Recent Submissions

  • Evaluation of a COVID-19 fundamental nursing care guideline versus usual care: The COVID-NURSE cluster randomized controlled trial

    Singh, Sally J (2023-11-20)
    Aim: To evaluate the impact of usual care plus a fundamental nursing care guideline compared to usual care only for patients in hospital with COVID-19 on patient experience, care quality, functional ability, treatment outcomes, nurses' moral distress, patient health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Design: Parallel two-arm, cluster-level randomized controlled trial. Methods: Between 18th January and 20th December 2021, we recruited (i) adults aged 18 years and over with COVID-19, excluding those invasively ventilated, admitted for at least three days or nights in UK Hospital Trusts; (ii) nurses caring for them. We randomly assigned hospitals to use a fundamental nursing care guideline and usual care or usual care only. Our patient-reported co-primary outcomes were the Relational Aspects of Care Questionnaire and four scales from the Quality from the Patient Perspective Questionnaire. We undertook intention-to-treat analyses. Results: We randomized 15 clusters and recruited 581 patient and 418 nurse participants. Primary outcome data were available for 570-572 (98.1%-98.5%) patient participants in 14 clusters. We found no evidence of between-group differences on any patient, nurse or economic outcomes. We found between-group differences over time, in favour of the intervention, for three of our five co-primary outcomes, and a significant interaction on one primary patient outcome for ethnicity (white British vs. other) and allocated group in favour of the intervention for the 'other' ethnicity subgroup. Conclusion: We did not detect an overall difference in patient experience for a fundamental nursing care guideline compared to usual care. We have indications the guideline may have aided sustaining good practice over time and had a more positive impact on non-white British patients' experience of care. Implications for the profession and/or patient care: We cannot recommend the wholescale implementation of our guideline into routine nursing practice. Further intervention development, feasibility, pilot and evaluation studies are required. Impact: Fundamental nursing care drives patient experience but is severely impacted in pandemics. Our guideline was not superior to usual care, albeit it may sustain good practice and have a positive impact on non-white British patients' experience of care. Reporting method: CONSORT and CONSERVE. Patient or public contribution: Patients with experience of hospitalization with COVID-19 were involved in guideline development and writing, trial management and interpretation of findings.
  • Standardized clinical annotation of digital histopathology slides at the point of diagnosis

    Hero, Emily (2023-11)
    As digital pathology replaces conventional glass slide microscopy as a means of reporting cellular pathology samples, the annotation of digital pathology whole slide images is rapidly becoming part of a pathologist's regular practice. Currently, there is no recognizable organization of these annotations, and as a result, pathologists adopt an arbitrary approach to defining regions of interest, leading to irregularity and inconsistency and limiting the downstream efficient use of this valuable effort. In this study, we propose a Standardized Annotation Reporting Style for digital whole slide images. We formed a list of 167 commonly annotated entities (under 12 specialty subcategories) based on review of Royal College of Pathologists and College of American Pathologists documents, feedback from reporting pathologists in our NHS department, and experience in developing annotation dictionaries for PathLAKE research projects. Each entity was assigned a suitable annotation shape, SNOMED CT (SNOMED International) code, and unique color. Additionally, as an example of how the approach could be expanded to specific tumor types, all lung tumors in the fifth World Health Organization of thoracic tumors 2021 were included. The proposed standardization of annotations increases their utility, making them identifiable at low power and searchable across and between cases. This would aid pathologists reporting and reviewing cases and enable annotations to be used for research. This structured approach could serve as the basis for an industry standard and be easily adopted to ensure maximum functionality and efficiency in the use of annotations made during routine clinical examination of digital slides.
  • Sputum induction and its diagnostic applications in inflammatory airway disorders: a review

    Goncalves, Beatriz (2023-10-12)
    Sputum induction is a technique that covers the induction and the subsequent processing of the expectorate primarily for the analysis of cells and different inflammatory biomarkers present in the airways to further understand the pathophysiology of different inflammatory respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as the diagnosis of lung diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. It is a non-invasive, safe, cost-effective, and reliable technique reported to exhibit a high success rate. However, due to being technically demanding and time-consuming and having the need of employing trained staff, this technique is only used in restricted research centres and in limited centres of clinical use. When the sputum is collected after induction, the primary goal is to obtain a differential cell count and evaluate the molecular biomarkers of airway inflammation such as eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, major basic protein, tryptase, cytokine production [e.g., interleukin (IL)-5], albumin, and fibrinogen. In addition, cytospins from the processed sputum are used for immunocytochemical staining of cellular products such as EG-2 reactive protein, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and IL-8 that play significant roles in understanding the pathophysiology of inflammatory airway diseases. Nowadays, this technique can be further used by performing an additional analysis such as flow cytometry and in situ hybridisation on the sputum supernatant to investigate more the immune response and pathophysiological process of such various respiratory diseases. In addition, the application of sputum fluid phase to assess the biomarkers could be used more routinely in pathological laboratories for diagnosing lung cancer, COPD, and asthma as well as for monitoring lung cancer progression and asthma and COPD treatment, allowing for early detection and a better treatment provided by the clinicians.
  • Perspectives of patients with chronic respiratory diseases and medical professionals on pulmonary rehabilitation in Pune, India: qualitative analysis

    Singh, Sally J (2023-11-07)
    Background: Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality worldwide and in India. Access to nonpharmacological options, such as pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), are, however, limited. Given the difference between need and availability, exploring PR, specifically remotely delivered PR, in a resource-poor setting, will help inform future work. Objective: This study explored the perceptions, experiences, needs, and challenges of patients with CRDs and the potential of and the need for PR from the perspective of patients as well as medical professionals involved in the referral (doctors) and delivery (physiotherapists) of PR. Methods: In-depth qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted among 20 individuals diagnosed with CRDs and 9 medical professionals. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used as we sought to identify the meanings shared both within and across the 2 participant groups. Results: The 20 patients considered lifestyle choices (smoking and drinking), a lack of physical activity, mental stress, and heredity as the triggering factors for their CRDs. All of them equated the disease with breathlessness and a lack of physical strength, consulting multiple doctors about their physical symptoms. The most commonly cited treatment choice was an inhaler. Most of them believed that yoga and exercise are good self-management strategies, and some were performing yoga postures and breathing exercises, as advised by friends or family members or learned from a televised program or YouTube videos. None of them identified with the term "pulmonary rehabilitation," but many were aware of the exercise component and its benefits. Despite being naive to smartphone technology or having difficulty in reading, most of them were enthusiastic about enrolling in an application-based remotely delivered digital PR program. The 9 medical professionals were, however, reluctant to depend on a PR program delivered entirely online. They recommended that patients with CRDs be supported by their family to use technology, with some time spent with a medical professional during the program. Conclusions: Patients with CRDs in India currently manage their disease with nonguided strategies but are eager to improve and would benefit from a guided PR program to feel better. A home-based PR program, with delivery facilitated by digital solutions, would be welcomed by patients and health care professionals involved in their care, as it would reduce the need for travel, specialist equipment, and setup. However, low digital literacy, low resource availability, and a lack of expertise are of concern to health care professionals. For India, including yoga could be a way of making PR "culturally congruent" and more successful. The digital PR intervention should be flexible to individual patient needs and should be complemented with physical sessions and a feedback mechanism for both practitioners as well as patients for better uptake and adherence.
  • Enabling adults with severe asthma to exercise: a qualitative examination of the challenges for patients and health care professionals

    Evans, Rachael A; Bradding, Peter; Green, Ruth H; Murphy, Anna C; Singh, Sally J (2023-11)
    Background: Adults living with severe asthma have lower physical activity levels, particularly high-intensity physical activity, compared with their healthy peers. Physical inactivity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Objective: To understand patient and health care professional attitudes toward exercise and physical activity to inform future strategies for the improvement of healthy lifestyle behaviors, including exercise. Methods: Participants recruited from a specialist difficult asthma service were interviewed individually, and health care professionals (HCPs) from primary care, secondary care, and a tertiary center were invited to attend focus groups. Interviews and focus groups were transcribed verbatim. We performed thematic analysis on interviews and focus groups separately, followed by an adapted framework analysis to analyze datasets together. Results: Twenty-nine people with severe asthma participated in a semi-structured interview. A total of 51 HCPs took part in eight focus groups across the East Midlands, United Kingdom. Final analysis resulted in three major themes: barriers to exercise and exercise counseling - in which patients and HCPs identified disease and non-disease factors affecting those living with severe asthma; attitudes toward HCP support for exercise - highlighting education needs for HCPs and preference for supervised exercise programs; and areas for system improvement in supporting patients and HCPs - challenges exist across health sectors that limit patient support are described. Conclusions: Patients identified the important role of HCPs in supporting and advising on lifestyle change. Despite a preference for supervised exercise programs, both patient and HCP barriers existed. To meet patients' varied support needs, improved integration of services is required and HCP skills need extending.
  • Investigating the impact of financial concerns on symptoms of depression in UK healthcare workers: data from the UK-REACH nationwide cohort study

    Martin, Christopher A; Batson, Megan; Pan, Daniel; Pareek, Manish (2023-07-12)
    Background: Exploration of the association between financial concerns and depression in UK healthcare workers (HCWs) is paramount given the current 'cost of living crisis', ongoing strike action and recruitment/retention problems in the National Health Service. Aims: To assess the impact of financial concerns on the risk of depression in HCWs, how these concerns have changed over time and what factors might predict financial concerns. Method: We used longitudinal survey data from a UK-wide cohort of HCWs to determine whether financial concerns at baseline (December 2020 to March 2021) were associated with depression (measured with the Public Health Questionnaire-2) at follow-up (June to October 2022). We used logistic regression to examine the association between financial concerns and depression, and ordinal logistic regression to establish predictors of developing financial concerns. Results: A total of 3521 HCWs were included. Those concerned about their financial situation at baseline had higher odds of developing depressive symptoms at follow-up. Financial concerns increased in 43.8% of HCWs and decreased in 9%. Those in nursing, midwifery and other nursing roles had over twice the odds of developing financial concerns compared with those in medical roles. Conclusions: Financial concerns are increasing in prevalence and predict the later development of depressive symptoms in UK HCWs. Those in nursing, midwifery and other allied nursing roles may have been disproportionately affected. Our results are concerning given the potential effects on sickness absence and staff retention. Policy makers should act to alleviate financial concerns to reduce the impact this may have on a discontent workforce plagued by understaffing.
  • Socioeconomic inequalities of Long COVID: a retrospective population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom

    Zaccardi, Francesco; Pareek, manesh
    Objectives: To estimate the risk of Long COVID by socioeconomic deprivation and to further examine the inequality by sex and occupation. Design: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using data from the ONS COVID-19 Infection Survey between 26 April 2020 and 31 January 2022. This is the largest nationally representative survey of COVID-19 in the UK with longitudinal data on occupation, COVID-19 exposure and Long COVID. Setting: Community-based survey in the UK. Participants: A total of 201,799 participants aged 16 to 64 years and with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Main outcome measures: The risk of Long COVID at least 4 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection by index of multiple deprivation (IMD) and the modifying effects of socioeconomic deprivation by sex and occupation. Results: Nearly 10% (n = 19,315) of participants reported having Long COVID. Multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for a range of variables (demographic, co-morbidity and time), showed that participants in the most deprived decile had a higher risk of Long COVID (11.4% vs. 8.2%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 1.59) compared to the least deprived decile. Significantly higher inequalities (most vs. least deprived decile) in Long COVID existed in healthcare and patient-facing roles (aOR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.44), in the education sector (aOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.31, 2.16) and in women (aOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.40, 1.73) than men (aOR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.51). Conclusions: This study provides insights into the heterogeneous degree of inequality in Long COVID by deprivation, sex and occupation. These findings will help inform public health policies and interventions in incorporating a social justice and health inequality lens.
  • Elevated PLAUR is observed in the airway epithelium of asthma patients and blocking improves barrier integrity

    Brightling, Christopher (2023-10)
    Background: Expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is elevated in the airway epithelium in asthma; however, the contribution of uPAR to asthma pathogenesis and scope for therapeutic targeting remains unknown. Objectives: To determine (i) the expression profile of uPAR in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) from asthma patients, (ii) the relationship between uPAR and the epithelial barrier, including blocking uPAR functions and (iii) the function of different uPAR isoforms. Methods: uPAR levels in HBECs isolated from asthma patients and cells at air liquid interface (ALI) during differentiation were quantified. Transepithelial electrical resistance or electrical cell impedance sensing was used to relate uPAR levels to barrier properties, including effects of uPAR blocking antibodies. The functional effects of gain of function was determined using transcriptomics, in cells over-expressing membrane (muPAR), soluble cleaved (scuPAR) or soluble spliced (ssuPAR) isoforms. Results: Elevated expression of uPAR was a feature of cultured HBECs from asthma patients, suggesting intrinsic alterations in asthma patient cells. Soluble uPAR levels inversely correlated with barrier properties of the HBEC layer in 2D and ALI. Blocking uPAR-integrin interactions enhanced barrier formation. The gain of function cells showed limited transcriptomic changes. Conclusion: This study provides a significant advance in our understanding of the relationship between asthma, uPAR and the epithelial barrier, where elevated circulating uPAR results in a reduced cell barrier, a phenotype prevalent in asthma.
  • Genome-wide association study of thyroid-stimulating hormone highlights new genes, pathways and associations with thyroid disease

    Free, Robert; Brightling, Christopher E; Pareek, Manish; Tobin, Martin (2023-10-23)
    Thyroid hormones play a critical role in regulation of multiple physiological functions and thyroid dysfunction is associated with substantial morbidity. Here, we use electronic health records to undertake a genome-wide association study of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, with a total sample size of 247,107. We identify 158 novel genetic associations, more than doubling the number of known associations with TSH, and implicate 112 putative causal genes, of which 76 are not previously implicated. A polygenic score for TSH is associated with TSH levels in African, South Asian, East Asian, Middle Eastern and admixed American ancestries, and associated with hypothyroidism and other thyroid disease in South Asians. In Europeans, the TSH polygenic score is associated with thyroid disease, including thyroid cancer and age-of-onset of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. We develop pathway-specific genetic risk scores for TSH levels and use these in phenome-wide association studies to identify potential consequences of pathway perturbation. Together, these findings demonstrate the potential utility of genetic associations to inform future therapeutics and risk prediction for thyroid diseases.
  • Efficacy of outcome prediction of the respiratory ECMO survival prediction score and the predicting death for severe ARDS on VV-ECMO score for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Majithia-Beet, Gavin (2023-10)
    Background: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) therapy for respiratory failure is an increasingly popular modality of support. Patient selection is an important aspect of outcome success. This review assesses the efficacy of the popular prognostic tools Respiratory ECMO Survival Prediction Score (RESP) and Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on VV-ECMO score (PRESERVE) for ECMO patient selection. Methods: A literature search was performed. Six publications were found to match the specified selection criteria. These publications were assessed and compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve statistical method to ascertain the discriminatory ability of the models to predict treatment outcome. Results: Six articles were included in this review from 306 screened, of which all were retrospective cohort studies. Data was generated over a period of 3-9 years from 13 referring hospitals. Studies consisted of 467 male and 221 female (30 unknown) participants in total with a high heterogeneity. The PRESERVE prognostic model was found to have a higher AUROC score than the RESP model, however both models were found to be sub-optimal in their discriminatory ability. A high chance of bias was seen across all included studies. Conclusion: It was the findings of this review, indicated by analysis using the AUROC measures, that the prognostic model PRESERVE performed better than RESP for predicting post ECMO therapy outcomes, for patients presenting with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome within their respective validated time frames, i.e., RESP at Intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and PRESERVE at 6 months post ICU discharge. However, It was recognized that comparator groups were small thereby introducing bias into the study. Further prospective, randomized studies would be necessary to effectively assess the utility of these predictive survival scores.
  • A data-driven framework for clinical decision support applied to pneumonia management

    Free, Robert; Skeemer, Julie; Small, Leanne; Haldar, Pranabashis; Woltmann, Gerrit (2023-10-09)
    Despite their long history, it can still be difficult to embed clinical decision support into existing health information systems, particularly if they utilise machine learning and artificial intelligence models. Moreover, when such tools are made available to healthcare workers, it is important that the users can understand and visualise the reasons for the decision support predictions. Plausibility can be hard to achieve for complex pathways and models and perceived "black-box" functionality often leads to a lack of trust. Here, we describe and evaluate a data-driven framework which moderates some of these issues and demonstrate its applicability to the in-hospital management of community acquired pneumonia, an acute respiratory disease which is a leading cause of in-hospital mortality world-wide. We use the framework to develop and test a clinical decision support tool based on local guideline aligned management of the disease and show how it could be used to effectively prioritise patients using retrospective analysis. Furthermore, we show how this tool can be embedded into a prototype clinical system for disease management by integrating metrics and visualisations. This will assist decision makers to examine complex patient journeys, risk scores and predictions from embedded machine learning and artificial intelligence models. Our results show the potential of this approach for developing, testing and evaluating workflow based clinical decision support tools which include complex models and embedding them into clinical systems.
  • Associations of objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness with adipose tissue insulin resistance and ectopic fatfitness

    Henson, Joseph; Sargeant, Jack (2023-10)
    Background/objectives: Inadequate movement, excess adiposity, and insulin resistance augment cardiometabolic risk. This study examined the associations of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), with adipose tissue insulin resistance and ectopic fat. Methods: Data were combined from two previous experimental studies with community volunteers (n = 141, male = 60%, median (interquartile range) age = 37 (19) years, body mass index (BMI) = 26.1 (6.3) kg·m-2). Adipose tissue insulin resistance was assessed using the adipose tissue insulin resistance index (Adipo-IR); whilst magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure liver, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (ScAT). Sedentary time and MVPA were measured via an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Generalized linear models examined the association of CRF, MVPA, and sedentary time with Adipo-IR and fat depots. Interaction terms explored the moderating influence of age, sex, BMI and CRF. Results: After controlling for BMI and cardiometabolic variables, sedentary time was positively associated with Adipo-IR (β = 0.68 AU [95%CI = 0.27 to 1.10], P < 0.001). The association between sedentary time and Adipo-IR was moderated by age, CRF and BMI; such that it was stronger in individuals who were older, had lower CRF and had a higher BMI. Sedentary time was also positively associated with VAT (β = 0.05 L [95%CI = 0.01 to 0.08], P = 0.005) with the relationship being stronger in females than males. CRF was inversely associated with VAT (β = -0.02 L [95%CI = -0.04 to -0.01], P = 0.003) and ScAT (β = -0.10 L [95%CI = -0.13 to -0.06], P < 0.001); with sex and BMI moderating the strength of associations with VAT and ScAT, respectively. Conclusions: Sedentary time is positively associated with adipose tissue insulin resistance which regulates lipogenesis and lipolysis. CRF is independently related to central fat storage which is a key risk factor for cardiometabolic disease.
  • PET-CT for characterising TB infection (TBI) in immunocompetent subjects: a systematic review

    Kim, Jee Whang; Kamil, Anver; Haldar, Pranabashis (26/09/2023)
    Introduction. There is emerging evidence of a potential role for PET-CT scan as an imaging biomarker to characterise the spectrum of tuberculosis infection (TBI) in humans and animal models.Gap Statement. Synthesis of available evidence from current literature is needed to understand the utility of PET-CT for characterising TBI and how this may inform application of PET-CT in future TBI research.Aim. The aims of this review are to summarise the evidence of PET-CT scan use in immunocompetent hosts with TBI, and compare PET-CT features observed in humans and animal models.Methodology. MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed Central were searched to identify relevant publications. Studies were selected if they reported PET-CT features in human or animals with TBI. Studies were excluded if immune deficiency was present at the time of the initial PET-CT scan.Results. Six studies - four in humans and two in non-human primates (NHP) were included for analysis. All six studies used 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) PET-CT. Features of TBI were comparable between NHP and humans, with 2-[18F]FDG avid intrathoracic lymph nodes observed during early infection. Progressive TBI was characterised in NHP by increasing 2-[18F]FDG avidity and size of lesions. Two human studies suggested that PET-CT can discriminate between active TB and inactive TBI. However, data synthesis was generally limited by human studies including inconsistent and poorly characterised cohorts and the small number of eligible studies for review.Conclusion. Our review provides some evidence, limited primarily to non-human primate models, of PET-CT utility as a highly sensitive imaging modality to reveal and characterise meaningful metabolic and structural change in early TBI. The few human studies identified exhibit considerable heterogeneity. Larger prospective studies are needed recruiting well characterised cohorts with TBI and adopting a standardized PET-CT protocol, to better understand utility of this imaging biomarker to support future research.
  • British Thoracic Society Clinical Statement on pulmonary rehabilitation

    Chaplin, Emma; Daynes, Enya; Evans, Rachael; Greening, Neil; Singh, Sally (2023-10)
  • Acute blood biomarker profiles predict cognitive deficits 6 and 12 months after COVID-19 hospitalization

    Harris, Victoria; Houchen-Wolloff, Linzy (31/08/2023)
    Post-COVID cognitive deficits, including 'brain fog', are clinically complex, with both objective and subjective components. They are common and debilitating, and can affect the ability to work, yet their biological underpinnings remain unknown. In this prospective cohort study of 1,837 adults hospitalized with COVID-19, we identified two distinct biomarker profiles measured during the acute admission, which predict cognitive outcomes 6 and 12 months after COVID-19. A first profile links elevated fibrinogen relative to C-reactive protein with both objective and subjective cognitive deficits. A second profile links elevated D-dimer relative to C-reactive protein with subjective cognitive deficits and occupational impact. This second profile was mediated by fatigue and shortness of breath. Neither profile was significantly mediated by depression or anxiety. Results were robust across secondary analyses. They were replicated, and their specificity to COVID-19 tested, in a large-scale electronic health records dataset. These findings provide insights into the heterogeneous biology of post-COVID cognitive deficits.
  • Resistance training in post-COVID recovery: Rationale and current evidence

    Mills, George; Daynes, Enya; McAuley, Hamish; Greening, Neil; Baldwin, Molly; Singh, Sally (01/09/2023)
    During hospitalisation with COVID-19, individuals may experience prolonged periods of immobilisation. Combined with the inflammatory effects of the virus, this may lead to a significant reduction in both muscle mass and strength. Data from several long-term studies suggest that these symptoms may not fully resolve within one year. Owing to its effectiveness at inducing muscle fibre hypertrophy and improving neuromuscular efficiency, resistance training is of great interest in the rehabilitation of this population. This narrative review aims to identify the rationale and potential efficacy of resistance training for restoring physical function following infection with SARS-CoV-2, as well as evidence of its use in clinical practice. The studies included in this narrative review consisted mostly of multi-component rehabilitation trials. Of these, widespread improvements in muscle strength were reported using intensities of up to 80% of participants' 1-repetition-maximum. Evidence thus far indicates that resistance training may be safe and effective in patients following COVID-19, although its individual contribution is difficult to discern. Future exercise intervention studies investigating the efficacy of resistance training as a sole modality are needed.
  • Tailored psychological intervention for anxiety or depression in COPD (TANDEM): a randomised controlled trial

    Barradell, Amy (24/08/2023)
    This multi-centre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial evaluated whether a tailored psychological intervention based on a cognitive behavioural approach for people with COPD and symptoms of anxiety and/or depression improved anxiety or depression compared to usual care (UC).People with COPD and moderate to very severe airways obstruction and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscales scores indicating mild to moderate anxiety (HADS-A) and/or depression (HADS-D), were randomised 1.25:1, intervention (242): UC (181). Respiratory health professionals delivered the intervention face-to-face over 6-8 weeks. Co-primary outcomes were HADS-A and HADS-D measured six months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes at six and 12 months included: HADS-A and HADS-D (12 months), Beck Depression Inventory II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, social engagement, the EUROQOL instrument 5-level version, smoking status, completion of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) and health and social care resource use.The intervention did not improve anxiety (HADS-A mean difference, 95% CI, -0.60, -1.40 to 0.21) or depression (HADS-D -0.66, -1.39 to 0.07) at six months. The intervention did not improve any secondary outcomes at either timepoint, nor did it influence completion of PR or healthcare resource use. Deaths in the intervention arm 13/242 (5%) exceeded those in the control arm 3/181 (2%), but none were associated with the intervention. Health economic analysis found the intervention highly unlikely to be cost-effective.This trial has shown, beyond reasonable doubt, that this cognitive behavioural intervention delivered by trained and supervised respiratory health professionals does not improve psychological comorbidity in people with advanced COPD and depression or anxiety.
  • Holistic management of patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis

    Evans, Rachael (2023-09)
    Progressive pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a complex interstitial lung disease that impacts substantially on patients' daily lives, requiring personalised and integrated care. We summarise the main needs of patients with PF and their caregivers, and suggest a supportive care approach. Individualised care, education, emotional and psychological support, specialised treatments, and better access to information and resources are necessary. Management should start at diagnosis, be tailored to the patient's needs, and consider end-of-life care. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions should be individualised, including oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation, with digital healthcare utilised as appropriate. Further research is needed to address technical issues related to oxygen delivery and digital healthcare. Educational aims: To identify the main needs of patients with PF and their caregivers.To describe the components of a comprehensive approach to a supportive care programme for patients with PF.To identify further areas of research to address technical issues related to the management of patients with PF.
  • ERS international congress 2022: highlights from the respiratory clinical care and physiology assembly

    Evans, Rachael (2022-05-23)
    It is a challenge to keep abreast of all the clinical and scientific advances in the field of respiratory medicine. This article contains an overview of laboratory-based science, randomised controlled trials and qualitative research that were presented during the 2021 European Respiratory Society International Congress within the sessions from the five groups of the Assembly 1 - Respiratory clinical care and physiology. Selected presentations are summarised from a wide range of topics: clinical problems, rehabilitation and chronic care, general practice and primary care, electronic/mobile health (e-health/m-health), clinical respiratory physiology, exercise and functional imaging.

View more