Recent Submissions

  • Imaging techniques in breast cancer

    Beremauro, Stebia (Surgery, 2022-01)
    Imaging is the mainstay in breast cancer diagnosis, with mammography being the primary screening tool used to detect small/asymptomatic cancers. Symptomatic patients undergo triple assessment which includes a clinical assessment, imaging and, if indicated, an image-guided biopsy for histological diagnosis. We discuss current and emerging breast imaging techniques used in breast cancer care. These include mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound and magnetic resonance. We also discuss image-guided biopsy and miscellaneous image-guided interventions that influence the management of breast cancer care.
  • A prospective evaluation of the American College of Surgeons Surgical Risk Calculator as a predictor of complications for breast surgery

    Dube, Mukul
    Background: The infection rates for operative management of breast cancer are often unpredictable and higher than average for a clean surgical procedure (0.8% and 28%). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) Surgical Risk Calculator (SRC), a preoperative scoring system to calculate the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) and serious complications following breast surgery. Methods: Prospective risk scoring using the SRC on 213 patients in the preoperative clinic and the incidence of SSI and serious complications within 30 days postoperatively was prospectively collected. Results: The overall SSI rate in our sample was 5% (n=11/210 patients). For a one-unit increase in SRC score, the odds of having SSI increased by a factor of 1.88 (95% CI 1.33 to 2.74). Odds of developing SSI were higher in patients with high Body Mass Index (OR 1.25; 95% 1.13 to 1.40) and American Society of Anesthesiologists score 3 (OR 11.54; 95% CI 2.98 to 43.65). The odds of developing an SSI were ∼19 times higher if a patient had an SRC score >3.0 versus those with an SRC score <3.0. Only 3% (n=4) of patients who had an SRC score of <3.0 experienced SSI, compared with 33% (n=7) for those with a risk score of >3.0. Out of 210 patients, 9 had serious complications (4.2%). Conclusions: ACS SRC Score of more than 3 was associated with a higher likelihood of SSI. SRC was able to predict the risk of SSI and serious complications and can be used preoperatively for identification and risk minimisation.
  • EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulceration.

    Reza, M; Qureshi, A (Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 2021-11)
    Ulceration of the oral cavity is common and a frequent reason for referral to secondary and tertiary centres. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related mucocutaneous ulceration, however, is a rare cause of oral ulceration that has been described only recently. Histologically these lesions resemble lymphomas; however, their management and prognosis differ significantly. We present a case of EBV-induced oral ulceration and discuss the diagnosis and management of and available literature for the condition, which was treated successfully through conservative measures alone.
  • Outcomes from elective colorectal cancer surgery during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

    Sapre; Watson
    Aim: This study aimed to describe the change in surgical practice and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on mortality after surgical resection of colorectal cancer during the initial phases of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Method: This was an international cohort study of patients undergoing elective resection of colon or rectal cancer without preoperative suspicion of SARS-CoV-2. Centres entered data from their first recorded case of COVID-19 until 19 April 2020. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included anastomotic leak, postoperative SARS-CoV-2 and a comparison with prepandemic European Society of Coloproctology cohort data. Results: From 2073 patients in 40 countries, 1.3% (27/2073) had a defunctioning stoma and 3.0% (63/2073) had an end stoma instead of an anastomosis only. Thirty-day mortality was 1.8% (38/2073), the incidence of postoperative SARS-CoV-2 was 3.8% (78/2073) and the anastomotic leak rate was 4.9% (86/1738). Mortality was lowest in patients without a leak or SARS-CoV-2 (14/1601, 0.9%) and highest in patients with both a leak and SARS-CoV-2 (5/13, 38.5%). Mortality was independently associated with anastomotic leak (adjusted odds ratio 6.01, 95% confidence interval 2.58-14.06), postoperative SARS-CoV-2 (16.90, 7.86-36.38), male sex (2.46, 1.01-5.93), age >70 years (2.87, 1.32-6.20) and advanced cancer stage (3.43, 1.16-10.21). Compared with prepandemic data, there were fewer anastomotic leaks (4.9% versus 7.7%) and an overall shorter length of stay (6 versus 7 days) but higher mortality (1.7% versus 1.1%). Conclusion: Surgeons need to further mitigate against both SARS-CoV-2 and anastomotic leak when offering surgery during current and future COVID-19 waves based on patient, operative and organizational risks.
  • Effectiveness of percutaneous vacuum-assisted excision (VAE) of breast lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3 lesions) as an alternative to open surgical biopsy

    Yemm, Julia
    Traditionally B3 breast lesions are treated surgically, but overtreatment is a concern, as the majority have a final benign diagnosis. A national screening program introduced vacuum-assisted excision (VAE) for managing B3 lesions in late 2016. This retrospective study aimed to assess the outcomes associated with this approach.
  • A Randomized, Open-label, Presurgical, Window-of-Opportunity Study Comparing the Pharmacodynamic Effects of the Novel Oral SERD AZD9496 with Fulvestrant in Patients with Newly Diagnosed ER+ HER2- Primary Breast Cancer.

    Jahan, Ali (2020-08)
    Purpose: Fulvestrant, the first-in-class selective estrogen receptor (ER) degrader (SERD), is clinically effective in patients with ER+ breast cancer, but it has administration and pharmacokinetic limitations. Pharmacodynamic data suggest complete ER degradation is not achieved at fulvestrant's clinically feasible dose. This presurgical study (NCT03236974) compared the pharmacodynamic effects of fulvestrant with AZD9496, a novel, orally bioavailable, nonsteroidal, potent SERD, in treatment-naïve patients with ER+ HER2- primary breast cancer awaiting curative intent surgery. Patients and methods: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive AZD9496 250 mg twice daily from day 1 for 5-14 days, or fulvestrant 500 mg on day 1. On-treatment imaging-guided core tumor biopsies were taken between day 5 and 14 and compared with pretreatment diagnostic biopsies. The primary objective was to compare the effects of AZD9496 and fulvestrant on ER expression. Secondary objectives included changes in progesterone receptor (PR) and Ki-67 pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships and safety. Results: Forty-six women received treatment (AZD9496 n = 22; fulvestrant n = 24); 35 paired biopsies were evaluable (AZD9496 n = 15; fulvestrant n = 20). The least square mean estimate for ER H-score reduction was 24% after AZD9496 versus 36% after fulvestrant treatment (P = 0.86). AZD9496 also reduced PR H-scores (-33.3%) and Ki-67 levels (-39.9%) from baseline, but was also not superior to fulvestrant (PR: -68.7%, P = 0.97; Ki-67: -75.4%, P = 0.98). No new safety findings were identified. Conclusions: This was the first presurgical study to demonstrate that an oral SERD affects its key biological targets. However, AZD9496 was not superior to fulvestrant at the dose tested.
  • Pulmonary Metastasectomy in Colorectal Cancer: updated analysis of 93 randomized patients - control survival is much better than previously assumed.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (2020-05)
    Aim: Lung metastases from colorectal cancer are resected in selected patients in the belief that this confers a significant survival advantage. It is generally assumed that the 5-year survival of these patients would be near zero without metastasectomy. We tested the clinical effectiveness of this practice in Pulmonary Metastasectomy in Colorectal Cancer (PulMiCC), a randomized, controlled noninferiority trial. Method: Multidisciplinary teams in 14 hospitals recruited patients with resectable lung metastases into a two-arm trial. Randomization was remote and stratified according to site, with minimization for age, sex, primary cancer stage, interval since primary resection, prior liver involvement, number of metastases and carcinoembryonic antigen level. The trial management group was blind to patient allocation until after intention-to-treat analysis. Results: From 2010 to 2016, 93 participants were randomized. These patients were 35-86 years of age and had between one and six lung metastases at a median of 2.7 years after colorectal cancer resection; 29% had prior liver metastasectomy. The patient groups were well matched and the characteristics of these groups were similar to those of observational studies. The median survival after metastasectomy was 3.5 (95% CI: 3.1-6.6) years compared with 3.8 (95% CI: 3.1-4.6) years for controls. The estimated unadjusted hazard ratio for death within 5 years, comparing the metastasectomy group with the control group, was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.56-1.56). Use of chemotherapy or local ablation was infrequent and similar in each group. Conclusion: Patients in the control group (who did not undergo lung metastasectomy) have better survival than is assumed. Survival in the metastasectomy group is comparable with the many single-arm follow-up studies. The groups were well matched with features similar to those reported in case series.
  • Timing of radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy (RADICALS-RT): a randomised, controlled phase 3 trial.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (2020-09-28)
    Background: The optimal timing of radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer is uncertain. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of adjuvant radiotherapy versus an observation policy with salvage radiotherapy for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biochemical progression. Methods: We did a randomised controlled trial enrolling patients with at least one risk factor (pathological T-stage 3 or 4, Gleason score of 7-10, positive margins, or preoperative PSA ≥10 ng/mL) for biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy (RADICALS-RT). The study took place in trial-accredited centres in Canada, Denmark, Ireland, and the UK. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to adjuvant radiotherapy or an observation policy with salvage radiotherapy for PSA biochemical progression (PSA ≥0·1 ng/mL or three consecutive rises). Masking was not deemed feasible. Stratification factors were Gleason score, margin status, planned radiotherapy schedule (52·5 Gy in 20 fractions or 66 Gy in 33 fractions), and centre. The primary outcome measure was freedom from distant metastases, designed with 80% power to detect an improvement from 90% with salvage radiotherapy (control) to 95% at 10 years with adjuvant radiotherapy. We report on biochemical progression-free survival, freedom from non-protocol hormone therapy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes. Standard survival analysis methods were used. A hazard ratio (HR) of less than 1 favoured adjuvant radiotherapy. This study is registered with, NCT00541047. Findings: Between Nov 22, 2007, and Dec 30, 2016, 1396 patients were randomly assigned, 699 (50%) to salvage radiotherapy and 697 (50%) to adjuvant radiotherapy. Allocated groups were balanced with a median age of 65 years (IQR 60-68). Median follow-up was 4·9 years (IQR 3·0-6·1). 649 (93%) of 697 participants in the adjuvant radiotherapy group reported radiotherapy within 6 months; 228 (33%) of 699 in the salvage radiotherapy group reported radiotherapy within 8 years after randomisation. With 169 events, 5-year biochemical progression-free survival was 85% for those in the adjuvant radiotherapy group and 88% for those in the salvage radiotherapy group (HR 1·10, 95% CI 0·81-1·49; p=0·56). Freedom from non-protocol hormone therapy at 5 years was 93% for those in the adjuvant radiotherapy group versus 92% for those in the salvage radiotherapy group (HR 0·88, 95% CI 0·58-1·33; p=0·53). Self-reported urinary incontinence was worse at 1 year for those in the adjuvant radiotherapy group (mean score 4·8 vs 4·0; p=0·0023). Grade 3-4 urethral stricture within 2 years was reported in 6% of individuals in the adjuvant radiotherapy group versus 4% in the salvage radiotherapy group (p=0·020). Interpretation: These initial results do not support routine administration of adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy. Adjuvant radiotherapy increases the risk of urinary morbidity. An observation policy with salvage radiotherapy for PSA biochemical progression should be the current standard after radical prostatectomy.
  • Proliferation and AKT Activity Biomarker Analyses after Capivasertib (AZD5363) Treatment of Patients with ER+ Invasive Breast Cancer (STAKT).

    Jahan, Ali (Clinical Cancer Research, 2020-04)
    Purpose: The STAKT study examined short-term exposure (4.5 days) to the oral selective pan-AKT inhibitor capivasertib (AZD5363) to determine if this drug can reach its therapeutic target in sufficient concentration to significantly modulate key biomarkers of the AKT pathway and tumor proliferation. Patients and Methods: STAKT was a two-stage, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, "window-of-opportunity" study in patients with newly diagnosed ER + invasive breast cancer. Stage 1 assessed capivasertib 480 mg b.i.d. (recommended monotherapy dose) and placebo, and stage 2 assessed capivasertib 360 and 240 mg b.i.d. Primary endpoints were changes from baseline in AKT pathway markers pPRAS40, pGSK3β, and proliferation protein Ki67. Pharmacologic and pharmacodynamic properties were analyzed from blood sampling, and tolerability by adverse-event monitoring. Results: After 4.5 days' exposure, capivasertib 480 mg b.i.d. ( n = 17) produced significant decreases from baseline versus placebo ( n = 11) in pGSK3β (H-score absolute change: -55.3, P = 0.006) and pPRAS40 (-83.8, P < 0.0001), and a decrease in Ki67 (absolute change in percentage positive nuclei: -9.6%, P = 0.031). Significant changes also occurred in secondary signaling biomarker pS6 (-42.3, P = 0.004), while pAKT (and nuclear FOXO3a) also increased in accordance with capivasertib's mechanism (pAKT: 81.3, P = 0.005). At doses of 360 mg b.i.d. ( n = 5) and 240 mg b.i.d. ( n = 6), changes in primary and secondary biomarkers were also observed, albeit of smaller magnitude. Biomarker modulation was dose and concentration dependent, and no new safety signals were evident. Conclusions: Capivasertib 480 mg b.i.d. rapidly modulates key biomarkers of the AKT pathway and decreases proliferation marker Ki67, suggesting future potential as an effective therapy in AKT-dependent breast cancers.
  • Understanding primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma - A systematic review.

    Tsirevelou, Paraskevi (2020-02)
    Introduction The true incidence of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown and likely overestimated in the literature. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the diagnosis, aetiology and incidence of parotid SCC by analysing studies evaluating primary parotid SCC. Results A total of 14 observational retrospective studies on primary parotid SCC were included. There are currently no standard criteria for ascertainment of primary parotid SCC. Primary parotid SCC is thought to be due to squamous metaplasia within the ductal epithelium and subsequent invasive squamous carcinoma. Histological features that favour primary disease includes SCC confined to parotid parenchyma with no direct communication to the skin and the absence of mucin. Incidence of primary parotid SCC varied from 1.54 to 2.8 cases per million person-years. Around 30%–86% of patients recorded to have primary parotid SCC on clinical records, when scrutinised, were in fact secondary to parotid lymph node involvement following regional advancement from skin or upper aerodigestive tract SCC. Conclusion Primary parotid SCC is rare and it is currently a diagnosis of exclusion. Thorough clinical assessment including endoscopy, preoperative imaging and the scrutiny of histopathological findings allow for differentiation between primary and secondary SCC within the parotid. This thus affects both initial treatment and subsequent follow-up. Highlights •Primary parotid SCC is currently a diagnosis of exclusion.•Criteria for ascertainment of primary parotid SCC varies in the literature.•Combination of detailed clinical assessment, endoscopic assessment, cross-sectional imaging and histological assessment is required to differentiate between primary and metastatic parotid SCC.•30%–86% of patients recorded to have primary parotid SCC on clinical records were actually metastatic SCC.
  • Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 3 comparison of dose intensification with 14-day versus 21-day cycles.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (2013-05)
    Summary Background Dose intensification with a combination of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) every 2 weeks improves outcomes in patients older than 60 years with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma compared with CHOP every 3 weeks. We investigated whether this survival benefit from dose intensification persists in the presence of rituximab (R-CHOP) in all age groups. Findings 1080 patients were assigned to R-CHOP-21 (n=540) and R-CHOP-14 (n=540). With a median follow-up of 46 months (IQR 35–57), 2-year OS was 82·7% (79·5–85·9) in the R-CHOP-14 group and 80·8% (77·5–84·2) in the R-CHOP-21 (standard) group (hazard ratio 0·90, 95% CI 0·70–1·15; p=0·3763). No significant improvement was noted in 2-year progression-free survival (R-CHOP-14 75·4%, 71·8–79·1, and R-CHOP-21 74·8%, 71·0–78·4; 0·94, 0·76–1·17; p=0·5907). High international prognostic index, poor-prognosis molecular characteristics, and cell of origin were not predictive for benefit from either schedule. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was higher in the R-CHOP-21 group (318 [60%] of 534 vs 167 [31%] of 534), with no prophylactic use of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mandated in this group, whereas grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia was higher with R-CHOP-14 (50 [9%] vs 28 [5%]); other frequent grade 3 or 4 adverse events were febrile neutropenia (58 [11%] vs 28 [5%]) and infection (125 [23%] vs 96 [18%]). Frequencies of non-haematological adverse events were similar in the R-CHOP-21 and R-CHOP-14 groups. Interpretation R-CHOP-14 is not superior to R-CHOP-21 chemotherapy for previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; therefore, R-CHOP-21 remains the standard first-line treatment in patients with this haematological malignancy. No molecular or clinical subgroup benefited from dose intensification in this study.
  • 6 versus 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (PERSEPHONE): 4-year disease-free survival results of a randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; PERSEPHONE Steering Committee and Trial Investigators (2019-06-06)
    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant trastuzumab significantly improves outcomes for patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. The standard treatment duration is 12 months but shorter treatment could provide similar efficacy while reducing toxicities and cost. We aimed to investigate whether 6-month adjuvant trastuzumab treatment is non-inferior to the standard 12-month treatment regarding disease-free survival. METHODS: This study is an open-label, randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial. Patients were recruited from 152 centres in the UK. We randomly assigned patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer, aged 18 years or older, and with a clear indication for chemotherapy, by a computerised minimisation process (1:1), to receive either 6-month or 12-month trastuzumab delivered every 3 weeks intravenously (loading dose of 8 mg/kg followed by maintenance doses of 6 mg/kg) or subcutaneously (600 mg), given in combination with chemotherapy (concurrently or sequentially). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival, analysed by intention to treat, with a non-inferiority margin of 3% for 4-year disease-free survival. Safety was analysed in all patients who received trastuzumab. This trial is registered with EudraCT (number 2006-007018-39), ISRCTN (number 52968807), and (number NCT00712140). FINDINGS: Between Oct 4, 2007, and July 31, 2015, 2045 patients were assigned to 12-month trastuzumab treatment and 2044 to 6-month treatment (one patient was excluded because they were double randomised). Median follow-up was 5.4 years (IQR 3.6-6.7) for both treatment groups, during which a disease-free survival event occurred in 265 (13%) of 2043 patients in the 6-month group and 247 (12%) of 2045 patients in the 12-month group. 4-year disease-free survival was 89.4% (95% CI 87.9-90.7) in the 6-month group and 89.8% (88.3-91.1) in the 12-month group (hazard ratio 1.07 [90% CI 0.93-1.24], non-inferiority p=0.011), showing non-inferiority of the 6-month treatment. 6-month trastuzumab treatment resulted in fewer patients reporting severe adverse events (373 [19%] of 1939 patients vs 459 [24%] of 1894 patients, p=0.0002) or stopping early because of cardiotoxicity (61 [3%] of 1939 patients vs 146 [8%] of 1894 patients, p<0.0001). INTERPRETATION: We have shown that 6-month trastuzumab treatment is non-inferior to 12-month treatment in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer, with less cardiotoxicity and fewer severe adverse events. These results support consideration of reduced duration trastuzumab for women at similar risk of recurrence as to those included in the trial.
  • Ofatumumab Versus Rituximab Salvage Chemoimmunotherapy in Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: The ORCHARRD Study.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (2017-02-10)
    Purpose We compared the efficacy of ofatumumab (O) versus rituximab (R) in combination with cisplatin, cytarabine, and dexamethasone (DHAP) salvage treatment, followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods Patients with CD20(+) DLBCL age >/= 18 years who had experienced their first relapse or who were refractory to first-line R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone)-like treatment were randomly assigned between three cycles of R-DHAP or O-DHAP. Either O 1,000 mg or R 375 mg/m(2) was administered for a total of four infusions (days 1 and 8 of cycle 1; day 1 of cycles 2 and 3 of DHAP). Patients who experienced a response after two cycles of treatment received the third cycle, followed by high-dose therapy and ASCT. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS), with failure to achieve a response after cycle 2 included as an event. Results Between March 2010 and December 2013, 447 patients were randomly assigned. Median age was 57 years (range, 18 to 83 years); 17% were age >/= 65 years; 63% had stage III and IV disease; 71% did not achieve complete response (CR) or experience response for < 1 year on first-line R-CHOP. Response rate for O-DHAP was 38% (CR, 15%) versus 42% (CR, 22%) for R-DHAP. ASCT on protocol was completed by 74 patients (33%) in the O arm and 83 patients (37%) in the R arm. PFS, event-free survival, and overall survival were not significantly different between O-DHAP versus R-DHAP: PFS at 2 years was 24% versus 26% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.42; P = .33); event-free survival at 2 years was 16% versus 18% (HR, 1.10; P = .35); and overall survival at 2 years was 41% versus 38% (HR, 0.90; P = .38). Positron emission tomography negativity before ASCT was highly predictive for superior outcome. Conclusion No difference in efficacy was found between O-DHAP and R-DHAP as salvage treatment of relapsed or refractory DLBCL.
  • Phase III, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial That Compared Maintenance Lapatinib Versus Placebo After First-Line Chemotherapy in Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 1/2-Positive Metastatic Bladder Cancer.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (2017-01)
    Purpose To establish whether maintenance lapatinib after first-line chemotherapy is beneficial in human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 1/HER2-positive metastatic urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). Methods Patients with metastatic UBC were screened centrally for HER1/HER2 overexpression. Patients who screened positive for HER1/2 and who did not have progressive disease during chemotherapy (four to eight cycles) were randomly assigned one to one to lapatinib or placebo after completion of first-line/initial chemotherapy for metastatic disease. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Results Between 2007 and 2013, 446 patients with UBC were screened, and 232 with HER1- or HER2-positive disease were randomly assigned. The median PFS for lapatinib and placebo was 4.5 (95% CI, 2.8 to 5.4) and 5.1 (95% CI, 3.0 to 5.8) months, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.43; P = .63). The overall survival for lapatinib and placebo was 12.6 (95% CI, 9.0 to 16.2) and 12.0 (95% CI, 10.5 to 14.9) months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.31; P = .80). Discontinuation due to adverse events were similar in both arms (6% lapatinib and 5% placebo). The rate of grade 3 to 4 adverse events for lapatinib and placebo was 8.6% versus 8.1% ( P = .82). Preplanned subset analysis of patients strongly positive for HER1/HER2 (3+ on immunohistochemistry; n = 111), patients positive for only HER1 (n = 102), and patients positive for only HER2 (n = 42) showed no significant benefit with lapatinib in terms of PFS and overall survival ( P > .05 for each). Conclusion This trial did not find significant improvements in outcome by the addition of maintenance lapatinib to standard of care.
  • Acute presentation of a partially obstructing laryngeal tumour: adjuvant agents to gaseous induction of anaesthesia.

    Thomas, Carolyn (2018-07)
    We present the case of a 53-year-old man who attended our emergency department with stridor. He had recently undergone investigation for possible glottic cancer. We discuss the airway management of such a case. We believe this to be the first description of propofol target controlled infusion and clonidine to supplement a sevoflurane gas induction, in order to obtund response to intubation while maintaining spontaneous ventilation. We also consider how airway interventions may impact prognosis and need to be considered.
  • Impact of MRI on high grade Ductal Carcinoma Insitu (HG DCIS) management, are we using the full scope of MRI?

    Dakka, Mahmoud (2017-10)
    Introduction: Preoperative assessment of pure Ductal Carcinoma Insitu (DCIS) is essential in the surgical planning. The role of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been debated. The impact of MRI on the management of High Grade (HG) DCIS was assessed, whether it accurately captures the true size of this entity in comparison to conventional imaging, and, if MRI use would reduce the number of re-excision surgery.Method: Ninety-one consecutive patients with HG DCIS, who were identified from a prospectively collected data at Kettering General Hospital between April 2011 and December 2015. All patients had preoperative MRI scan in addition to the standard breast imaging. This was compared to a control group of consecutive patients (n=52) which was obtained from a period just before 2011. Impact on surgical planning and number of surgeries for each patient was compared. The size of HG DCIS estimated by MRI was compared to the final histological size. Secondary outcomes included change of initial surgical plan and detection of occult contralateral breast cancer.Results: MRI group had 91 patients with median age of 63. Seventy percent of which presented through the screening program. The overall sensitivity of MRI to detect HG DCIS was 77% (70/91) with a false negative rate FNR of 23% (21/91). Therefore, 70 patients only were included in the data analysis. The control group included 52 screening patients with comparable baseline characteristics. Re-excision (or completion mastectomy) rates were higher in the control group 26% compared to 8% in the MRI group (P-value 0.012). MRI use correctly converted the initial plan of breast conservation to mastectomy in 9 patients (13%). Five patients had additional ipsilateral malignant features (7%).Occult contra lateral disease, was diagnosed in 2 patients (3%).Conclusion: This study suggests that MRI could be an important tool in reducing the re-excision rates in the surgical management of HG DCIS. Although still controversial, selective MRI imaging can be useful in the preoperative diagnosis and evaluation of HG DCIS. Case by case discussion at MDT is crucial. Wider adaptation of MRI when indicated in the assessment of breast lesions with proper correlation to histology postoperatively is a key in improving our MRI interpretation skills, helping us to exploit the full scope of this useful tool.
  • Glove Port Transanal Excision of Rectal Tumors an Alternative Method for Rectal Tumor Excision: Single Center Experience.

    Dharmavaram, Sridhar (2017-08)
    Aim: Transanal minimal invasive surgery has been practiced for several years for excision of rectal tumors however there is no standard consensus about its applications. This minimally invasive approach helps in avoiding major rectal resections and its associated risk of mortality and morbidity.The aim of this study is to describe a single center experience with transanal glove port excision of rectal tumors which are not amenable to colonoscopic excision. Materials and Methods: Between the years 2011 and 2014, 9 patients underwent glove port excision of rectal tumors located within 15 cm from the anal verge. Glove port was constructed using circular anal dilator, standard surgical glove and a wound protector retractor; regular laparoscopic instruments were used. The median follow-up period was for 18 months (range, 9 to 27 mo) and all patients had flexible sigmoidoscopy for follow-up to look for any recurrence of the tumors. Results: All patients underwent transanal excision of rectal tumors successfully using glove port device and laparoscopic instruments. Full thickness excision of the tumor was performed in all patients and there was no significant postoperative morbidity. The final histology of 6 patients was benign and the remaining 3 patients had malignancy reported in the specimen. During the follow-up period between 12 and 18 months 3 patients had a recurrence of the polyp which was removed endoscopically without the need for any further surgical intervention. Conclusions: Glove port excision of rectal tumors is a feasible alternative to conventional surgical treatment for large benign rectal tumors.What does this paper add to the literature?This article demonstrates that performing local excision of rectal tumors can be achieved safely at a lower cost using simple platforms that are constructed locally like the glove ports. It also highlights the benefits of using the available laparoscopic kits to perform the procedure while making use of the previously acquired skills.
  • Regional variations in UK colorectal cancer screening and mortality.

    George, Anil Thomas; Aggarwal, Smeer; Dharmavaram, Sridhar; Menon, Achyuth; Dube, Mukul (2018-07)
    The article reports on the regional variations of colorectal cancer screening and mortality in Great Britain. Topics mention including the National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP), reduction of colorectal cancer mortality through biennial screening for faecal occult blood and patient survival and survival patterns.

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