Effect of endometrial scratching on unassisted conception for unexplained infertility: a randomized controlled trial.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether endometrial scratching increases the chance of live birth in women with unexplained infertility attempting to conceive without assisted reproductive technology. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, participant-blind, multicenter international trial. SETTING: Fertility clinics. PATIENT(S): Women with a diagnosis of unexplained infertility trying to conceive without assistance. INTERVENTION(S): Participants were randomly assigned to receive an endometrial biopsy or a placebo procedure (placement of a biopsy catheter in the posterior fornix, without inserting it into the external cervical os). Both groups performed regular unprotected intercourse with the intention of conceiving over three consecutive study cycles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcome was live birth. RESULT(S): A total of 220 women underwent randomization. The live birth rate was 9% (10 of 113 women) in the endometrial-scratch group and 7% (7 of 107 women) in the control group (adjusted OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.50-4.03). There were no differences between the groups in the secondary outcomes of clinical pregnancy, viable pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and miscarriage. Endometrial scratching was associated with a higher pain score on a 10-point scale (adjusted mean difference, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.53-3.60). CONCLUSION(S): This trial did not find evidence that endometrial scratching improves the live birth rate in women with unexplained infertility trying to conceive without assistance. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000656639.
Inguinal endometriosis: a systematic reviewInguinal endometriosis is a very rare entity with uncertain pathophysiology, that poses several diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This study aimed to summarize published literature on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Thus, a systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library. An effort was made to numerically analyze all parameters included in case reports and retrospective analyses, as well. The typical and atypical features of this condition, investigations used, type of treatment and histopathology were recorded. More specifications about the surgical treatment, such as operations previously performed, type of surgery and treatment after surgery have been acknowledged. Other sites of endometriosis, the presence of pelvic endometriosis and the follow-up and recurrence have been also documented. Overall, the search yielded 61 eligible studies including 133 cases of inguinal endometriosis. The typical clinical presentation includes a unilateral inguinal mass, with or without catamenial pain. Transabdominal or transvaginal ultrasound was typically used as the first line method of diagnosis. Groin incision and exploratory surgery was the treatment indicated by the majority of the authors, while excision of part of the round ligament was reported in about half of the cases. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were initiated in cases of coexisting endometriosis-related neoplasia. Inguinal recurrence or malignant transformation was rarely reported. The treatment of inguinal endometriosis is surgical and a long-term follow-up is needed. More research is needed on the effectiveness of suppressive hormonal therapy, recurrence rate and its relationship with endometriosis-associated malignancies.
A qualitative exploration of physical and psychosocial well-being in the short and long term after treatments for cervical cancerObjective: Cervical cancer is predominantly a cancer of younger women, and improvements in oncological outcomes have led to an increase in cervical cancer survivors living with the long-term effects of treatment. Understanding the recovery process after treatment is essential to increase awareness of the short- and long-term needs of survivors. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore the recovery process and return to daily activity of cervical cancers survivors from a biopsychosocial perspective. Methods: Participants were 21 women treated for cervical cancer between the ages of 18 and 60 years, living in the United Kingdom. Interviews were undertaken face to face and via the telephone using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Data analysis revealed themes which represented participants' experience and perceptions of treatment as a paradox; emotional needs after treatment; and a journey of adversarial growth. A key finding from this analysis was the nuanced experiences between treatment modalities, with physical changes perceived to be more disruptive following radical treatments, whilst psychological repercussions were significant regardless of treatment type. Conclusion: This study provides novel insight into the varied recovery experiences of those treated with surgery and/or chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer, which can be used to improve the survivorship experience.