Recent Submissions

  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in paediatric cardiac surgery: 5-year single centre experience

    Bezuska, Laurynas; Harvey, Chris; Omeje, Ikenna; Mimic, Branko (2023-11-10)
    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become an integral part of paediatric cardiac surgery. We report the experience of a well-established ECMO service over 5 years. Methods: This retrospective study analysed all paediatric patients who required ECMO support following cardiac surgery from April 2015 to March 2020. Inclusion criteria were age less than 18 years and post-operative ECMO support. Patients were analysed dividing into groups according to the urgency for ECMO support (extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) and cardiac ECMO) and according to age (neonatal and paediatric ECMO groups). They were followed for 30-day, 6-month mortality, long-term survival, postoperative morbidity and the need for reintervention. Results: Forty-six patients were included who had a total of venoarterial (VA) 8 ECMO runs. The 5-year incidence of the need for VA ECMO after cardiac surgery was 3.3% (48 of the overall 1441 cases recorded). The median follow-up period was 3.5 (interquartile ranges, 0.8-4.7) years. Thirty-day, 6-month and follow-up survival rate was 85%, 65% and 52% respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, the ECPR group showed a trend towards worse survival compared with the cardiac ECMO group (47% vs. 55%) but with no statistical significance (p = 0.35). Furthermore, the survival rates between paediatric (60%) and neonatal (46%) ECMO groups were similar, with no statistical significance (p = 0.45). The rate of acute neurological events was 27% (13/48). Conclusion: ECPR and neonatal ECMO groups had higher mortality. VA ECMO 30-day and 6-month survival rates were 85% and 65% respectively. Major neurological injury resulting in ECMO termination occurred in 3 patients. Accumulated experiences and protocols in ECMO management can improve mortality and morbidity.
  • Direct Aortic Versus Supra-Aortic Arterial Cannulation During Surgery for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection

    Acharya, Metesh (2023-11)
    Aims: In this study we evaluated the impact of direct aortic cannulation versus innominate/subclavian/axillary artery cannulation on the outcome after surgery for type A aortic dissection. Methods: The outcomes of patients included in a multicenter European registry (ERTAAD) who underwent surgery for acute type A aortic dissection with direct aortic cannulation versus those with innominate/subclavian/axillary artery cannulation, i.e. supra-aortic arterial cannulation, were compared using propensity score matched analysis. Results: Out of 3902 consecutive patients included in the registry, 2478 (63.5%) patients were eligible for this analysis. Direct aortic cannulation was performed in 627 (25.3%) patients, while supra-aortic arterial cannulation in 1851 (74.7%) patients. Propensity score matching yielded 614 pairs of patients. Among them, patients who underwent surgery for TAAD with direct aortic cannulation had significantly decreased in-hospital mortality (12.7% vs. 18.1%, p = 0.009) compared to those who had supra-aortic arterial cannulation. Furthermore, direct aortic cannulation was associated with decreased postoperative rates of paraparesis/paraplegia (2.0 vs. 6.0%, p < 0.0001), mesenteric ischemia (1.8 vs. 5.1%, p = 0.002), sepsis (7.0 vs. 14.2%, p < 0.0001), heart failure (11.2 vs. 15.2%, p = 0.043), and major lower limb amputation (0 vs. 1.0%, p = 0.031). Direct aortic cannulation showed a trend toward decreased risk of postoperative dialysis (10.1 vs. 13.7%, p = 0.051). Conclusions: This multicenter cohort study showed that direct aortic cannulation compared to supra-aortic arterial cannulation is associated with a significant reduction of the risk of in-hospital mortality after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection. Trial registration: Identifier: NCT04831073.
  • Preoperative arterial lactate and outcome after surgery for type A aortic dissection: The ERTAAD multicenter study

    Acharya, Metesh (2023-10-05)
    Background: Acute type A aortic dissection (TAAD) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. In this study we evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative arterial lactate concentration on the outcome after surgery for TAAD. Methods: The ERTAAD registry included consecutive patients who underwent surgery for acute type A aortic dissection (TAAD) at 18 European centers of cardiac surgery. Results: Data on arterial lactate concentration immediately before surgery were available in 2798 (71.7 %) patients. Preoperative concentration of arterial lactate was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (mean, 3.5 ± 3.2 vs 2.1 ± 1.8 mmol/L, adjusted OR 1.181, 95%CI 1.129-1.235). The best cutoff value preoperative arterial lactate concentration was 1.8 mmol/L (in-hospital mortality, 12.0 %, vs. 26.6 %, p < 0.0001). The rates of in-hospital mortality increased along increasing quintiles of arterial lactate and it was 12.1 % in the lowest quintile and 33.6 % in the highest quintile (p < 0.0001). The difference between multivariable models with and without preoperative arterial lactate was statistically significant (p = 0.0002). The NRI was 0.296 (95%CI 0.200-0.391) (p < 0.0001) with -17 % of events correctly reclassified (p = 0.0002) and 46 % of non-events correctly reclassified (p < 0.0001). The IDI was 0.025 (95%CI 0.016-0.034) (p < 0.0001). Six studies from a systematic review plus the present one provided data for a pooled analysis which showed that the mean difference of preoperative arterial lactate between 30-day/in-hospital deaths and survivors was 1.85 mmol/L (95%CI 1.22-2.47, p < 0.0001, I2 64 %). Conclusions: Hyperlactatemia significantly increased the risk of mortality after surgery for acute TAAD and should be considered in the clinical assessment of these critically ill patients.
  • Barriers to research progress for perioperative care practitioners working in cardiothoracic surgery

    Rathinam, Sridhar (2023-06-29)
    Policy and research literature worldwide support the need to build research capacity and capability among non-medical practitioners within healthcare systems. However, there exists a paucity of evidence on whether practitioners in cardiothoracic surgery are attuned to this and on what barriers or enablers exist. A survey was carried out with non-medical practitioners working in cardiothoracic surgery in the United Kingdom to explore attitudes towards health research and audit, and to identify current challenges and barriers to surgical research and audit as perceived by cardiothoracic nurses and allied health professionals. A total of 160 completed questionnaires were returned. 99% of respondents supported the need for research and believed that evidence-based surgical care improves outcomes for patients. Seventy-two percent reported that their employer motivates them to take part in national research or audit but, only 22% were allocated time to do so within their role; 96% reported their interest in being involved in research and audit, yet only 30% believed they had the skills to undertake research, and 96% reported needing additional training. More work is needed to increase awareness, capacity and capability among cardiothoracic surgery care practitioners, and indeed other specialities to achieve research progress.
  • Current outcome after surgery for type A aortic dissection

    Acharya, Metesh; El-Dean, Zein; Mariscalco, Giovanni (2023-10-01)
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of different surgical strategies for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection (TAAD). Summary background data: The optimal extent of aortic resection during surgery for acute TAAD is controversial. Methods: This is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent surgery for acute TAAD at 18 European hospitals. Results: Out of 3902 consecutive patients, 689 (17.7%) died during the index hospitalization. Among 2855 patients who survived 3 months after surgery, 10-year observed survival was 65.3%, while country-adjusted, age-adjusted, and sex-adjusted expected survival was 81.3%, yielding a relative survival of 80.4%. Among 558 propensity score-matched pairs, total aortic arch replacement increased the risk of in-hospital (21.0% vs. 14.9%, P =0.008) and 10-year mortality (47.1% vs. 40.1%, P =0.001), without decreasing the incidence of distal aortic reoperation (10-year: 8.9% vs. 7.4%, P =0.690) compared with ascending aortic replacement. Among 933 propensity score-matched pairs, in-hospital mortality (18.5% vs. 18.0%, P =0.765), late mortality (at 10-year: 44.6% vs. 41.9%, P =0.824), and cumulative incidence of proximal aortic reoperation (at 10-year: 4.4% vs. 5.9%, P =0.190) after aortic root replacement was comparable to supracoronary aortic replacement. Conclusions: Replacement of the aortic root and aortic arch did not decrease the risk of aortic reoperation in patients with TAAD and should be performed only in the presence of local aortic injury or aneurysm. The relative survival of TAAD patients is poor and suggests that the causes underlying aortic dissection may also impact late mortality despite surgical repair of the dissected aorta. Trial registration: NCT04831073.
  • Trends and outcomes of concomitant aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting in the UK and a survey of practices

    Layton, Georgia; Zakkar, Mustafa (2023-07-18)
    Objectives: Concomitant revascularization of coronary artery disease at the same time as treatment for aortic valvopathy favourably impacts survival. However, combined surgery maybe associated with increased adverse outcomes compared to aortic valve replacement or coronary artery bypass grafting in isolation. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with bypass grafting between February 1996 and March 2019 using data from the National Adult Cardiac Surgery Audit. We used a generalized mixed-effects model to assess the effect of the number and type of bypass grafts associated with surgical aortic valve replacement on in-hospital mortality, postoperative stroke, and the need for renal dialysis. Furthermore, we conducted an international cross-sectional survey of cardiac surgeons to explore their views about concomitant aortic valve replacement with coronary bypass grafting interventions. Results: Fifty-one thousand two hundred and seventy-two patients were included in the study. Patients receiving two or more bypass grafts demonstrated more significant pre-operative comorbidity and disease severity. Patients undergoing two and more than two grafts in addition to aortic valve replacement had increased mortality as compared to patients undergoing aortic valve replacement and only one graft (OR 1.17 95% CI [1.05-1.30], p = 0.005 and OR 1.15 95% [1.02-1.30], p = 0.024 respectively). A single arterial conduit was associated with a reduction in mortality (OR 0.75 95% CI [0.68-0.82], p < 0.001), and post-operative dialysis (OR 0.87 95% CI [0.78-0.96], p = 0.006), but this association was lost with more than one arterial conduit.One hundred and three surgeons responded to our survey, with only a small majority believing that the number of bypass grafts can influence short or long-term post-operative outcomes in these patients, and an almost equal split in responders supporting the use of staged or hybrid interventions for patients with concomitant pathology. Conclusions: The number of grafts performed during combined AVR and CABG is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The use of an arterial graft was also associated with reduced mortality. Future studies are needed to assess the effect of incomplete revascularisation and measure long-term outcomes. Based on our data, current published evidence, and the collective expert opinion we gathered, we endorse future work to investigate the short and long-term efficacy and safety of hybrid intervention for patients with concomitant advanced coronary and aortic valve disease.
  • International RELAY®, branched outcomes - designed to respect and repair the thoracic aorta: A comparative analysis between double and triple branched configurations

    Mariscalco, Giovanni (2023-06-04)
    Background: Endovascular aortic arch repair (EAR) has emerged as an alternative to open surgical repair. A growing interest in endovascular repair techniques for aortic arch aneurysms and dissection has been met with a focus on the clinical efficacy of EAR devices. We present multicentre comparative data on the clinical outcomes associated with EAR using the double- and triple-branched configurations of the RELAY™ (Terumo Aortic, Scotland, UK) endograft. Methods: Multicentre data on EAR procedures, carried out from January 2019 to January 2022, using the double- and triple-branched RELAY™ endograft were collected prospectively. Follow-up data were collected at 30 days, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months postoperative. Retrospective descriptive analysis, logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier analysis were carried out on procedural and follow-up data. Results: A total of 131 patients were included in the series. In total, 103 and 28 patients were treated with the double-branched and triple-branched RELAY™ endograft, respectively. Over the 24-month follow-up period, zero mortality, cases of stroke, or reinterventions were recorded in the triple-branched group. Four mortalities, 19 disabling strokes, and 50 reinterventions were recorded in the double-branched group within 30 postoperative days. Target vessel patency was maintained in all patients in the triple-branched group, while vessel patency was maintained in 74.0% of patients in the double-branched group. Conclusion: Outcomes associated with the triple-branched group are consistent with those reported in the literature. Our data suggest that EAR with the RELAY™ endograft is associated with favourable clinical outcomes and clinical efficacy. Further comparative research into EAR devices is needed.
  • Aortic valve intervention rates in patients of different ethnicity with severe aortic stenosis in Leicestershire, UK

    Patsalides, Michalis (2023-05-08)
    Objectives: To explore the ethnic differences in patients undergoing aortic valve (AV) intervention for severe aortic stenosis (AS) in Leicestershire, UK. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of all surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) at a single tertiary centre between April 2017 and March 2022, using local registry data. Results: Of the 1231 SAVR and 815 TAVI performed, 6.5% and 3.7% were in ethnic minority patients, respectively. Based on the 2011 Census data for those with a Leicestershire postcode, crude cumulative rate of SAVR (n=489) was 0.64 per 1000 population overall and 0.69, 0.46 and 0.36 in White, Asian and Black populations, respectively; and 0.50 per 1000 population overall for TAVI (n=383), with 0.59, 0.16 and 0.06 for White, Asian and Black populations, respectively. Asians undergoing SAVR and TAVI were 5 and 3 years younger, respectively, than white patients with more comorbidities and a worse functional status.The age-adjusted cumulative rates for SAVR were 0.62 vs 0.72 per 1000 population for White and Asian patients and 0.51 vs 0.39 for TAVI. Asians were less likely to undergo SAVR and TAVI than White patients, with a risk ratio (RR) of 0.66 (0.50-0.87) and 0.27 (0.18-0.43), respectively, but the age-adjusted RR was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The crude rates of AV interventions are lower in Asian patients compared with the White population in Leicestershire, although age-adjusted rates were not statistically different. Further research to determine the sociodemographic differences in prevalence, incidence, mechanisms and treatment of AS across the UK is required.
  • Impact of surgeon experience and centre volume on outcome after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Results from the European multicenter study on coronary artery bypass grafting (E-CABG) registry

    Mariscalco, Giovanni (2022-12-22)
    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of surgeon experience and centre volume on early operative outcomes in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. Method: Of 7,352 patients in the European Multicenter Study on Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (E-CABG) registry, 1,549 underwent OPCAB and were included in the present analysis. Using adjusted regression analysis, we compared major early adverse events after procedures performed by experienced OPCAB surgeons (i.e., ≥20 cases per year; n=1,201) to those performed by non-OPCAB surgeons (n=348). Furthermore, the same end points were compared between procedures performed by OPCAB surgeons in high OPCAB volume centres (off-pump technique used in >50% of cases; n=894) and low OPCAB volume centres (n=307). Results: In the experienced OPCAB surgeon group, we observed shorter procedure times (β -43.858, 95% confidence interval [CI] -53.322 to -34.393; p<0.001), a lower rate of conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass (odds ratio [OR] 0.284, 95% CI 0.147-0.551; p<0.001), a lower rate of prolonged inotrope or vasoconstrictor use (OR 0.492, 95% CI 0.371-0.653; p<0.001), a lower rate of early postprocedural percutaneous coronary interventions (OR 0.335, 95% CI 0.169-0.663; p=0.002), and lower 30-day mortality (OR 0.423, 95% CI 0.194-0.924; p=0.031). In high OPCAB volume centres, we found a lower rate of prolonged inotrope use (OR 0.584, 95% CI 0.419-0.814; p=0.002), a lower rate of postprocedural acute kidney injury (OR 0.382, 95% CI 0.198-0.738; p=0.004), shorter duration of intensive care unit (β -1.752, 95% CI -2.240 to -1.264; p<0.001) and hospital (β -1.967; 95% CI -2.717 to -1.216; p<0.001) stays, and lower 30-day mortality (OR 0.316, 95% CI 0.114-0.881; p=0.028). Conclusions: Surgeon experience and centre volume may play an important role on the early outcomes after OPCAB surgery.
  • Uncomplicated type B aortic dissection: Challenges in diagnosis and categorization

    Mariscalco, Giovanni (2023-04-17)
    Background: Acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is a rare disease that is likely under-diagnosed in the UK. As a progressive, dynamic clinical entity, many patients initially diagnosed with uncomplicated TBAD deteriorate, developing end-organ malperfusion and aortic rupture (complicated TBAD). An evaluation of the binary approach to the diagnosis and categorisation of TBAD is needed. Methods: A narrative review of the risk factors predisposing patients to progression from unTBAD to coTBAD was undertaken. Results: Key high-risk features predispose the development of complicated TBAD, such as maximal aortic diameter > 40 mm and partial false lumen thrombosis. Conclusion: An appreciation of the factors that predispose to complicated TBAD would aid clinical decision-making surrounding TBAD.
  • Hyperlactatemia and poor outcome after postcardiotomy veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: An individual patient data meta-analysis

    Mariscalco, Giovanni
    Introduction: Postcardiotomy veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A-ECMO) is associated with significant mortality. Identification of patients at very high risk for death is elusive and the decision to initiate V-A-ECMO is based on clinical judgment. The prognostic impact of pre-V-A-ECMO arterial lactate level in these critically ill patients has been herein evaluated. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify studies on postcardiotomy VA-ECMO for the present individual patient data meta-analysis. Results: Overall, 1269 patients selected from 10 studies were included in this analysis. Arterial lactate level at V-A-ECMO initiation was increased in patients who died during the index hospitalization compared to those who survived (9.3 vs 6.6 mmol/L, p < 0.0001). Accordingly, in hospital mortality increased along quintiles of pre-V-A-ECMO arterial lactate level (quintiles: 1, 54.9%; 2, 54.9%; 3, 67.3%; 4, 74.2%; 5, 82.2%, p < 0.0001). The best cut-off for arterial lactate was 6.8 mmol/L (in-hospital mortality, 76.7% vs. 55.7%, p < 0.0001). Multivariable multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model including arterial lactate level significantly increased the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.731, 95% CI 0.702-0.760 vs 0.679, 95% CI 0.648-0.711, DeLong test p < 0.0001). Classification and regression tree analysis showed the in-hospital mortality was 85.2% in patients aged more than 70 years with pre-V-A-ECMO arterial lactate level ≥6.8 mmol/L. Conclusions: Among patients requiring postcardiotomy V-A-ECMO, hyperlactatemia was associated with a marked increase of in-hospital mortality. Arterial lactate may be useful in guiding the decision-making process and the timing of initiation of postcardiotomy V-A-ECMO.
  • Direct current cardioversion in pregnancy: a multicentre study

    Bolger, Aidan; Siddiqui, Farah (2023-04-11)
    Objective: Direct current cardioversion (DCCV) in pregnancy is rarely required and typically only documented in single case reports or case series. A recent UK confidential enquiry reported on several maternal deaths where appropriate DCCV appeared to have been withheld. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Seventeen UK and Ireland specialist maternity centres. Sample: Twenty-seven pregnant women requiring DCCV in pregnancy. Main outcome measures: Maternal and fetal outcomes following DCCV. Results: Twenty-seven women had a total of 29 DCCVs in pregnancy. Of these, 19 (70%) initial presentations were to Emergency Departments and eight (30%) to maternity settings. There were no maternal deaths. Seventeen of the women (63%) had a prior history of heart disease. Median gestation at DCCV was 28 weeks, median gestation at delivery was 35 weeks, with a live birth in all cases. The abnormal heart rhythms documented at the first cardioversion were atrial fibrillation in 12/27 (44%) cases, atrial flutter in 8/27 (30%), supraventricular tachycardia in 5/27 (19%) and atrial tachycardia in 2/27 (7%). Fetal monitoring was undertaken following DCCV on 14/29 (48%) occasions (10 of 19 (53%) at ≥26 weeks) and on 2/29 (7%) occasions, urgent delivery was required post DCCV. Conclusions: Direct current cardioversion in pregnancy is rarely required but should be undertaken when clinically indicated according to standard algorithms to optimise maternal wellbeing. Once the woman is stable post DCCV, gestation-relevant fetal monitoring should be undertaken. Maternity units should develop multidisciplinary processes to ensure pregnant women receive the same standard of care as their non-pregnant counterparts.
  • Interinstitutional analysis of the outcome after surgery for type A aortic dissection

    Acharya, Metesh; El-Dean, Zein; Mariscalco, Giovanni (2023-02-24)
    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of individual institutions on the outcome after surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection (TAAD). Methods: This is an observational, multicenter, retrospective cohort study including 3902 patients who underwent surgery for TAAD at 18 university and non-university hospitals. Results: Logistic regression showed that four hospitals had increased risk of in-hospital mortality, while two hospitals were associated with decreased risk of in-hospital mortality. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality rates were lower in four hospitals and higher in other four hospitals compared to the overall in-hospital mortality rate (17.7%). Participating hospitals were classified as overperforming or underperforming if their risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality rate was lower or higher than the in-hospital mortality rate of the overall series, respectively. Propensity score matching yielded 1729 pairs of patients operated at over- or underperforming hospitals. Overperforming hospitals had a significantly lower in-hospital mortality (12.8% vs. 22.2%, p < 0.0001) along with decreased rate of stroke and/or global brain ischemia (16.5% vs. 19.9%, p = 0.009) compared to underperforming hospitals. Aggregate data meta-regression of the results of participating hospitals showed that hospital volume was inversely associated with in-hospital mortality (p = 0.043). Hospitals with an annual volume of less than 15 cases had an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR, 1.345, 95% CI 1.126-1.607). Conclusion: The present findings indicate that there are significant differences between hospitals in terms of early outcome after surgery for TAAD. Low hospital volume may be a determinant of poor outcome of TAAD. Trial registration: Identifier: NCT04831073.
  • Mid-term outcomes of an alternative remodelling technique for aortic root replacement without coronary ostial mobilisation or reimplantation

    Hadjinikolaou, Leonidas; Acharya, Metesh; Raheel, Furqan; Ahmed, Aamer; Mariscalco, Giovanni (2023-02-01)
    Background: We compare the early and late outcomes of a modified aortic root remodelling (ARR) technique for aortic root replacement without mobilisation or reimplantation of the coronary ostia, with those of the modified Bentall-de Bono procedure. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed comprising 181 consecutive patients who underwent aortic root replacement with a modified Bentall-de Bono procedure (104 patients) or ARR (77 patients) between January 2013 and December 2019. Primary endpoints included hospital mortality and late survival. Secondary endpoints included incidence of post-operative complications and freedom from late re-operation. Results: ARR procedures were performed with shorter cross-clamp times and comparable cardiopulmonary bypass times to modified Bentall-de Bono procedures. The incidence of early post-complications was comparable between groups. 30-day mortality was numerically lower with ARR than the modified Bentall-de Bono procedure. Over 7-year follow-up, 4 patients (3.8%) required repeat aortic surgery after a modified Bentall-de Bono procedure, and none after ARR. Long-term mortality after ARR and after modified Bentall-de Bono procedures was 17.1% and 22.7%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of reintervention on the aortic root/valve was 3.2% after a modified Bentall-de Bono procedure and 0% after ARR. When adjusted for other independent risk factors, late mortality was not influenced by the procedure performed, although competing risk adjusted for age showed that the modified Bentall-de Bono procedure was associated with an increased risk of aortic root/aortic valve re-operation. Conclusions: The modified ARR technique is associated with reduced myocardial ischaemia time, lower post-operative mortality and aortic re-intervention rates compared to a modified Bentall-de Bono procedure. It may be considered a safe and feasible procedure for aortic root/ascending aortic replacement offering good long-term outcomes.
  • Central versus peripheral postcardiotomy veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: Systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

    Mariscalco, Giovanni (2022-12-14)
    Background: It is unclear whether peripheral arterial cannulation is superior to central arterial cannulation for postcardiotomy veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). Methods: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify studies on postcardiotomy VA-ECMO for the present individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results: The investigators of 10 studies agreed to participate in the present IPD meta-analysis. Overall, 1269 patients were included in the analysis. Crude rates of in-hospital mortality after central versus peripheral arterial cannulation for VA-ECMO were 70.7% vs. 63.7%, respectively (adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.08-1.75). Propensity score matching yielded 538 pairs of patients with balanced baseline characteristics and operative variables. Among these matched cohorts, central arterial cannulation VA-ECMO was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared to peripheral arterial cannulation VA-ECMO (64.5% vs. 70.8%, p = 0.027). These findings were confirmed by aggregate data meta-analysis, which showed that central arterial cannulation was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality compared to peripheral arterial cannulation (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.76, I2 21%). Conclusions: Among patients requiring postcardiotomy VA-ECMO, central arterial cannulation was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality compared to peripheral arterial cannulation. This increased risk is of limited magnitude, and further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to identify the mechanisms underlying the potential beneficial effects of peripheral VA-ECMO.
  • Thoraflex Hybrid vs. AMDS: To replace the arch or to stent it in type A aortic dissection?

    Mariscalco, Giovanni
    Background: Acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires urgent surgical intervention. The mainstay surgical approach to treating ATAAD with aortic arch involvement is total arch replacement (TAR). The frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedure involves TAR with hybrid endovascular stenting of the DTA in a single step using a hybrid prosthesis (HP). The prime example of a FET HP is Thoraflex Hybrid Prosthesis (THP). Another treatment option is the novel Ascyrus Medical Dissection Stent (AMDS) that is deployed as a non-covered stent along with the aortic arch as an adjunct to prior hemi-arch replacement. Aims: This comparative review highlights the clinical applications and outcomes of THP and AMDS in the treatment of ATAAD and discusses the main differences between both approaches. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Ovid, Scopus and Embase. Results: TAR with FET can be considered the superior approach to managing ATAAD with arch involvement relative to AMDS with hemi-arch replacement due to more optimal clinical outcomes. Upon comprehensively searching the literature, early mortality was substantially lower with FET ranging from 0-11% compared to 12.5-18.7% using AMDS, with more favourable long-term survival. The incidence of kidney injury and new stroke post-FET ranged from 3-20% and 5-16%, and 11-37.5% and 0-18.8% following AMDS implantation. However, evidence supporting the use of AMDS is extremely limited. Meanwhile, TAR with FET is a well-established and well-described procedure for ATAAD repair. Conclusion: Despite the novel nature of AMDS, its clinical safety and effectiveness are yet to be proven. In conclusion, THP remains the best evidenced-based approach to treat ATAAD in this era.
  • Outcome after surgery for iatrogenic acute type A aortic dissection

    Mariscalco, Giovanni; Acharya, Metesh; El-Dean, Zein (2022-11-14)
    Background: Acute Stanford type A aortic dissection (TAAD) may complicate the outcome of cardiovascular procedures. Data on the outcome after surgery for iatrogenic acute TAAD is scarce. (2) Methods: The European Registry of Type A Aortic Dissection (ERTAAD) is a multicenter, retrospective study including patients who underwent surgery for acute TAAD at 18 hospitals from eight European countries. The primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and 5-year mortality. Twenty-seven secondary outcomes were evaluated. (3) Results: Out of 3902 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for acute TAAD, 103 (2.6%) had iatrogenic TAAD. Cardiac surgery (37.8%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (36.9%) were the most frequent causes leading to iatrogenic TAAD, followed by diagnostic coronary angiography (13.6%), transcatheter aortic valve replacement (10.7%) and peripheral endovascular procedure (1.0%). In hospital mortality was 20.5% after cardiac surgery, 31.6% after percutaneous coronary intervention, 42.9% after diagnostic coronary angiography, 45.5% after transcatheter aortic valve replacement and nihil after peripheral endovascular procedure (p = 0.092), with similar 5-year mortality between different subgroups of iatrogenic TAAD (p = 0.710). Among 102 propensity score matched pairs, in-hospital mortality was significantly higher among patients with iatrogenic TAAD (30.4% vs. 15.7%, p = 0.013) compared to those with spontaneous TAAD. This finding was likely related to higher risk of postoperative heart failure (35.3% vs. 10.8%, p < 0.0001) among iatrogenic TAAD patients. Five-year mortality was comparable between patients with iatrogenic and spontaneous TAAD (46.2% vs. 39.4%, p = 0.163). (4) Conclusions: Iatrogenic origin of acute TAAD is quite uncommon but carries a significantly increased risk of in-hospital mortality compared to spontaneous TAAD.

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