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dc.contributor.authorJackson, Georgina M.
dc.contributor.authorGroom, Madeleine J.
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-24T14:55:32Z
dc.date.available2017-08-24T14:55:32Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.citationShephard, E., Jackson, G. M. & Groom, M. J. (2016). Electrophysiological correlates of reinforcement learning in young people with Tourette syndrome with and without co-occurring ADHD symptoms. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 51 (pp.17-27.
dc.identifier.other10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2016.04.005
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12904/2309
dc.description.abstractAltered reinforcement learning is implicated in the causes of Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TS and ADHD frequently co-occur but how this affects reinforcement learning has not been investigated. We examined the ability of young people with TS (n=18), TS+ADHD (N=17), ADHD (n=13) and typically developing controls (n=20) to learn and reverse stimulus-response (S-R) associations based on positive and negative reinforcement feedback. We used a 2 (TS-yes, TS-no)x2 (ADHD-yes, ADHD-no) factorial design to assess the effects of TS, ADHD, and their interaction on behavioural (accuracy, RT) and event-related potential (stimulus-locked P3, feedback-locked P2, feedback-related negativity, FRN) indices of learning and reversing the S-R associations. TS was associated with intact learning and reversal performance and largely typical ERP amplitudes. ADHD was associated with lower accuracy during S-R learning and impaired reversal learning (significantly reduced accuracy and a trend for smaller P3 amplitude). The results indicate that co-occurring ADHD symptoms impair reversal learning in TS+ADHD. The implications of these findings for behavioural tic therapies are discussed. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
dc.description.urihttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736574816301009?np=y&npKey=9bbdadc82a24ec6be4a11f62071f65bccf57129058e4205ad72421b4277d285a
dc.subjectAttention deficit disorder with hyperactivity
dc.subjectTourette syndrome
dc.subjectNeurofeedback
dc.subjectReinforcement
dc.titleElectrophysiological correlates of reinforcement learning in young people with Tourette syndrome with and without co-occurring ADHD symptoms
dc.typeArticle


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