Recent Submissions

  • Contemporary outcomes of chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention in Europe: the ERCTO registry

    Ladwiniec, Andrew (2024-02-05)
    Background: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTO) have reached high procedural success rates thanks to dedicated equipment, evolving techniques, and worldwide adoption of state-of-the-art crossing algorithms. Aims: We report the contemporary results of CTO PCIs performed by a large European community of experienced interventionalists. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of different risk factors for procedural major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and trends of employment of specific devices like dual lumen microcatheters, guiding catheter extensions, intravascular ultrasound and calcium-modifying tools. Methods: We evaluated data from 8,673 CTO PCIs included in the European Registry of Chronic Total Occlusion (ERCTO) between January 2021 and October 2022. Results: The overall technical success rate was 89.1% and was higher in antegrade as compared with retrograde cases (92.8% vs 79.3%; p<0.001). Compared with antegrade procedures, retrograde procedures had a higher complexity of attempted lesions (Japanese CTO [J-CTO] score: 3.0±1.0 vs 1.9±1.2; p<0.001), a higher procedural and in-hospital MACCE rate (3.1% vs 1.2%; p<0.018) and a higher perforation rate with and without tamponade (1.5% vs 0.4% and 8.3% vs 2.1%, respectively; p<0.001). As compared with mid-volume operators, high-volume operators had a higher technical success rate in antegrade and retrograde procedures (93.4% vs 91.2% and 81.5% vs 69.0%, respectively; p<0.001), and had a lower MACCE rate (1.47% vs 2.41%; p<0.001) despite a higher mean complexity of the attempted lesions (J-CTO score: 2.42±1.28 vs 2.15±1.27; p<0.001). Conclusions: The adoption of different recanalisation techniques, operator experience and the use of specific devices have contributed to a high procedural success rate despite the high complexity of the lesions documented in the ERCTO.
  • Frailty in acute coronary syndromes. A systematic review and narrative synthesis of frailty assessment tools and interventions from randomised controlled trials

    Layton, Georgia; Murphy, Gavin; Roman, Marius; Sze, Shirley (2024-01-09)
    Aim: We aimed to review all randomised controlled trial (RCT) data to explore optimal identification and treatment strategies of frail patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS). Methods: The protocol was preregistered (PROSPERO - CRD42021250235). We performed a systematic review including RCT's that 1; used at least one frailty assessment tool to assess frailty and its impact on outcomes in patients diagnosed with ACS and 2; used at least one intervention where change in frailty was measured in patients diagnosed with ACS. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched on the 1st April 2021 and updated on 4th July 2023. Owing to low search output results are presented as a narrative synthesis of available evidence. Results: A single RCT used a frailty assessment tool. A single RCT specifically targeted frailty with their intervention. This precluded further quantitative analysis. There was indication of selection bias against frail participants, and a signal of value for physical activity measurement in frail ACS patients. There was a high level of uncertainty and low level of robustness of this evidence. Conclusions: Data from RCT's alone is inadequate in answering the reviews question. Future RCT's need to address ways to incorporate frail participants, whilst mitigating selection biases. Physical performance aspects of the frailty syndrome appear to be high yield modifiable targets that improve outcomes. Intervention trials should consider using change in frailty status as an outcome measure. Any trials that include frail participants should present data specifically attributable to this group.
  • Outcomes of transcatheter pulmonary SAPIEN 3 valve implantation: an international registry

    Kantzis, Marinos (2024-01-14)
    Background and aims: Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation (TPVI) is indicated to treat right-ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) dysfunction related to congenital heart disease (CHD). Outcomes of TPVI with the SAPIEN 3 valve that are insufficiently documented were investigated in the EUROPULMS3 registry of SAPIEN 3-TPVI. Methods: Patient-related, procedural, and follow-up outcome data were retrospectively assessed in this observational cohort from 35 centres in 15 countries. Results: Data for 840 consecutive patients treated in 2014-2021 at a median age of 29.2 (19.0-41.6) years were obtained. The most common diagnosis was conotruncal defect (70.5%), with a native or patched RVOT in 50.7% of all patients. Valve sizes were 20, 23, 26, and 29 mm in 0.4%, 25.5%, 32.1%, and 42.0% of patients, respectively. Valve implantation was successful in 98.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 97.4%-99.2%] of patients. Median follow-up was 20.3 (7.1-38.4) months. Eight patients experienced infective endocarditis; 11 required pulmonary valve replacement, with a lower incidence for larger valves (P = .009), and four experienced pulmonary valve thrombosis, including one who died and three who recovered with anticoagulation. Cumulative incidences (95%CI) 1, 3, and 6 years after TPVI were as follows: infective endocarditis, 0.5% (0.0%-1.0%), 0.9% (0.2%-1.6%), and 3.8% (0.0%-8.4%); pulmonary valve replacement, 0.4% (0.0%-0.8%), 1.3% (0.2%-2.4%), and 8.0% (1.2%-14.8%); and pulmonary valve thrombosis, 0.4% (0.0%-0.9%), 0.7% (0.0%-1.3%), and 0.7% (0.0%-1.3%), respectively. Conclusions: Outcomes of SAPIEN 3 TPVI were favourable in patients with CHD, half of whom had native or patched RVOTs.
  • Ethnic differences in cardiac structure and function assessed by MRI in healthy South Asian and White European people: a UK Biobank Study

    Alfuhied, Aseel; Arnold, Jayanth; Ayton, Sarah; Bilak, Joanna; Brady, Emer M; Dattani, Abhishek; Gulsin, Gaurav; Graham-Brown, Matthew P; McCann, Gerry P; SIngh, Anvesha; et al.
    Background: Echocardiographic studies indicate South Asian people have smaller ventricular volumes, lower mass and more concentric remodelling than White European people, but there are no data using cardiac MRI (CMR). We aimed to compare CMR quantified cardiac structure and function in White European and South Asian people. Methods: Healthy White European and South Asian participants in the UK Biobank Imaging CMR sub-study were identified by excluding those with a history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes. Ethnic groups were matched by age and sex. Cardiac volumes, mass and feature tracking strain were compared. Results: 121 matched pairs (77 male/44 female, mean age 58±8 years) of South Asian and White European participants were included. South Asian males and females had smaller absolute but not indexed left ventricular (LV) volumes, and smaller absolute and indexed right ventricular volumes, with lower absolute and indexed LV mass and lower LV mass:volume than White European participants. Although there were no differences in ventricular or atrial ejection fractions, LV global longitudinal strain was higher in South Asian females than White European females but not males, and global circumferential strain was higher in both male and South Asian females than White European females. Peak early diastolic strain rates were higher in South Asian versus White European males, but not different between South Asian and White European females. Conclusions: Contrary to echocardiographic studies, South Asian participants in the UK Biobank study had less concentric remodelling and higher global circumferential strain than White European subjects. These findings emphasise the importance of sex- and ethnic- specific normal ranges for cardiac volumes and function.
  • Natural history and outcomes in paediatric RASopathy-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Linter, Katie (2024-01-13)
    Aims: This study aimed to describe the natural history and predictors of all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death (SCD)/equivalent events in children with a RASopathy syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods and results: This is a retrospective cohort study from 14 paediatric cardiology centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. We included children <18 years with HCM and a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of a RASopathy syndrome [Noonan syndrome (NS), NS with multiple lentigines (NSML), Costello syndrome (CS), cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS), and NS with loose anagen hair (NS-LAH)]. One hundred forty-nine patients were recruited [111 (74.5%) NS, 12 (8.05%) NSML, 6 (4.03%) CS, 6 (4.03%) CFCS, 11 (7.4%) Noonan-like syndrome, and 3 (2%) NS-LAH]. NSML patients had higher left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient values [60 (36-80) mmHg, P = 0.004]. Over a median follow-up of 197.5 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 93.58-370] months, 23 patients (15.43%) died at a median age of 24.1 (IQR 5.6-175.9) months. Survival was 96.45% [95% confidence interval (CI) 91.69-98.51], 90.42% (95% CI 84.04-94.33), and 84.12% (95% CI 75.42-89.94) at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively, but this varied by RASopathy syndrome. RASopathy syndrome, symptoms at baseline, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT), and maximal left ventricular wall thickness were identified as predictors of all-cause mortality on univariate analysis, and CCF, NSVT, and LVOT gradient were predictors for SCD or equivalent event. Conclusions: These findings highlight a distinct category of patients with Noonan-like syndrome with a milder HCM phenotype but significantly worse survival and identify potential predictors of adverse outcome in patients with RASopathy-related HCM.
  • Saphenous vein graft failure: current challenges and a review of the contemporary percutaneous options for management

    Ladwiniec, Andrew; Back, Liam (2023-11-15)
    The use of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) in the surgical management of obstructive coronary artery disease remains high despite a growing understanding of their limitations in longevity. In contemporary practice, approximately 95% of patients receive one SVG in addition to a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft. The precise patency rates for SVGs vary widely in the literature, with estimates of up to 61% failure rate at greater than 10 years of follow-up. SVGs are known to progressively degenerate over time and, even if they remain patent, demonstrate marked accelerated atherosclerosis. Multiple studies have demonstrated a marked acceleration of atherosclerosis in bypassed native coronary arteries compared to non-bypassed arteries, which predisposes to a high number of native chronic total occlusions (CTOs) and subsequent procedural challenges when managing graft failure. Patients with failing SVGs frequently require revascularisation to previously grafted territories, with estimates of 13% of CABG patients requiring an additional revascularisation procedure within 10 years. Redo CABG confers a significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality and, as such, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the favoured strategy for revascularisation in SVG failure. Percutaneous treatment of a degenerative SVG provides unique challenges secondary to a tendency for frequent superimposed thrombi on critical graft stenoses, friable lesions with marked potential for distal embolization and subsequent no-reflow phenomena, and high rates of peri-procedural myocardial infarction (MI). Furthermore, the rates of restenosis within SVG stents are disproportionately higher than native vessel PCI despite the advances in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology. The alternative to SVG PCI in failed grafts is PCI to the native vessel, 'replacing' the grafts and restoring patency within the previously grafted coronary artery, with or without occluding the donor graft. This strategy has additional challenges to de novo coronary artery PCI, however, due to the high burden of complex atherosclerotic lesion morphology, extensive coronary calcification, and the high incidence of CTO. Large patient cohort studies have reported worse short- and long-term outcomes with SVG PCI compared to native vessel PCI. The PROCTOR trial is a large and randomised control trial aimed at assessing the superiority of native vessel PCI versus vein graft PCI in patients with prior CABG awaiting results. This review article will explore the complexities of SVG failure and assess the contemporary evidence in guiding optimum percutaneous interventional strategy.
  • Risks and benefits of renal artery stenting in fibromuscular dysplasia: Lessons from the ARCADIA-POL study

    Adlam, David (2023-12-12)
    Introduction: Although renal stenting is the standard revascularization method for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) (FMD-RAS), stenting in fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) RAS is usually limited to periprocedural complications of angioplasty and primary arterial dissection. The main aim of the study was to retrospectively analyze the immediate and long-term results of renal stenting versus angioplasty in patients with FMD. Methods: Of 343 patients in the ARCADIA-POL registry, 58 patients underwent percutaneous treatment due to FMD-RAS (in 70 arteries). Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) was performed as an initial treatment in 61 arteries (PTRA-group), whereas primary stenting was undertaken in nine arteries (stent-group). Stent-related complications were defined as: in-stent restenosis > 50% (ISR); stent fracture; under-expansion; or migration. Results: In the PTRA-group, the initial restenosis rate was 50.8%. A second procedure was then performed in 22 arteries: re-PTRA (12 arteries) or stenting (10 arteries). The incidence of recurrent restenosis after re-PTRA was 41.7%. Complications occurred in seven of 10 (70%) arteries secondarily treated by stenting: two with under-expansion and five with ISR. In the stent-group, stent under-expansion occurred in one case (11.1%) and ISR in three of nine stents (33.3%). In combined analysis of stented arteries, either primarily or secondarily, stent-related complications occurred in 11/19 stenting procedures (57.9%): three due to under-expansion and eight due to ISRs. Finally, despite several revascularization attempts, four of 19 (21%) stented arteries were totally occluded and one was significantly stenosed at follow-up imaging. Conclusion: Our study indicates that renal stenting in FMD-RAS may carry a high risk of late complications, including stent occlusion. Further observational data from large-scale registries are required.
  • Saphenous vein graft failure: current challenges and a review of the contemporary percutaneous options for management

    Back, Liam; Ladwiniec, Andrew (2023-11-15)
    The use of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) in the surgical management of obstructive coronary artery disease remains high despite a growing understanding of their limitations in longevity. In contemporary practice, approximately 95% of patients receive one SVG in addition to a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft. The precise patency rates for SVGs vary widely in the literature, with estimates of up to 61% failure rate at greater than 10 years of follow-up. SVGs are known to progressively degenerate over time and, even if they remain patent, demonstrate marked accelerated atherosclerosis. Multiple studies have demonstrated a marked acceleration of atherosclerosis in bypassed native coronary arteries compared to non-bypassed arteries, which predisposes to a high number of native chronic total occlusions (CTOs) and subsequent procedural challenges when managing graft failure. Patients with failing SVGs frequently require revascularisation to previously grafted territories, with estimates of 13% of CABG patients requiring an additional revascularisation procedure within 10 years. Redo CABG confers a significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality and, as such, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the favoured strategy for revascularisation in SVG failure. Percutaneous treatment of a degenerative SVG provides unique challenges secondary to a tendency for frequent superimposed thrombi on critical graft stenoses, friable lesions with marked potential for distal embolization and subsequent no-reflow phenomena, and high rates of peri-procedural myocardial infarction (MI). Furthermore, the rates of restenosis within SVG stents are disproportionately higher than native vessel PCI despite the advances in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology. The alternative to SVG PCI in failed grafts is PCI to the native vessel, 'replacing' the grafts and restoring patency within the previously grafted coronary artery, with or without occluding the donor graft. This strategy has additional challenges to de novo coronary artery PCI, however, due to the high burden of complex atherosclerotic lesion morphology, extensive coronary calcification, and the high incidence of CTO. Large patient cohort studies have reported worse short- and long-term outcomes with SVG PCI compared to native vessel PCI. The PROCTOR trial is a large and randomised control trial aimed at assessing the superiority of native vessel PCI versus vein graft PCI in patients with prior CABG awaiting results. This review article will explore the complexities of SVG failure and assess the contemporary evidence in guiding optimum percutaneous interventional strategy.
  • Influence of cardiometabolic medications on abdominal aortic aneurysm growth in the UK Aneurysm Growth Study: metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors associated with slower aneurysm growth

    Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Saratzis, Athanasios; Bown, Matthew J (2024-01-03)
    Background: There is a clinical need for treatments that can slow or prevent the growth of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, not only to reduce the need for surgery, but to provide a means to treat those who cannot undergo surgery. Methods: Analysis of the UK Aneurysm Growth Study (UKAGS) prospective cohort was conducted to test for an association between cardiometabolic medications and the growth of an abdominal aortic aneurysm above 30 mm in diameter, using linear mixed-effect models. Results: A total of 3670 male participants with data available on abdominal aortic aneurysm growth, smoking status, co-morbidities, and medication history were included. The mean age at recruitment was 69.5 years, the median number of surveillance scans was 6, and the mean(s.e.) unadjusted abdominal aortic aneurysm growth rate was 1.75(0.03) mm/year. In a multivariate linear mixed-effect model, smoking (mean(s.e.) +0.305(0.07) mm/year, P = 0.00003) and antiplatelet use (mean(s.e.) +0.235(0.06) mm/year, P = 0.00018) were found to be associated with more rapid abdominal aortic aneurysm growth, whilst metformin was strongly associated with slower abdominal aortic aneurysm growth (mean(s.e.) -0.38(0.1) mm/year, P = 0.00019), as were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (mean(s.e.) -0.243(0.07) mm/year, P = 0.0004), angiotensin II receptor antagonists (mean(s.e.) -0.253(0.08) mm/year, P = 0.00255), and thiazides/related diuretics (mean(s.e.) -0.307(0.09) mm/year, P = 0.00078). Conclusion: The strong association of metformin with slower abdominal aortic aneurysm growth highlights the importance of the ongoing clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of metformin with regard to the prevention of abdominal aortic aneurysm growth and/or rupture. The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and diuretics with slower abdominal aortic aneurysm growth points to the possibility that optimization of cardiovascular risk management as part of abdominal aortic aneurysm surveillance may have the secondary benefit of also reducing abdominal aortic aneurysm growth rates.
  • Differential biomarker expression in heart failure patients with and without mitral regurgitation: Insights from BIOSTAT-CHF Authors

    Samani, Nilesh (2023-12-21)
    Background: Mitral regurgitation (MR) frequently coexists with heart failure (HF). Objectives: To better understand potential pathophysiological differences between patients with HF with or without moderate-severe MR, we compared differentially expressed circulating biomarkers between these two groups. Methods: The Olink Proteomics® Multiplex Cardiovascular (CVD) -II, CVD-III, Immune Response and Oncology-II panels of 363 unique proteins from different pathophysiological domains were used to investigate the biomarker profiles of HF patients from index and validation cohorts of the BIOSTAT-CHF study stratified according to the presence of moderate-to-severe MR or no-mild MR. Results: The index cohort included 888 patients (46%) with moderate-to-severe MR and 1029 (54%) with no-mild MR at baseline. The validation cohort included 522 patients (33%) with moderate-to-severe MR and 1076 (66%) with no-mild MR at baseline. Compared to patients with no-mild MR, those with moderate-to-severe MR had lower body mass index, higher comorbidity burden, signs and symptoms of more severe HF, lower systolic blood pressure, and larger left atrial and ventricular dimensions, in both cohorts. NT-proBNP, CA125, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and growth hormone 1 (GH1) were up-regulated, whereas leptin (LEP) was down-regulated in patients with moderate-severe MR versus no-mild MR, in both index and validation cohorts. Conclusion: Circulating biomarkers differently expressed in HF patients with moderate-severe MR versus no-mild MR were related to congestion, lipid and mineral metabolism and oxidative stress. These findings may be of value for the development of novel treatment targets in HF patients with MR.
  • Effect of aerobic exercise training on pulse wave velocity in adults with and without long-term conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Daynes, Enya; Divall, Pip; Evans, Rachael Andrea; Graham-Brown, Matthew; Latimer, Lorna; McCann, Gerry P; Steiner, Michael C; Ward, Thomas J.C. (2023-12-14)
    Rationale: There is conflicting evidence whether aerobic exercise training (AET) reduces pulse wave velocity (PWV) in adults with and without long-term conditions (LTCs). Objective: To explore whether PWV improves with AET in adults with and without LTC, to quantify the magnitude of any effect and understand the influence of the exercise prescription. Data sources: CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were among the databases searched. Eligibility criteria: We included studies with a PWV measurement before and after supervised AET of at least 3 weeks duration. Exclusion criteria included resistance exercise and alternative measures of arterial stiffness. Design: Controlled trials were included in a random effects meta-analysis to explore the effect of AET on PWV. Uncontrolled studies were included in a secondary meta-analysis and meta-regression exploring the effect of patient and programme factors on change in PWV. The relevant risk of bias tool was used for each study design. Results: 79 studies (n=3729) were included: 35 controlled studies (21 randomised control trials (RCT) (n=1240) and 12 non-RCT (n=463)) and 44 uncontrolled (n=2026). In the controlled meta- analysis, PWV was significantly reduced following AET (mean (SD) 11 (7) weeks) in adults with and without LTC (mean difference -0.63; 95% CI -0.82 to -0.44; p<0.0001). PWV was similarly reduced between adults with and without LTC (p<0.001). Age, but not specific programme factors, was inversely associated with a reduction in PWV -0.010 (-0.020 to -0.010) m/s, p<0.001. Discussion: Short-term AET similarly reduces PWV in adults with and without LTC. Whether this effect is sustained and the clinical implications require further investigation.
  • Resource efficient aortic distensibility calculation by end to end spatiotemporal learning of aortic lumen from multicentre multivendor multidisease CMR images

    Adlam, David; Davies, Melanie J; Graham-Brown, Matthew P M; McCann, Gerry P; Meisuria, Mitul; Singh, Anvesha; Wormleighton, Joanne (2023-12-08)
    Aortic distensibility (AD) is important for the prognosis of multiple cardiovascular diseases. We propose a novel resource-efficient deep learning (DL) model, inspired by the bi-directional ConvLSTM U-Net with densely connected convolutions, to perform end-to-end hierarchical learning of the aorta from cine cardiovascular MRI towards streamlining AD quantification. Unlike current DL aortic segmentation approaches, our pipeline: (i) performs simultaneous spatio-temporal learning of the video input, (ii) combines the feature maps from the encoder and decoder using non-linear functions, and (iii) takes into account the high class imbalance. By using multi-centre multi-vendor data from a highly heterogeneous patient cohort, we demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art method in terms of accuracy and at the same time it consumes [Formula: see text] 3.9 times less fuel and generates [Formula: see text] 2.8 less carbon emissions. Our model could provide a valuable tool for exploring genome-wide associations of the AD with the cognitive performance in large-scale biomedical databases. By making energy usage and carbon emissions explicit, the presented work aligns with efforts to keep DL's energy requirements and carbon cost in check. The improved resource efficiency of our pipeline might open up the more systematic DL-powered evaluation of the MRI-derived aortic stiffness.
  • Improving care for cardiac patients with heart arrhythmias

    Armstrong, Sue (2023-12-07)
    Sue Armstrong, Advanced Clinical Practitioner, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust (suzanne.armstrong@uhl-tr.nhs.uk), won a Bronze Award in the Cardiovascular Nurse of the Year Category in the BJN Awards 2023.
  • Prehospital triage in suspected myocardial infarction: a calculated risk?

    Ladwiniec, Andrew; Moss, Alistair James (2023-12-01)
  • Recurring cardiac tumour in an asymptomatic child

    Malik, Saad Ahmad; Eltayeb, Haifa (2023-11-27)
  • Distal His bundle pacing in a patient with surgically corrected complex Ebstein anomaly and symptomatic second-degree atrioventricular block: a case report

    Bolger, Aidan; Ibrahim, Mokhtar; Koev, Ivelin; Ng, Andre (2023-10-31)
    Background: Ebstein's anomaly occurs when there is an apical displacement of the tricuspid valve with septal and posterior valve leaflets tethering. This condition often occurs in association with other congenital, structural, or conduction system diseases, including intracardiac shunts, valvular lesions, arrhythmias, accessory conduction pathways, and first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. We present for the first time a case of a patient with Ebstein's anomaly who presented with second-degree Mobitz II AV block and was successfully treated with conduction system pacing (CSP) due to her young age and the likelihood of a long-term high percentage of pacing. Case summary: We present a case of a 42-year-old lady with a background of complex congenital heart disease, including severe pulmonary stenosis, Ebstein anomaly, and atrial septal defect (ASD). She required complex surgical intervention, including tricuspid valve (TV) repair and subsequently replacement, ASD closure, and pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty. She presented to our hospital with symptomatic second-degree Mobitz II AV block (dizziness, shortness of breath, and exercise intolerance) and right bundle branch block (RBBB) on her baseline ECG. Her echocardiogram showed dilated right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) with low normal LV systolic function. Due to her young age and the likelihood of a long-term high percentage of RV pacing, we opted for CSP after a detailed discussion and patient consent. The distal HIS position is the preferred pacing strategy at our centre. We could not cross the TV with the standard Medtronic C315 HIS catheter, so we had to use the deflectable C304 HIS catheter. Mapping and pacing of the distal HIS bundle were achieved by Medtronic Selectsecure 3830, 69 cm lead. HIS bundle pacing led to the correction of both second-degree Mobitz II AV block and pre-existing RBBB. The implantation was uneventful, and the patient was discharged home the next day without any acute complications. Discussion: Distal HIS pacing is feasible in patients with surgically treated complex Ebstein anomaly and heart block. This approach can normalize the QRS complex with a high probability of preserving or improving LV function.
  • Association of longer leukocyte telomere length with cardiac size, function, and heart failure

    Samani, Nilesh (2023-09-01)
    Importance: Longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with a lower risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The extent to which variation in LTL is associated with intermediary cardiovascular phenotypes is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the associations between LTL and a diverse set of cardiovascular imaging phenotypes. Design, setting, and participants: This is a population-based cross-sectional study of UK Biobank participants recruited from 2006 to 2010. LTL was measured using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Cardiovascular measurements were derived from cardiovascular magnetic resonance using machine learning. The median (IQR) duration of follow-up was 12.0 (11.3-12.7) years. The associations of LTL with imaging measurements and incident heart failure (HF) were evaluated by multivariable regression models. Genetic associations between LTL and significantly associated traits were investigated by mendelian randomization. Data were analyzed from January to May 2023. Exposure: LTL. Main outcomes and measures: Cardiovascular imaging traits and HF. Results: Of 40 459 included participants, 19 529 (48.3%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 55.1 (7.6) years. Longer LTL was independently associated with a pattern of positive cardiac remodeling (higher left ventricular mass, larger global ventricular size and volume, and higher ventricular and atrial stroke volumes) and a lower risk of incident HF (LTL fourth quartile vs first quartile: hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.91; P = 1.8 × 10-6). Mendelian randomization analysis suggested a potential causal association between LTL and left ventricular mass, global ventricular volume, and left ventricular stroke volume. Conclusions and relevance: In this cross-sectional study, longer LTL was associated with a larger heart with better cardiac function in middle age, which could potentially explain the observed lower risk of incident HF.
  • Multi-modality imaging in aortic stenosis: an EACVI clinical consensus document

    McCann, Gerry (2023-10-27)
    In this EACVI clinical scientific update, we will explore the current use of multi-modality imaging in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and follow-up of patients with aortic stenosis, with a particular focus on recent developments and future directions. Echocardiography is and will likely remain the key method of diagnosis and surveillance of aortic stenosis providing detailed assessments of valve haemodynamics and the cardiac remodelling response. Computed tomography (CT) is already widely used in the planning of transcutaneous aortic valve implantation. We anticipate its increased use as an anatomical adjudicator to clarify disease severity in patients with discordant echocardiographic measurements. CT calcium scoring is currently used for this purpose; however, contrast CT techniques are emerging that allow identification of both calcific and fibrotic valve thickening. Additionally, improved assessments of myocardial decompensation with echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and CT will become more commonplace in our routine assessment of aortic stenosis. Underpinning all of this will be widespread application of artificial intelligence. In combination, we believe this new era of multi-modality imaging in aortic stenosis will improve the diagnosis, follow-up, and timing of intervention in aortic stenosis as well as potentially accelerate the development of the novel pharmacological treatments required for this disease.
  • Geographical variation in underlying social deprivation, cardiovascular and other comorbidities in patients with potentially curable cancers in England: results from a national registry dataset analysis

    Adlam, David (2023-12)
    Aims: To describe the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), multiple comorbidities and social deprivation in patients with a potentially curable cancer in 20 English Cancer Alliances. Materials and methods: This National Registry Dataset Analysis used national cancer registry data and CVD databases to describe rates of CVD, comorbidities and social deprivation in patients diagnosed with a potentially curable malignancy (stage I-III breast cancer, stage I-III colon cancer, stage I-III rectal cancer, stage I-III prostate cancer, stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer, stage I-IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, stage I-IV Hodgkin lymphoma) between 2013 and 2018. Outcome measures included observation of CVD prevalence, other comorbidities (evaluated by the Charlson Comorbidity Index) and deprivation (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation) according to tumour site and allocation to Cancer Alliance. Patients were allocated to CVD prevalence tertiles (minimum: <33.3rd percentile; middle: 33.3rd to 66.6th percentile; maximum: >66.6th percentile). Results: In total, 634 240 patients with a potentially curable malignancy were eligible. The total CVD prevalence for all cancer sites varied between 13.4% (CVD n = 2058; 95% confidence interval 12.8, 13.9) and 19.6% (CVD n = 7818; 95% confidence interval 19.2, 20.0) between Cancer Alliances. CVD prevalence showed regional variation both for male (16-26%) and female patients (8-16%) towards higher CVD prevalence in northern Cancer Alliances. Similar variation was observed for social deprivation, with the proportion of cancer patients being identified as most deprived varying between 3.3% and 32.2%, depending on Cancer Alliance. The variation between Cancer Alliance for total comorbidities was much smaller. Conclusion: Social deprivation, CVD and other comorbidities in patients with a potentially curable malignancy in England show significant regional variations, which may partly contribute to differences observed in treatments and outcomes.
  • Standardized clinical annotation of digital histopathology slides at the point of diagnosis

    Hero, Emily (2023-11)
    As digital pathology replaces conventional glass slide microscopy as a means of reporting cellular pathology samples, the annotation of digital pathology whole slide images is rapidly becoming part of a pathologist's regular practice. Currently, there is no recognizable organization of these annotations, and as a result, pathologists adopt an arbitrary approach to defining regions of interest, leading to irregularity and inconsistency and limiting the downstream efficient use of this valuable effort. In this study, we propose a Standardized Annotation Reporting Style for digital whole slide images. We formed a list of 167 commonly annotated entities (under 12 specialty subcategories) based on review of Royal College of Pathologists and College of American Pathologists documents, feedback from reporting pathologists in our NHS department, and experience in developing annotation dictionaries for PathLAKE research projects. Each entity was assigned a suitable annotation shape, SNOMED CT (SNOMED International) code, and unique color. Additionally, as an example of how the approach could be expanded to specific tumor types, all lung tumors in the fifth World Health Organization of thoracic tumors 2021 were included. The proposed standardization of annotations increases their utility, making them identifiable at low power and searchable across and between cases. This would aid pathologists reporting and reviewing cases and enable annotations to be used for research. This structured approach could serve as the basis for an industry standard and be easily adopted to ensure maximum functionality and efficiency in the use of annotations made during routine clinical examination of digital slides.

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