, whilst mitigating selection biases. Physical performance aspects of the frailty syndrome appear to be high yield modifiable targets that improve outcomes. Intervention trials should consider using change in frailty status as an outcome measure. Any trials that include frail participants should present data specifically attributable to this group.
  • Outcomes of transcatheter pulmonary SAPIEN 3 valve implantation: an international registry

    Kantzis, Marinos (2024-01-14)
    Background and aims: Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation (TPVI) is indicated to treat right-ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) dysfunction related to congenital heart disease (CHD). Outcomes of TPVI with the SAPIEN 3 valve that are insufficiently documented were investigated in the EUROPULMS3 registry of SAPIEN 3-TPVI. Methods: Patient-related, procedural, and follow-up outcome data were retrospectively assessed in this observational cohort from 35 centres in 15 countries. Results: Data for 840 consecutive patients treated in 2014-2021 at a median age of 29.2 (19.0-41.6) years were obtained. The most common diagnosis was conotruncal defect (70.5%), with a native or patched RVOT in 50.7% of all patients. Valve sizes were 20, 23, 26, and 29 mm in 0.4%, 25.5%, 32.1%, and 42.0% of patients, respectively. Valve implantation was successful in 98.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 97.4%-99.2%] of patients. Median follow-up was 20.3 (7.1-38.4) months. Eight patients experienced infective endocarditis; 11 required pulmonary valve replacement, with a lower incidence for larger valves (P = .009), and four experienced pulmonary valve thrombosis, including one who died and three who recovered with anticoagulation. Cumulative incidences (95%CI) 1, 3, and 6 years after TPVI were as follows: infective endocarditis, 0.5% (0.0%-1.0%), 0.9% (0.2%-1.6%), and 3.8% (0.0%-8.4%); pulmonary valve replacement, 0.4% (0.0%-0.8%), 1.3% (0.2%-2.4%), and 8.0% (1.2%-14.8%); and pulmonary valve thrombosis, 0.4% (0.0%-0.9%), 0.7% (0.0%-1.3%), and 0.7% (0.0%-1.3%), respectively. Conclusions: Outcomes of SAPIEN 3 TPVI were favourable in patients with CHD, half of whom had native or patched RVOTs.
  • Ethnic differences in cardiac structure and function assessed by MRI in healthy South Asian and White European people: a UK Biobank Study

    Alfuhied, Aseel; Arnold, Jayanth; Ayton, Sarah; Bilak, Joanna; Brady, Emer M; Dattani, Abhishek; Gulsin, Gaurav; Graham-Brown, Matthew P; McCann, Gerry P; SIngh, Anvesha; et al.
    Background: Echocardiographic studies indicate South Asian people have smaller ventricular volumes, lower mass and more concentric remodelling than White European people, but there are no data using cardiac MRI (CMR). We aimed to compare CMR quantified cardiac structure and function in White European and South Asian people. Methods: Healthy White European and South Asian participants in the UK Biobank Imaging CMR sub-study were identified by excluding those with a history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes. Ethnic groups were matched by age and sex. Cardiac volumes, mass and feature tracking strain were compared. Results: 121 matched pairs (77 male/44 female, mean age 58±8 years) of South Asian and White European participants were included. South Asian males and females had smaller absolute but not indexed left ventricular (LV) volumes, and smaller absolute and indexed right ventricular volumes, with lower absolute and indexed LV mass and lower LV mass:volume than White European participants. Although there were no differences in ventricular or atrial ejection fractions, LV global longitudinal strain was higher in South Asian females than White European females but not males, and global circumferential strain was higher in both male and South Asian females than White European females. Peak early diastolic strain rates were higher in South Asian versus White European males, but not different between South Asian and White European females. Conclusions: Contrary to echocardiographic studies, South Asian participants in the UK Biobank study had less concentric remodelling and higher global circumferential strain than White European subjects. These findings emphasise the importance of sex- and ethnic- specific normal ranges for cardiac volumes and function.
  • Natural history and outcomes in paediatric RASopathy-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Linter, Katie (2024-01-13)
    Aims: This study aimed to describe the natural history and predictors of all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death (SCD)/equivalent events in children with a RASopathy syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods and results: This is a retrospective cohort study from 14 paediatric cardiology centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. We included children <18 years with HCM and a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of a RASopathy syndrome [Noonan syndrome (NS), NS with multiple lentigines (NSML), Costello syndrome (CS), cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS), and NS with loose anagen hair (NS-LAH)]. One hundred forty-nine patients were recruited [111 (74.5%) NS, 12 (8.05%) NSML, 6 (4.03%) CS, 6 (4.03%) CFCS, 11 (7.4%) Noonan-like syndrome, and 3 (2%) NS-LAH]. NSML patients had higher left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient values [60 (36-80) mmHg, P = 0.004]. Over a median follow-up of 197.5 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 93.58-370] months, 23 patients (15.43%) died at a median age of 24.1 (IQR 5.6-175.9) months. Survival was 96.45% [95% confidence interval (CI) 91.69-98.51], 90.42% (95% CI 84.04-94.33), and 84.12% (95% CI 75.42-89.94) at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively, but this varied by RASopathy syndrome. RASopathy syndrome, symptoms at baseline, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT), and maximal left ventricular wall thickness were identified as predictors of all-cause mortality on univariate analysis, and CCF, NSVT, and LVOT gradient were predictors for SCD or equivalent event. Conclusions: These findings highlight a distinct category of patients with Noonan-like syndrome with a milder HCM phenotype but significantly worse survival and identify potential predictors of adverse outcome in patients with RASopathy-related HCM.
  • Saphenous vein graft failure: current challenges and a review of the contemporary percutaneous options for management

    Ladwiniec, Andrew; Back, Liam (2023-11-15)
    The use of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) in the surgical management of obstructive coronary artery disease remains high despite a growing understanding of their limitations in longevity. In contemporary practice, approximately 95% of patients receive one SVG in addition to a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft. The precise patency rates for SVGs vary widely in the literature, with estimates of up to 61% failure rate at greater than 10 years of follow-up. SVGs are known to progressively degenerate over time and, even if they remain patent, demonstrate marked accelerated atherosclerosis. Multiple studies have demonstrated a marked acceleration of atherosclerosis in bypassed native coronary arteries compared to non-bypassed arteries, which predisposes to a high number of native chronic total occlusions (CTOs) and subsequent procedural challenges when managing graft failure. Patients with failing SVGs frequently require revascularisation to previously grafted territories, with estimates of 13% of CABG patients requiring an additional revascularisation procedure within 10 years. Redo CABG confers a significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality and, as such, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the favoured strategy for revascularisation in SVG failure. Percutaneous treatment of a degenerative SVG provides unique challenges secondary to a tendency for frequent superimposed thrombi on critical graft stenoses, friable lesions with marked potential for distal embolization and subsequent no-reflow phenomena, and high rates of peri-procedural myocardial infarction (MI). Furthermore, the rates of restenosis within SVG stents are disproportionately higher than native vessel PCI despite the advances in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology. The alternative to SVG PCI in failed grafts is PCI to the native vessel, 'replacing' the grafts and restoring patency within the previously grafted coronary artery, with or without occluding the donor graft. This strategy has additional challenges to de novo coronary artery PCI, however, due to the high burden of complex atherosclerotic lesion morphology, extensive coronary calcification, and the high incidence of CTO. Large patient cohort studies have reported worse short- and long-term outcomes with SVG PCI compared to native vessel PCI. The PROCTOR trial is a large and randomised control trial aimed at assessing the superiority of native vessel PCI versus vein graft PCI in patients with prior CABG awaiting results. This review article will explore the complexities of SVG failure and assess the contemporary evidence in guiding optimum percutaneous interventional strategy.
  • Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation in children and adults with an age and gender-specific analysis

    Kotidis, Charalampos; Kantzis, Marinos (2024-01-08)
    Background: There are limited studies with medium-term follow-up following percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation and no studies with a gender-specific analysis. Aims: To report clinical outcomes up to five years following percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation using the two most common balloon expandable valves in a mixed population of paediatric and adult patients with an age and gender-specific analysis. Methods: This was a single-centre retrospective observation study. Relevant data were obtained retrospectively from the case files. Age and gender- specific analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: Totally, 58 patients (13 children, 45 adults) underwent percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation. Statistically significant reduction in median right ventricular outflow tract flow velocity following valve implantation was maintained for the whole five years in adults but not in children. There were no gender-specific differences despite the study being adequately powered. Independent of valve type used, there was significant reduction of the right ventricular outflow tract flow velocity in the immediate post valve implantation period (Edwards P = 0.001, Melody P = 0.013). There was a significant negative correlation between implanted valve Z-score and subsequent right ventricular outflow tract gradient during the first two years following valve implantation. Conclusion: Gender does not significantly affect valve function following percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation. It is important to consider patients' age and body surface area in relation to existing right ventricular outflow tract size during decisions for percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation.
  • Organizing pneumonia as a pulmonary sequela of Post-COVID-19 Syndrome in a patient in Trinidad: a case report

    Dalip, Dominic (2023-12-07)
    Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia that commonly presents with exertional dyspnea. The mainstay diagnostic criterion is with histopathological confirmation alongside excluding secondary causes of interstitial lung disease. The COVID-19 pandemic left many mysteries regarding the long-term sequelae of this disease. We explore a case of post-COVID-19 syndrome organizing pneumonia (PCOP) in a patient presenting with new-onset respiratory symptoms seven weeks after recovery from COVID-19 infection. Upon further review of the literature, there were no published case reports on PCOP in Trinidad and Tobago. We describe a case of PCOP presented at Apley Medical Clinic, Trinidad, and Tobago, West Indies, with the aim of increasing awareness of this condition to allow for early identification and effective management.
  • The development and internal pilot trial of a digital physical activity and emotional well-being intervention (Kidney BEAM) for people with chronic kidney disease

    Billany, Roseanne; Burton, James O; Graham-Brown, Matthew; Young, Hannah (2024-01-06)
    This trial assessed the feasibility and acceptability of Kidney BEAM, a physical activity and emotional well-being self-management digital health intervention (DHI) for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), which offers live and on-demand physical activity sessions, educational blogs and videos, and peer support. In this mixed-methods, multicentre randomised waitlist-controlled internal pilot, adults with established CKD were recruited from five NHS hospitals and randomised 1:1 to Kidney BEAM or waitlist control. Feasibility outcomes were based upon a priori progression criteria. Acceptability was primarily explored via individual semi-structured interviews (n = 15). Of 763 individuals screened, n = 519 (68%, 95% CI 65 to 71%) were eligible. Of those eligible, n = 303 (58%, 95% CI 54-63%) did not respond to an invitation to participate by the end of the pilot period. Of the 216 responders, 50 (23%, 95% CI 18-29%) consented. Of the 42 randomised, n = 22 (10 (45%) male; 49 ± 16 years; 14 (64%) White British) were allocated to Kidney BEAM and n = 20 (12 (55%) male; 56 ± 11 years; 15 (68%) White British) to the waitlist control group. Overall, n = 15 (30%, 95% CI 18-45%) withdrew during the pilot phase. Participants completed a median of 14 (IQR 5-21) sessions. At baseline, 90-100% of outcome data (patient reported outcome measures and a remotely conducted physical function test) were completed and 62-83% completed at 12 weeks follow-up. Interview data revealed that remote trial procedures were acceptable. Participants' reported that Kidney BEAM increased their opportunity and motivation to be physically active, however, lack of time remained an ongoing barrier to engagement with the DHI. An randomised controlled trial of Kidney BEAM is feasible and acceptable, with adaptations to increase recruitment, retention and engagement.Trial registration NCT04872933. Date of first registration 05/05/2021.

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