Recent Submissions

  • Frailty factors and outcomes in vascular surgery patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Houghton, John; Nickinson, Andrew; Nduwayo, Sarah; Pepper, Coral; Rayt, Harjeet; Haunton, Victoria; Sayers, Rob
    Objective: To describe and critique tools used to assess frailty in vascular surgery patients, and investigate its associations with patient factors and outcomes. Background: Increasing evidence shows negative impacts of frailty on outcomes in surgical patients, but little investigation of its associations with patient factors has been undertaken. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting frailty in vascular surgery patients (PROSPERO registration: CRD42018116253) searching Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus. Quality of studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scores (NOS) and quality of evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. Associations of frailty with patient factors were investigated by difference in means (MD) or expressed as risk ratios (RRs), and associations with outcomes expressed as odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs). Data were pooled using random-effects models. Results: Fifty-three studies were included in the review and only 8 (15%) were both good quality (NOS ≥ 7) and used a well-validated frailty measure. Eighteen studies (62,976 patients) provided data for the meta-analysis. Frailty was associated with increased age [MD 4.05 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.35, 4.75], female sex (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.14, 1.54), and lower body mass index (MD -1.81; 95% CI -2.94, -0.68). Frailty was associated with 30-day mortality [adjusted OR (AOR) 2.77; 95% CI 2.01-3.81), postoperative complications (AOR 2.16; 95% CI 1.55, 3.02), and long-term mortality (HR 1.85; 95% CI 1.31, 2.62). Sarcopenia was not associated with any outcomes. Conclusion: Frailty, but not sarcopenia, is associated with worse outcomes in vascular surgery patients. Well-validated frailty assessment tools should be preferred clinically, and in future research.
  • A Systematic Review of Procedural Outcomes in Patients With Proximal Common Carotid or Innominate Artery Disease With or Without Tandem Ipsilateral Internal Carotid Artery Disease

    Robertson, Vaux; Saratzis, Athanasios; Divall, Pip; Naylor, Ross (2020-12)
    Objective: To establish 30 day and mid term outcomes in patients treated for significant stenoses affecting the proximal common carotid artery (CCA) or innominate artery (IA) with/without tandem disease of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods: Systematic review of early and mid term outcomes in 1 969 patients from 77 studies (1960-2017) who underwent: (i) hybrid open retrograde angioplasty/stenting of the IA/proximal CCA plus carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with tandem disease of the ipsilateral proximal ICA (n = 700); (ii) isolated open surgery to the IA or proximal CCA (no CEA) (n = 686); or (iii) an isolated endovascular approach to IA or proximal CCA stenoses (no CEA) (n = 583). Results: In the hybrid group with tandem disease (66% involving proximal CCA), the 30 day death/stroke was 3.3%, with a late ipsilateral stroke rate of 3.3% at a median six years follow up. Late re-stenosis was 10.5% for proximal CCA/IA and 4.1% for the ICA. In the isolated open surgery group (78% involving the IA), the 30 day death/stroke was 7%, with a late ipsilateral stroke rate of 1% at a median 12 years follow up. Late re-stenosis within aortic bypasses was 2.6%. In the isolated endovascular group (52% IA, 47% proximal CCA), the majority of procedures were done percutaneously (84%), with a 30 day death/stroke rate of 1.5%. Late ipsilateral stroke was 1% at a median four years follow up, with a re-stenosis rate of 9%. Conclusion: Procedural risks were higher following isolated open surgical interventions involving the proximal CCA/IA, compared with proximal lesions treated by isolated angioplasty/stenting, or in tandem with CEA. This higher morbidity/mortality may, however, reflect a greater proportion of innominate (vs. proximal CCA) lesions in open surgical series, changes in patient selection, time dependent evolution of medical interventions, and publication bias. The available data were limited and related to very different patient groups and management strategies spanning 57 years. Caution is raised, particularly for open surgery IA and CCA surgery, and for any procedures in asymptomatic patients. In symptomatic patients, the data cautiously support an "endovascular first" strategy for isolated proximal CCA/IA lesions and a hybrid approach for tandem proximal CCA/IA and ICA stenoses.