Recent Submissions

  • Effectiveness of a web-based virtual journal club to promote medical education (Web-Ed): protocol of a multicentre pragmatic randomised trial

    Murugesu, Nilaani (2022-06-16)
    Introduction A journal club (JC) is a commonly used medical educational tool. Videoconferencing technology can facilitate the delivery of JCs, however, there remains no evidence on the role of web-based virtual JCs in promoting the acquisition and retention of medical knowledge. The Web-Ed trial aims to evaluate the educational benefits, feasibility and acceptability of web-based virtual JCs compared with traditional face-to-face ones. Methods and analysis Web-Ed is a multicentre pragmatic parallel-group randomised trial across teaching hospitals within the UK National Health Service (NHS). We will enrol qualified doctors or medical students who are >18 years old, proficient in English and able to use online videoconferencing software. Block randomisation will be used to allocate participants in 1:1 ratio to either intervention group. Both groups will be presented with the same educational material and follow a standardised JC structure hosted by nominated moderators and medical faculty members. The primary outcome is the difference in participants’ knowledge acquisition and retention 7 days after the JCs evaluated using standardised multiple-choice questions. We will report secondarily on the feasibility and acceptability of the JCs using Likert scale questionnaires. Assuming a 30% drop-out rate, we aim to enrol 75 participants to detect a 20% improvement in knowledge acquisition at 80% power and 5% significance. We will report using mean difference or risk ratio with 95% CIs and assess significance using parametric/non-parametric testing. Where relevant, we will adjust for predetermined characteristics (age, grade of training and session duration) using multivariate regression analyses. Ethics and dissemination Web-Ed was designed by doctors in training to address their learning needs and evaluate the preferred mode of learning. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant scientific conferences. The trial has been approved by the NHS Health Regulation Authority (21/HRA/3361).
  • Live streaming to sustain clinical learning

    Grafton-Clarke, Ciaran; Uraiby, Hussain; Abraham, Shalin; Kirtley, Joanne; Xu, Gang; McCarthy, Mark
    Background The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated the need to develop teaching innovations that provide safe, authentic clinical encounters which facilitate experiential learning. In tandem with the dissemination of teleconsultation and online teaching, this pilot study describes, evaluates and justifies a multi-camera live-streaming teaching session to medical students from the clinical environment. Approach Multiple audio and video inputs capturing an outpatient clinic setting were routed through Open Broadcast Software (OBS) to create a customised feed streamed to remote learners through a videoconferencing platform. Sessions were conducted between September 2020 and March 2021. Twelve students sequentially interacted with a patient who held an iPad. Higher quality Go-Pro cameras captured the scene, allowing students to view the consultation from the patient and doctor's perspective. A consultant then conducted a ‘gold standard’ patient consultation observed by students. A faculty member remotely facilitated the session, providing pre-clinic teaching and debriefing. The equipment required with costing for a standard and low-cost version is described, as well as a set-up schematic and overview of ideal conditions and barriers encountered during trials. Evaluation All students completed a post-participation questionnaire, rating the overall quality of the sessions as 9.7/10. The quality of online facilitation, utility of observing peers' and consultant interaction with the patient, opportunity for peer-to-peer learning and availability of multiple camera angles were particularly valued by students. Implications This innovation permits an authentic clinical interaction to be experienced by multiple students remotely, promoting equitable access to high-quality teaching, while maintaining the safety of students and patients.
  • Leaders in Cardiovascular Research: Nilesh J. Samani

    Samani, Nilesh (2021)
    No abstract available.
  • Paediatric and adult congenital cardiology education and training in Europe

    Bu'Lock, Frances (2022)
    Background: Limited data exist on training of European paediatric and adult congenital cardiologists. Methods: A structured and approved questionnaire was circulated to national delegates of Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology in 33 European countries. Results: Delegates from 30 countries (91%) responded. Paediatric cardiology was not recognised as a distinct speciality by the respective ministry of Health in seven countries (23%). Twenty countries (67%) have formally accredited paediatric cardiology training programmes, seven (23%) have substantial informal (not accredited or certified) training, and three (10%) have very limited or no programme. Twenty-two countries have a curriculum. Twelve countries have a national training director. There was one paediatric cardiology centre per 2.66 million population (range 0.87-9.64 million), one cardiac surgical centre per 4.73 million population (range 1.63-10.72 million), and one training centre per 4.29 million population (range 1.63-10.72 million population). The median number of paediatric cardiology fellows per training programme was 4 (range 1-17), and duration of training was 3 years (range 2-5 years). An exit examination in paediatric cardiology was conducted in 16 countries (53%) and certification provided by 20 countries (67%). Paediatric cardiologist number is affected by gross domestic product (R2 = 0.41). Conclusion: Training varies markedly across European countries. Although formal fellowship programmes exist in many countries, several countries have informal training or no training. Only a minority of countries provide both exit examination and certification. Harmonisation of training and standardisation of exit examination and certification could reduce variation in training thereby promoting high-quality care by European congenital cardiologists.
  • A case series review of patients with Thrombocytopenia and Absent-Radii syndrome (TARS) and their management during pregnancy

    Halperin, Daniel; Myers, Bethan (2021)
    Bleeding diatheses due to platelet-related disorders can present challenges to treating clinicians, especially in the context of peri- and post-partum patients in the obstetric setting. Thrombocytopenia and Absent-Radii syndrome (TARS) is an inherited disorder characterized by reduced bone marrow platelet production, skeletal deformities affecting radii and other limbs; cardiac, renal, and other heterogeneous anomalies may occur. It is caused by the co-inheritance of a microdeletion and a nucleotide polymorphism in the RBM8A gene on chromosome 1. Bleeding phenotype is more severe than platelet numbers which might predict especially in infants but improves with age. There is minimal literature regarding the impact of pregnancy and puerperium. We describe the management of three pregnancies in the hematology-obstetrics clinic. As platelet counts normally decrease through pregnancy, close monitoring is required in TARS. No major bleeding was seen antenatally but two required platelet transfusions during labor. No other treatment definitely improves bleeding, although case reports of steroids claim variable success. Tranexamic acid may be helpful, and thrombopoietin agonists represent a potential future option.
  • Demographics, distribution and experiences of UK clinical academic trainees using GMC NTS Survey data

    Graham-Brown, Matthew; Carr, Sue (2022)
    Involvement in research plays an integral role in the delivery of high-quality patient care, benefitting doctors, patients and employers. It is important that access to clinical academic training opportunities are inclusive and equitable. To better understand the academic trainee population, distribution of academic posts and their reported experience of clinical training, we analysed 53 477 anonymous responses from General Medical Council databases and the 2019 National Training Survey. Academic trainees are more likely to be men, and the gender divide begins prior to graduation. There are very low numbers of international medical graduates and less than full-time academic trainees. A small number of UK universities produce a greater prevalence of doctors successfully appointed to academic posts; subsequent academic training also clusters around these institutions. At more senior levels, academic trainees are significantly more likely to be of white ethnicity, although among UK graduates, no ethnicity differences were seen. Foundation academic trainees report a poorer experience of some aspects of their clinical training placements, with high workloads reported by all academic trainees. Our work highlights important disparities in the demographics of the UK clinical academic trainee population and raises concerns that certain groups of doctors face barriers accessing and progressing in UK academic training pathways.
  • Impact of changing medical workforce demographics in renal medicine over 7 years: Analysis of GMC national trainee survey data

    Graham-Brown, Matthew; Carr, Sue (2021)
    Increasing numbers of doctors in training are taking career breaks, with burnout cited as a potential cause. This study analysed General Medical Council (GMC) national training survey data (renal medicine) to understand the impacts of changing workforce demographics on trainee outcomes and wellbeing. Increasing proportions of female, Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME), and international medical graduates are entering the workforce. Specialty exam pass rates have fallen and are lower for BAME and international medical graduates in renal medicine. Time to complete higher specialty training has increased for female trainees. Self-reported burnout rates for renal trainees were higher than other medical specialties and highest for male BAME trainees. Burnout was only partially mitigated by less-than-full-time working, but had no impact on progression, sick-leave or time out of training. It is important to recognise changes to the workforce and proactively plan to effectively support a more diverse group of trainees, to enable them to succeed and reduce differential attainment.
  • Medical education and training within congenital cardiology: current global status and future directions in a post COVID-19 world

    Bu'Lock, Frances (2022)
    Despite enormous strides in our field with respect to patient care, there has been surprisingly limited dialogue on how to train and educate the next generation of congenital cardiologists. This paper reviews the current status of training and evolving developments in medical education pertinent to congenital cardiology. The adoption of competency-based medical education has been lauded as a robust framework for contemporary medical education over the last two decades. However, inconsistencies in frameworks across different jurisdictions remain, and bridging gaps between competency frameworks and clinical practice has proved challenging. Entrustable professional activities have been proposed as a solution, but integration of such activities into busy clinical cardiology practices will present its own challenges. Consequently, this pivot towards a more structured approach to medical education necessitates the widespread availability of appropriately trained medical educationalists, a development that will better inform curriculum development, instructional design, and assessment. Differentiation between superficial and deep learning, the vital role of rich formative feedback and coaching, should guide our trainees to become self-regulated learners, capable of critical reasoning yet retaining an awareness of uncertainty and ambiguity. Furthermore, disruptive innovations such as "technology enhanced learning" may be leveraged to improve education, especially for trainees from low- and middle-income countries. Each of these initiatives will require resources, widespread advocacy and raised awareness, and publication of supporting data, and so it is especially gratifying that Cardiology in the Young has fostered a progressive approach, agreeing to publish one or two articles in each journal issue in this domain.
  • Predictors of adverse outcome in the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic: results from a UK centre

    Martin, Christopher; Pan, Daniel; Hills, George; Modha, Deborah; Patel, Prashanth; Jenkins, David; Barton, Linda; Jones, William; Brunskill, Nigel; Haldar, Pranab; et al. (2022)
    Background/aims: Data concerning differences in demographics/disease severity between the first and second waves of COVID-19 are limited. We aimed to examine prognosis in patients presenting to hospital with COVID-19 amongst different ethnic groups between the first and second waves in the UK. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we included 1763 patients presenting to a regional hospital centre in Leicester (UK) and compared those in the first (n = 956) and second (n = 807) waves. Admission National Early Warning Scores, mechanical ventilation and mortality rate were lower in the second wave compared with the first. Results: Thirty-day mortality risk in second wave patients was approximately half that of first wave patients [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.75]. In the second wave, Black patients were at higher risk of 30-day mortality than White patients (4.73, 1.56-14.3). Conclusion: We found that disporportionately higher risks of death in patients from ethnic minority groups were not equivalent across consecutive waves of the pandemic. This suggests that risk factors for death in those from ethnic minority groups are malleable and potentially reversible. Our findings need urgent investigation in larger studies.
  • Distributed autonomous organization of learning: future structure for health professions education institutions

    Roland, Damian (JMIR Publications, 2022-01-04)
    Current health professions education (HPE) institutions are based on an assembly-line hierarchical structure. The last decade has witnessed the advent of sophisticated networks allowing the exchange of information and educational assets. Blockchain provides an ideal data management framework that can support high-order applications such as learning systems and credentialing in an open and a distributed fashion. These system management characteristics enable the creation of a distributed autonomous organization of learning (DAOL). This new type of organization allows for the creation of decentralized adaptive competency curricula, simplification of credentialing and certification, leveling of information asymmetry among educational market stakeholders, assuring alignment with societal priorities, and supporting equity and transparency.
  • COVID-19 vaccination uptake amongst ethnic minority communities in England: a linked study exploring the drivers of differential vaccination rates

    Davies, Melanie; Zaccardi, Francesco
    BACKGROUND: Despite generally high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination rates in the UK, vaccination hesitancy and lower take-up rates have been reported in certain ethnic minority communities. METHODS: We used vaccination data from the National Immunisation Management System (NIMS) linked to the 2011 Census and individual health records for subjects aged ≥40 years (n = 24 094 186). We estimated age-standardized vaccination rates, stratified by ethnic group and key sociodemographic characteristics, such as religious affiliation, deprivation, educational attainment, geography, living conditions, country of birth, language skills and health status. To understand the association of ethnicity with lower vaccination rates, we conducted a logistic regression model adjusting for differences in geographic, sociodemographic and health characteristics. ResultsAll ethnic groups had lower age-standardized rates of vaccination compared with the white British population, whose vaccination rate of at least one dose was 94% (95% CI: 94%-94%). Black communities had the lowest rates, with 75% (74-75%) of black African and 66% (66-67%) of black Caribbean individuals having received at least one dose. The drivers of these lower rates were partly explained by accounting for sociodemographic differences. However, modelled estimates showed significant differences remained for all minority ethnic groups, compared with white British individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Lower COVID-19 vaccination rates are consistently observed amongst all ethnic minorities.
  • Endoscopic surgical simulation using low-fidelity and virtual reality transurethral resection simulators in urology simulation boot camp course: trainees feedback assessment study

    Berridge, Christopher; Kailavasan, Mithun (2021-08)
    Objectives: The objective of our study was to study trainees' feedback and rating of models for training transurethral resection of bladder lesions (TURBT) and prostate (TURP) during simulation. Methods: The study was performed during the ''Transurethral resection (TUR) module" at the boot camp held in 2019. Prior to the course, all trainees were required to evaluate their experience in performing TURBT and TURP procedures. Trainees simulated resection on two different models; low-fidelity tissue model (Samed, GmBH, Dresden, Germany) and virtual reality simulator (TURPMentor, 3D Systems, Littleton, US). Following the completion of the module, trainees completed a questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale to evaluate their assessment of the models for surgical training. Results: In total, 174 simulation assessments were performed by 56 trainees (Samed Bladder-40, Prostate-45, TURPMentor Bladder-51, Prostate-37). All trainees reported that they had performed < 50 TUR procedures. The Samed model median scores were for appearance (4/5), texture (5/5), feel (5/5) and conductibility (5/5). The TURPMentor median score was for appearance (4/5), texture and feel (4/5) and conductibility (4/5). The most common criticism of the Samed model was that it failed to mimic bleeding. In contrast, trainees felt that the TURPMentor haptic feedback was inadequate to allow for close resection and did not calibrate movements accurately. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that both forms of simulators (low-fidelity and virtual reality) were rated highly by urology trainees and improve their confidence in performing transurethral resection and in fact complement each other in providing lower tract endoscopic resection simulation.
  • Codeveloping an effective EMPA to maturity in an acute NHS Trust: an implementer report

    Bourne, Tim; Silva, Geeth; Hall, Graeme; Rauf, Mohammed Q; Vogel, Aaron; Carruthers, Andrew; Xu, Gang
    Introduction: University Hospitals Leicester has codeveloped, with Nervecentre, an Electronic Prescribing and Medicines Administration System that meets specific clinical and interoperability demands of the National Health Service (NHS). Methods: The system was developed through a frontline-led and agile approach with a project team consisting of clinicians, Information Technology (IT) specialists and the vendor's representatives over an 18-month period. Results: The system was deployed successfully with more than a thousand transcriptions during roll-out. Despite the high caseload and novelty of the system, there was no increase in error rates within the first 3 months of roll-out. Healthcare professionals perceived the new system as efficient with improved clinical workflow, and safe through an integrated medication alert system. Discussion: This case study demonstrates how NHS trusts can successfully co-develop, with vendors, new IT systems which meet interoperability standards such as Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources, while improving front line clinical experience. Conclusion: Alternative methods to the 'big bang' deployment of IT projects, such as 'gradual implementation', must be demonstrated and evaluated for their ability to deliver digital transformation projects in the NHS successfully.
  • Frailty identification in the emergency department-a systematic review focussing on feasibility

    Elliott, Amy; Hull, Louise
    Introduction: risk-stratifying older people accessing urgent care is a potentially useful first step to ensuring that the most vulnerable are able to access optimal care from the start of the episode. While there are many risk-stratification tools reported in the literature, few have addressed the practical issues of implementation. This review sought evidence about the feasibility of risk stratification for older people with urgent care needs. Methods: medline was searched for papers addressing risk stratification and implementation (feasibility or evaluation or clinician acceptability). All search stages were conducted by two reviewers, and selected papers were graded for quality using the CASP tool for cohort studies. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics only. Results: about 1872 titles of potential interest were identified, of which 1827 were excluded on title/abstract review, and a further 43 after full-text review, leaving four papers for analysis. These papers described nine tools, which took between 1 and 10 minutes to complete for most participants. No more than 52% of potentially eligible older people were actually screened using any of the tools. Little detail was reported on the clinical acceptability of the tools tested. Discussion: the existing literature indicates that commonly used risk-stratification tools are relatively quick to use, but do not cover much more than 50% of the potential population eligible for screening in practice. Additional work is required to appreciate how tools are likely to be used, by whom, and when in order to ensure that they are acceptable to urgent care teams.
  • Frailty factors and outcomes in vascular surgery patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Houghton, John; Nickinson, Andrew; Nduwayo, Sarah; Pepper, Coral; Rayt, Harjeet; Haunton, Victoria; Sayers, Rob
    Objective: To describe and critique tools used to assess frailty in vascular surgery patients, and investigate its associations with patient factors and outcomes. Background: Increasing evidence shows negative impacts of frailty on outcomes in surgical patients, but little investigation of its associations with patient factors has been undertaken. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting frailty in vascular surgery patients (PROSPERO registration: CRD42018116253) searching Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus. Quality of studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scores (NOS) and quality of evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. Associations of frailty with patient factors were investigated by difference in means (MD) or expressed as risk ratios (RRs), and associations with outcomes expressed as odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs). Data were pooled using random-effects models. Results: Fifty-three studies were included in the review and only 8 (15%) were both good quality (NOS ≥ 7) and used a well-validated frailty measure. Eighteen studies (62,976 patients) provided data for the meta-analysis. Frailty was associated with increased age [MD 4.05 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.35, 4.75], female sex (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.14, 1.54), and lower body mass index (MD -1.81; 95% CI -2.94, -0.68). Frailty was associated with 30-day mortality [adjusted OR (AOR) 2.77; 95% CI 2.01-3.81), postoperative complications (AOR 2.16; 95% CI 1.55, 3.02), and long-term mortality (HR 1.85; 95% CI 1.31, 2.62). Sarcopenia was not associated with any outcomes. Conclusion: Frailty, but not sarcopenia, is associated with worse outcomes in vascular surgery patients. Well-validated frailty assessment tools should be preferred clinically, and in future research.
  • Change in V˙O 2peak in Response to Aerobic Exercise Training and the Relationship With Exercise Prescription in People With COPD: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Ward, Thomas J.C.; Jones, Amy V.; Trethewey, Ruth; Divall, Pip; Singh, Sally; Steiner, Michael; Evans, Rachael (2020-07)
    Background: Despite the wide-ranging benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation, conflicting results remain regarding whether people with COPD can improve their peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) with aerobic training. Research question: The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training and exercise prescription on V˙O2peak in COPD. Study design and methods: A systematic review was performed by using MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane databases for all studies measuring V˙O2peak prior to and following supervised lower-limb aerobic training in COPD. A random effects meta-analysis limited to randomized controlled trials comparing aerobic training vs usual care was conducted. Other study designs were included in a secondary meta-analysis and meta-regression to investigate the influence of program and patient factors on outcome. Results: A total of 112 studies were included (participants, N = 3,484): 21 controlled trials (n = 489), of which 13 were randomized (n = 288) and 91 were uncontrolled (n = 2,995) studies. Meta-analysis found a moderate positive change in V˙O2peak (standardized mean difference, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34-0.69) with the intervention. The change in V˙O2peak was positively associated with target duration of exercise session (P = .01) and, when studies > 1 year duration were excluded, greater total volume of exercise training (P = .01). Similarly, the change in V˙O2peak was greater for programs > 12 weeks compared with those 6 to 12 weeks when adjusted for age and sex. However, reported prescribed exercise intensity (P = .77), training modality (P > .35), and mode (P = .29) did not affect V˙O2peak. Cohorts with more severe airflow obstruction exhibited smaller improvements in V˙O2peak (P < .001). Interpretation: Overall, people with COPD achieved moderate improvements in V˙O2peak through supervised aerobic training. There is sufficient evidence to show that programs with greater total exercise volume, including duration of exercise session and program duration, are more effective. Reduced effects in severe disease suggest alternative aerobic training methods may be needed in this population.
  • Ethnicity and clinical outcomes in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Sze, Shirley; Pan, Daniel; Martin, Christopher; Nazareth, Joshua; Minhas, Jatinder S; Divall, Pip; Pareek, Manish (2020-12)
    Background: Patients from ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between ethnicity and clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Methods: Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PROSPERO, Cochrane library and MedRxiv) were searched up to 31st August 2020, for studies reporting COVID-19 data disaggregated by ethnicity. Outcomes were: risk of infection; intensive therapy unit (ITU) admission and death. PROSPERO ID: 180654. Findings: 18,728,893 patients from 50 studies were included; 26 were peer-reviewed; 42 were from the United States of America and 8 from the United Kingdom. Individuals from Black and Asian ethnicities had a higher risk of COVID-19 infection compared to White individuals. This was consistent in both the main analysis (pooled adjusted RR for Black: 2.02, 95% CI 1.67-2.44; pooled adjusted RR for Asian: 1.50, 95% CI 1.24-1.83) and sensitivity analyses examining peer-reviewed studies only (pooled adjusted RR for Black: 1.85, 95%CI: 1.46-2.35; pooled adjusted RR for Asian: 1.51, 95% CI 1.22-1.88). Individuals of Asian ethnicity may also be at higher risk of ITU admission (pooled adjusted RR 1.97 95% CI 1.34-2.89) (but no studies had yet been peer-reviewed) and death (pooled adjusted RR/HR 1.22 [0.99-1.50]). Interpretation: Individuals of Black and Asian ethnicity are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection compared to White individuals; Asians may be at higher risk of ITU admission and death. These findings are of critical public health importance in informing interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality amongst ethnic minority groups.
  • Non-surgical treatments for Morton's neuroma: A systematic review

    Thomson, Lauren; Divall, Pip; Bhatia, Maneesh (2020-10)
    Background: Morton's neuroma (MN) is an entrapment degenerative neuropathy with a strong predilection for the 3rd interdigital web space. The objective of our study was to identify the most significant evidence produced for the non-operative treatment of Morton's neuroma and assess outcomes of these interventions. Method: The electronic databases Medline, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to October 2018 were searched. Two independent reviewers assessed the quality of the studies using the Modified Coleman Criteria. Statistics were combined across cohort studies to calculate pooled mean results, and improvements in outcomes. Results: Initial electronic and hand search identified 486 studies. After title and abstract review there were 38 that went on to full-text review. Finally, 22 studies were included in the final review. We identified 9 different non-operative treatment modalities; Corticosteroid injection, Alcohol injection, Extra-corporeal Shockwave therapy (ESWT), Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA), Cryoablation, Capsaicin injection, Botulinum toxin, Orthosis and YAG Laser Therapy. Corticosteroid showed a statistically significant reduction in mean VAS over all their studies (p < 0.01), with 50% success at 12 months. Alcohol showed promising short-term pain-relieving results only. Orthotics, Capsaicin injections, Cryoablation, Botulinum toxin, RFA and ESWT did show statistically significant improvements, but with limitation to their application. Conclusion: Following review, the authors would recommend the use of corticosteroid injections to treat Morton's neuromas. The authors feel that radio-frequency ablation and cryoablation would benefit from further well designed randomised controlled trials.
  • A Systematic Review of Procedural Outcomes in Patients With Proximal Common Carotid or Innominate Artery Disease With or Without Tandem Ipsilateral Internal Carotid Artery Disease

    Robertson, Vaux; Saratzis, Athanasios; Divall, Pip; Naylor, Ross (2020-12)
    Objective: To establish 30 day and mid term outcomes in patients treated for significant stenoses affecting the proximal common carotid artery (CCA) or innominate artery (IA) with/without tandem disease of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods: Systematic review of early and mid term outcomes in 1 969 patients from 77 studies (1960-2017) who underwent: (i) hybrid open retrograde angioplasty/stenting of the IA/proximal CCA plus carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with tandem disease of the ipsilateral proximal ICA (n = 700); (ii) isolated open surgery to the IA or proximal CCA (no CEA) (n = 686); or (iii) an isolated endovascular approach to IA or proximal CCA stenoses (no CEA) (n = 583). Results: In the hybrid group with tandem disease (66% involving proximal CCA), the 30 day death/stroke was 3.3%, with a late ipsilateral stroke rate of 3.3% at a median six years follow up. Late re-stenosis was 10.5% for proximal CCA/IA and 4.1% for the ICA. In the isolated open surgery group (78% involving the IA), the 30 day death/stroke was 7%, with a late ipsilateral stroke rate of 1% at a median 12 years follow up. Late re-stenosis within aortic bypasses was 2.6%. In the isolated endovascular group (52% IA, 47% proximal CCA), the majority of procedures were done percutaneously (84%), with a 30 day death/stroke rate of 1.5%. Late ipsilateral stroke was 1% at a median four years follow up, with a re-stenosis rate of 9%. Conclusion: Procedural risks were higher following isolated open surgical interventions involving the proximal CCA/IA, compared with proximal lesions treated by isolated angioplasty/stenting, or in tandem with CEA. This higher morbidity/mortality may, however, reflect a greater proportion of innominate (vs. proximal CCA) lesions in open surgical series, changes in patient selection, time dependent evolution of medical interventions, and publication bias. The available data were limited and related to very different patient groups and management strategies spanning 57 years. Caution is raised, particularly for open surgery IA and CCA surgery, and for any procedures in asymptomatic patients. In symptomatic patients, the data cautiously support an "endovascular first" strategy for isolated proximal CCA/IA lesions and a hybrid approach for tandem proximal CCA/IA and ICA stenoses.

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