• Randomized Phase II Study Investigating Pazopanib Versus Weekly Paclitaxel in Relapsed or Progressive Urothelial Cancer.

      Chakraborti, Prabir (2017-04)
      Purpose Two previous single-arm trials have drawn conflicting conclusions regarding the activity of pazopanib in urothelial cancers after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients and Methods This randomized (1:1) open-label phase II trial compared the efficacy of pazopanib 800 mg orally with paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2) days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) in the second-line setting. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Results Between August 2012 and October 2014, 131 patients, out of 140 planned, were randomly assigned. The study was terminated early on the recommendation of the independent data monitoring committee because of futility. Final analysis after the preplanned number of deaths (n = 110) occurred after a median follow-up of 18 months. One hundred fifteen deaths had occurred at the final data extract presented here. Median OS was 8.0 months for paclitaxel (80% CI, 6.9 to 9.7 months) and 4.7 months for pazopanib (80% CI, 4.2 to 6.4 months). The hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for baseline stratification factors was 1.28 (80% CI, 0.99 to 1.67; one-sided P = .89). Median progression-free survival was 4.1 months for paclitaxel (80% CI, 3.0 to 5.6 months) and 3.1 months for pazopanib (80% CI, 2.7 to 4.6 months; HR, 1.09; 80% CI, 0.85 to 1.40; one-sided P = .67). Discontinuations for toxicity occurred in 7.8% and 23.1% for paclitaxel and pazopanib, respectively. Conclusion Pazopanib did not have greater efficacy than paclitaxel in the second-line treatment of urothelial cancers. There was a trend toward superior OS for paclitaxel.
    • 'Real-world' experience of colonic stents for obstructive colon cancer-feasible and safe with low morbidity and mortality

      Liptrot, S; Singh, Rajeev; Tou, Samson (2017-10)
      Aim: To define the 'real-world' incidence of technical and clinical success, morbidity and mortality in consecutive patients undergoing self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) implantation for obstructive colonic cancer. Method: Retrospective review of 163 patients undergoing SEMS at two centres (Royal Derby Hospital, UK and Chesterfield Royal Hospital, UK) between 2008 and 2016 cross-referenced with electronic databases for accuracy. Results: 163 patients received a total of 188 SEMS over a 99 month. The mean age was 72 (range 26-102). 82 (49.5%) presented with features of acute or sub-acute obstruction, 37 (22.7%) as a surgical emergency, 8 (5%) with fistulating tumors and 12 (7.4%) received SEMS as a bridge to semi-elective curative surgery. There were high rates of technical and clinical success (89% and 88% respectively) with a low overall incidence of complications (3.2%). Major complications included 2 (1.1%) early (<1 month) stent migrations, 4 (2.1%) perforations (day 0, 5 and 12) but no significant haemorrhage. Overall major complication rate of 6/188 (3.2%). Delayed stent migration (>1 month) occurred in 2 patient. Overall 10 procedures (6.1%) were abandoned for various reasons including that the lesion could not be crossed. Information on overall 30 day mortality (1/96, 1.04%) was available at Royal Derby Hospital. Conclusion: In this large 'real-world' case series SEMS was technically feasible with high levels of technical and clinical success and low 30-day morbidity and mortality. These results support the positive findings of randomised trials and the use of SEMS for palliation and in selected patients prior to staged surgical resection.
    • Redefining WILD syndrome: a primary lymphatic dysplasia with congenital multisegmental lymphoedema, cutaneous lymphovascular malformation, CD4 lymphopaenia and warts.

      Keeley, Vaughan (2021-12)
      BACKGROUND: Primary lymphoedema (PL) syndromes are increasingly recognised as presentations of complex genetic disease, with at least 20 identified causative genes. Recognition of clinical patterns is key to diagnosis, research and therapeutics. The defining criteria for one such clinical syndrome, 'WILD syndrome' (Warts, Immunodeficiency, Lymphoedema and anogenital Dysplasia), have previously depended on a single case report. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present 21 patients (including the first described case) with similar clinical and immunological phenotypes. All had PL affecting multiple segments, with systemic involvement (intestinal lymphangiectasia/pleural or pericardial effusions) in 70% (n=14/20). Most (n=20, 95%) had a distinctive cutaneous lymphovascular malformation on the upper anterior chest wall. Some (n=10, 48%) also had hyperpigmented lesions resembling epidermal naevi (but probably lymphatic in origin). Warts were common (n=17, 81%) and often refractory. In contrast to the previous case report, anogenital dysplasia was uncommon-only found in two further cases (total n=3, 14%). Low CD4 counts and CD4:CD8 ratios typified the syndrome (17 of 19, 89%), but monocyte counts were universally normal, unlike GATA2 deficiency. CONCLUSION: WILD syndrome is a previously unrecognised, underdiagnosed generalised PL syndrome. Based on this case series, we redefine WILD as 'Warts, Immunodeficiency, andLymphatic Dysplasia' and suggest specific diagnostic criteria. The essential criterion is congenital multisegmental PL in a 'mosaic' distribution. The major diagnostic features are recurrent warts, cutaneous lymphovascular malformations, systemic involvement (lymphatic dysplasia), genital swelling and CD4 lymphopaenia with normal monocyte counts. The absence of family history suggests a sporadic condition, and the random distribution of swelling
    • Risk of colon cancer after acute uncomplicated diverticulitis: Is routine colonoscopy necessary?

      Liptrot, S; Al Chalabi, Hasan (2017-10)
      Background & Aims: It has long been recommended that patients undergo follow up colonoscopy to exclude colon cancer after an episode of acute diverticulitis. The role of colonoscopy following an episode of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis remains controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the need for colonoscopy after an episode of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, diagnosed both clinically and by Computed tomography scan (CT). Methodology: We performed a retrospective case review of patients with first presentation of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis over a six year period at two centres: Royal Derby Hospital, Derby, UK; and St. James's University Hospital, Ireland Results: A total of 5461 were admitted with a primary diagnosis of acute diverticulitis In 110 patients (2.29%) a histological diagnosis of colonic malignancy was made. The yield of colonic neoplasia at any stage in our study was equivalent to that detected by screening programmes in asymptomatic individuals among an international standards (0.8-1.1%) and comparable to the estimated prevalence of 1.4% among adults older than 65 years Conclusion: The incidence of colorectal cancer in patients presenting with acute diverticulitis was low at 2.29%. Unless colonoscopy is part of a screening programme routine colonoscopy following an episode of CT-diagnosed acute uncomplicated diverticulitis is unnecessary in the absence of other alarming clinical signs of colorectal cancer. We suggest that this group of patients may suitable for protocolized symptom-driven follow-up shared with primary care.
    • The role of the Consultant Radiographer in facilitating rapid access to palliative radiotherapy.

      Fisher, S
      INTRODUCTION: The fast track pathway for palliative radiotherapy was created to facilitate rapid access to radiotherapy for symptom relief and improved quality of life. The fast track pathway has a target of 5 days from the decision to treat to starting treatment. METHODS: This study is a quantitative analysis of all patients referred and treated with palliative radiotherapy between the 1st September 2018 and 30th September 2019. The number of working days overall from referral to treatment and at each stage of the radiotherapy pathway was recorded and evaluated. The electronic referral system was amended to include the treatment priority option of 'fast track' for all patients with the selected treatment intent of 'palliative'. The data was acquired using the electronic referral system reporting tool. RESULTS: Results demonstrate a reduction in average pathway timing from 14 days to 3 days for volume planned patients, and 13 days to 2 days for virtual simulation patients referred into the fast track pathway. The routine priority palliative pathway also demonstrated a decrease in time from decision to treat to treatment, despite this not being an initial objective. CONCLUSION: Reducing pathway time from referral to treatment is achievable through the introduction of a fast track treatment priority pathway. Rapid access to treatment was facilitated through the electronic referral system fast track option, the creation of a separate fast track care path in Aria, the use of fast track alerts in Aria, and reserved planning scan and treatment appointments. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Rapid access to palliative radiotherapy facilitates alleviation of symptoms and improved quality of life. To improve the efficiency of the palliative radiotherapy service, a streamlined pathway and the commitment of the radiotherapy team is required.
    • Safe investigation of isolated change in bowel habit with a flexible sigmoidoscopy? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Herrod, Philip; Boyd-Carson, H; Doleman, Brett; Blackwell, James; Hardy, E; Harper, Frazer; Lund, Jonathan (2019-07)
      INTRODUCTION: Public awareness campaigns have led to increasing referrals of patients to colorectal surgery for possible cancer. Change in bowel habit, is traditionally described as a symptom of a left sided bowel cancer. If this is the case in practice, it raises the potentially attractive option of investigating such patients with flexible sigmoidoscopy only. This study sought to systematically review the literature describing tumour location of patients with bowel cancer presenting with left-sided symptoms to establish the safety of potential investigation of these patients with flexible sigmoidoscopy alone. METHODS: A systematic review of studies reporting both the presenting symptoms of patients with bowel cancer and the location of their cancer in the bowel was prospectively registered (CRD42017072492). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were searched with no date or language restriction. RESULTS: Seven studies were included. Isolated change in bowel habit (with or without rectal bleeding) was a presenting symptom of 73% (95% CI 41-96%, I2 = 99%) of left-sided cancers but also in 13% (95% CI 2-30%, I2 = 96%) of right-sided cancers. In all patients with cancer who presented with isolated change in bowel habit (with or without rectal bleeding), the cancer was right sided in 8% (95% CI 4-12%, I2 = 69%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher than expected risk that if a cancer is diagnosed in a patient presenting with either an isolated change in bowel habit or a combination of change in bowel habit with rectal bleeding, the cancer may be right sided.
    • The shape of the CUP service at Royal Derby Hospital following the adoption of UKONS guidelines

      Prendergast, Andrew (2017-11)
      Background: Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP) is a form of malignancy for which a primary site cannot be identified despite extensive investigations. The Royal Derby Hospital (RDH) have recently adopted UK Oncology Nursing Society (UKONS) guidelines which aim to promote early involvement of the CUP service, reduce delays in diagnosis and treatment, and prevent unnecessary investigations for suspected CUP patients.Method: A database for patients referred to the CUP service at RDH was compiled by CUP specialist nurses during the period May 2015-May 2016.Results: Referrals to the CUP service were decreased (25%) compared with the previous year but patients diagnosed with CUP had a reduced average life expectancy (17%). The number of MDT discussions per patient was reduced (18%) and time to diagnosis decreased by 29% compared with 2014-15. Only 24% of patients undergoing a biopsy received active treatment.Conclusion: Reduced referrals to the RDH CUP service and more efficient diagnoses do not translate to improved survival rates although this may be attributable to the inclusion of patients deceased prior to referral. Neither do invasive biopsies tend to alter management plans for patients. A restructuring of the national coding system for CUP would better serve patients if it were to differentiate between those who are unfit for investigations and true CUP patients. Finally, involving Haematology and Lung specialists in the CUP MDT may more efficiently identify those referred patients with site-specific cancers.
    • Systematic review of pre-operative exercise in colorectal cancer patients.

      Boereboom, CL; Doleman, Brett; Lund, Jonathan; Williams, John P (2016-02)
      The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for exercise interventions prior to surgery for colorectal cancer resection. The evidence for use of exercise to improve physical fitness and surgical outcomes is as yet unknown. A systematic search was performed of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and BNI databases for studies involving pre-operative exercise in colorectal cancer patients. Eight studies were included in the review. There is evidence that pre-operative exercise improves functional fitness, and to a lesser extent objectively measurable cardio-respiratory fitness prior to colorectal cancer resection. There is no clear evidence at present that this improvement in fitness translates into reduced peri-operative risk or improved post-operative outcomes. Current studies are limited by risk of bias. This review highlights the common difficulty in transferring promising results in a research setting, into significant improvements in the clinical arena. Future research should focus on which type of exercise is most likely to maximise patient adherence and improvements in cardio-respiratory fitness. Ultimately, adequately powered, randomised controlled trials are needed to investigate whether pre-operative exercise improves post-operative morbidity and mortality.
    • The cost-effectiveness of screening for ovarian cancer: results from the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS).

      Scott, Ian (2017-07)
      BACKGROUND: To assess the within-trial cost-effectiveness of an NHS ovarian cancer screening (OCS) programme using data from UKCTOCS and extrapolate results based on average life expectancy. METHODS: Within-trial economic evaluation of no screening (C) vs either (1) an annual OCS programme using transvaginal ultrasound (USS) or (2) an annual ovarian cancer multimodal screening programme with serum CA125 interpreted using a risk algorithm (ROCA) and transvaginal ultrasound as a second-line test (MMS), plus comparison of lifetime extrapolation of the no screening arm and the MMS programme using both a predictive and a Markov model.RESULTS: Using a CA125-ROCA cost of £20, the within-trial results show USS to be strictly dominated by MMS, with the MMS vs C comparison returning an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £91 452 per life year gained (LYG). If the CA125-ROCA unit cost is reduced to £15, the ICER becomes £77 818 per LYG. Predictive extrapolation over the expected lifetime of the UKCTOCS women returns an ICER of £30 033 per LYG, while Markov modelling produces an ICER of £46 922 per QALY. CONCLUSION: Analysis suggests that, after accounting for the lead time required to establish full mortality benefits, a national OCS programme based on the MMS strategy quickly approaches the current NICE thresholds for cost-effectiveness when extrapolated out to lifetime as compared with the within-trial ICER estimates. Whether MMS could be recommended on economic grounds would depend on the confirmation and size of the mortality benefit at the end of an ongoing follow-up of the UKCTOCS cohort.
    • The experience of patients with complex wounds and the use of NPWT in a home-care setting.

      Moffatt, Christine; Murray, Susan; Morgan, PA (2011-11)
      OBJECTIVE: To explore the experience of patients living with complex wounds and the impact of undergoing negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as part of their treatment. METHOD: Qualitative data were collected from eight patients, using semi-structured interviews. A purposive, stratified sampling approach was used to identify participants with a range of wound types, as well as age and gender. Participants were recruited from one primary care trust and were interviewed, following 10 days of treatment with NPWT. The matrix-based 'Framework' approach, from the National Centre for Social Research, was used to structure the analysis. RESULTS: Of the eight participants recruited, five were female and three male, with an age range of 46-77 years. Five overarching categories, with their constituent themes, were identified from the data. The first, developing a wound through crisis, has three themes: a failing body, missed diagnosis and failed professional intervention. The second category, decreased control, has four related themes: poor communication; failed wound healing; poor discharge planning and failure to recover. The third category, increased control, has four themes: understanding what is happening; symptom control; positive professional relationships and returning to health. The fourth category, using NPWT, has two themes: information and understanding of NPWT and expectations and experience of NPWT. The final category sets out participant recommendations about the device and has two themes: device issues and improving professional practice. CONCLUSION: This study investigated the experience of patients undergoing NPWT for complex wounds in the home setting and reveals a number of the psychosocial effects of using this therapy in this environment. Participants saw NPWT as an active intervention, associated with improved wound healing and symptom control. The participant experience described in this study, and the recommendations they make, provide a valuable resource to inform service improvement programmes and wound research.DECLARATION OF INTEREST: This study was supported by a research grant from Smith & Nephew Ltd.
    • The Role of Computed Tomography Scanning of the Thorax in the Initial Assessment of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia.

      Price, JM (2015-11)
      OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether lesions found on computed tomography (CT) imaging of the thorax would affect FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) 2000 risk score and/or alter clinical management. METHODS: The Sheffield Trophoblastic Disease database was searched for all new patients registered for staging/scoring investigations between January 1, 2006, and June 30, 2010. The FIGO 2000 score was noted and then recalculated using information from CT scan reports. Where a change of risk score would have affected a patient's management, the case notes were further reviewed. RESULTS: 191 patients had undergone both modalities of imaging. Using standard FIGO scoring, 169 and 22 patients were noted to be at low and high risk, respectively. Using information from CT imaging, only a further 20 patients would have been reclassified as high risk. Fifteen of these "new" high-risk patients required salvage treatment with intravenous chemotherapy; all were cured. CONCLUSIONS: With no potential advantage in terms of patient outcome and significantly increased radiation dose, there is little justification for routine CT imaging of the thorax in the initial assessment of new patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
    • TRAPEZE: a randomised controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy with zoledronic acid, strontium-89, or both, in men with bony metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer.

      Chakraborti, Prabir (2016-07)
      BACKGROUND: Bony metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer is associated with a poor prognosis and high morbidity. TRAPEZE was a two-by-two factorial randomised controlled trial of zoledronic acid (ZA) and strontium-89 (Sr-89), each combined with docetaxel. All have palliative benefits, are used to control bone symptoms and are used with docetaxel to prolong survival. ZA, approved on the basis of reducing skeletal-related events (SREs), is commonly combined with docetaxel in practice, although evidence of efficacy and cost-effectiveness is lacking. Sr-89, approved for controlling metastatic pain and reducing need for subsequent bone treatments, is generally palliatively used in patients unfit for chemotherapy. Phase II analysis confirmed the safety and feasibility of combining these agents. TRAPEZE aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of each agent. METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive six cycles of docetaxel plus prednisolone: alone, with ZA, with a single Sr-89 dose after cycle 6, or with both. Primary outcomes were clinical progression-free survival (CPFS: time to pain progression, SRE or death) and cost-effectiveness. Secondary outcomes were SRE-free interval (SREFI), total SREs, overall survival (OS) and quality of life (QoL). Log-rank test and Cox regression modelling were used to determine clinical effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness was assessed from the NHS perspective and expressed as cost per additional quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). An additional analysis was carried out for ZA to reflect the availability of generic ZA. RESULTS: PATIENTS: 757 randomised (median age 68.7 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale score 0, 40%; 1, 52%; 2, 8%; prior radiotherapy, 45%); median prostate-specific antigen 143.78 ng/ml (interquartile range 50.8-353.9 ng/ml). Stratified log-rank analysis of CPFS was statistically non-significant for either agent (Sr-89, p = 0.11; ZA, p = 0.45). Cox regression analysis adjusted for stratification variables showed CPFS benefit for Sr-89 [hazard ratio (HR) 0.845, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.99; p = 0.036] and confirmed no effect of ZA (p = 0.46). ZA showed a significant SREFI effect (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.93; p = 0.008). Neither agent affected OS (Sr-89, p = 0.74; ZA, p = 0.91), but both increased total cost (vs. no ZA and no Sr-89, respectively); decreased post-trial therapies partly offset costs [net difference: Sr-89 £1341; proprietary ZA (Zometa(®), East Hanover, NJ, USA) £1319; generic ZA £251]. QoL was maintained in all trial arms; Sr-89 (0.08 additional QALYs) and ZA (0.03 additional QALYs) showed slight improvements. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for Sr-89 was £16,590, with £42,047 per QALY for Zometa and £8005 per QALY for generic ZA. CONCLUSION: Strontium-89 improved CPFS, but not OS. ZA did not improve CPFS or OS but significantly improved SREFI, mostly post progression, suggesting a role as post-chemotherapy maintenance therapy. QoL was well maintained in all treatment arms, with differing patterns of care resulting from the effects of Sr-89 on time to progression and ZA on SREFI and total SREs. The addition of Sr-89 resulted in additional cost and a small positive increase in QALYs, with an ICER below the £20,000 ceiling per QALY. The additional costs and small positive QALY changes in favour of ZA resulted in ICERs of £42,047 (Zometa) and £8005 for the generic alternative; thus, generic ZA represents a cost-effective option. Additional analyses on the basis of data from the Hospital Episode Statistics data set would allow corroborating the findings of this study. Further research into the use of ZA (and other bone-targeting therapies) with newer prostate cancer therapies would be desirable. STUDY REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12808747. FUNDING: This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 53. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
    • Undissected Axilla and Axillary Radiotherapy

      Goyal, Amit (2019-05)
      Comment in Undissected Axilla and Axillary Radiotherapy-In Reply. [JAMA Oncol. 2019] Comment on Surgeon Attitudes Toward the Omission of Axillary Dissection in Early Breast Cancer. [JAMA Oncol. 2018]
    • Update and audit of the St George's classification algorithm of primary lymphatic anomalies: a clinical and molecular approach to diagnosis.

      Keeley, Vaughan; Riches, Katie (2020-05)
      Primary lymphatic anomalies may present in a myriad of ways and are highly heterogenous. Careful consideration of the presentation can lead to an accurate clinical and/or molecular diagnosis which will assist with management. The most common presentation is lymphoedema, swelling resulting from failure of the peripheral lymphatic system. However, there may be internal lymphatic dysfunction, for example, chylous reflux, or lymphatic malformations, including the thorax or abdomen. A number of causal germline or postzygotic gene mutations have been discovered. Some through careful phenotyping and categorisation of the patients based on the St George's classification pathway/algorithm. The St George's classification algorithm is aimed at providing an accurate diagnosis for patients with lymphoedema based on age of onset, areas affected by swelling and associated clinical features. This has enabled the identification of new causative genes. This update brings the classification of primary lymphatic disorders in line with the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies 2018 classification for vascular anomalies. The St George's algorithm considers combined vascular malformations and primary lymphatic anomalies. It divides the types of primary lymphatic anomalies into lymphatic malformations and primary lymphoedema. It further divides the primary lymphoedema into syndromic, generalised lymphatic dysplasia with internal/systemic involvement, congenital-onset lymphoedema and late-onset lymphoedema. An audit and update of the algorithm has revealed where new genes have been discovered and that a molecular diagnosis was possible in 26% of all patients overall and 41% of those tested.
    • What Is the Most Effective Management of the Primary Tumor in Men with Invasive Penile Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Available Treatment Options and Their Outcomes.

      Kailavasan, Mithun
      CONTEXT: The primary lesion in penile cancer is managed by surgery or radiation. Surgical options include penile-sparing surgery, amputative surgery, laser excision, and Moh's micrographic surgery. Radiation is applied as external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy. The treatment aims to completely remove the primary lesion and preserve a sufficient functional penile stump. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the 5-yr recurrence-free rate and other outcomes, such as sexual function, quality of life, urination, and penile preserving length, vary between various treatment options. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Cochrane HTA, DARE, HEED), Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for publications from 1990 through May 2021. Randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized comparative studies (NRCSs), and case series (CSs) were included. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The systematic review included 88 studies, involving 9578 men from 16 NRCSs and 72 CSs. The cumulative mean 5-yr recurrence-free rates were 82.0% for penile-sparing surgery, 83.9% for amputative surgery, 78.6% for brachytherapy, 55.2% for EBRT, 69.4% for lasers, and 88.2% for Moh's micrographic surgery, as reported from CSs, and 76.7% for penile-sparing surgery and 93.3% for amputative surgery, as reported from NRCSs. Penile surgery affects sexual function, but amputative surgery causes more appearance concerns. After brachytherapy, 25% of patients reported sexual dysfunction. Both penile-sparing surgery and amputative surgery affect all aspects of psychosocial well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the poor quality of evidence, data suggest that penile-sparing surgery is not inferior to amputative surgery in terms of recurrence rates in selected patients. Based on the available information, however, broadly applicable recommendations cannot be made; appropriate patient selection accounts for the relative success of all the available methods. PATIENT SUMMARY: We reviewed the evidence of various techniques to treat penile tumor and assessed their effectiveness in oncologic control and their functional outcomes. Penile-sparing as well as amputative surgery is an effective treatment option, but amputative surgery has a negative impact on sexual function. Penile-sparing surgery and radiotherapy are associated with a higher risk of local recurrence, but preserve sexual function and quality of life better. Laser and Moh's micrographic surgery could be used for smaller lesions.