Recent Submissions

  • Routine Pressure Wire Assessment Versus Conventional Angiography in the Management of Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: The RIPCORD 2 Trial

    Fazal, Iftikhar (Circulation, 2022-08)
    Background: Measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) has an established role in guiding percutaneous coronary intervention. We tested the hypothesis that, at the stage of diagnostic invasive coronary angiography, systematic FFR-guided assessment of coronary artery disease would be superior, in terms of resource use and quality of life, to assessment by angiography alone. Methods: We performed an open-label, randomized, controlled trial in 17 UK centers, recruiting 1100 patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography for the investigation of stable angina or non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Patients were randomized to either angiography alone (angiography) or angiography with systematic pressure wire assessment of all epicardial vessels >2.25 mm in diameter (angiography+FFR). The coprimary outcomes assessed at 1 year were National Health Service hospital costs and quality of life. Prespecified secondary outcomes included clinical events. Results: In the angiography+FFR arm, the median number of vessels examined was 4 (interquartile range, 3-5). The median hospital costs were similar: angiography, £4136 (interquartile range, £2613-£7015); and angiography+FFR, £4510 (£2721-£7415; P=0.137). There was no difference in median quality of life using the visual analog scale of the EuroQol EQ-5D-5L: angiography, 75 (interquartile range, 60-87); and angiography+FFR, 75 (interquartile range, 60-90; P=0.88). The number of clinical events was as follows: deaths, 5 versus 8; strokes, 3 versus 4; myocardial infarctions, 23 versus 22; and unplanned revascularizations, 26 versus 33, with a composite hierarchical event rate of 8.7% (48 of 552) for angiography versus 9.5% (52 of 548) for angiography+FFR (P=0.64). Conclusions: A strategy of systematic FFR assessment compared with angiography alone did not result in a significant reduction in cost or improvement in quality of life.
  • Invasive coronary physiology assessment - safety of pressure wire study as a diagnostic tool at a district general hospital

    Dardas, Sotirios; Jesudason, Daniel (Heart, 2022-06)
    Introduction Pressure wire study (PWS) is a well-established tool for the assessment of the haemodynamic significance of intermediate coronary artery stenoses (40–90%). This, according to the 2018 ESC myocardial revascularization guidelines, has Class IA indication when evidence of ischaemia is not present. It can be used to calculate the fractional flow reserve (FFR), instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) or resting full cycle ratio (RFR) to guide revascularization decisions, with similar diagnostic accuracy between the tests. Despite the above, the utilization of PWS varies across the U.K., as reflected in the recent BCIS annual data. One possible explanation might be the fact that there are still numerous centres in the U.K, where diagnostic only coronary angiography lists take place, precluding the use of PWS at the same sitting. In our study, we aimed to review the safety of PWS as an invasive diagnostic tool and determine whether it could be incorporated in diagnostic only lists for the assessment of coronary stenoses.
  • Atypical presentation of ventricular tachycardia

    Malik, F; Khaing, T; Adlakha, S; Aye, T (2020-05)
    Cardiac syncope and epileptic seizure are two very similar presentations and difficult to differentiate without a proper history, physical examination and investigations. In a former study, 10 out of 22 episodes of induced ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation can result in stereotypical tonic-clonic movement with varied electroencephalography changes. We present a case which was diagnosed as ventricular tachycardia from seizure-like attack. It is to emphasise the importance of including ventricular tachycardia among other differential diagnoses of seizure-like activity in a patient with cardiovascular risks.
  • Atrial flutter with flecainide-induced 1:1 conduction at a rate <200 b.p.m. at rest: a case report

    Dardas, Sotirios; Khan, Asif (European Heart Journal. Case Reports, 2021-10)
    Background : Class IC antiarrhythmic drug flecainide is commonly used in the management of atrial arrhythmias and in particular atrial fibrillation (AF). Although previously reported as a potential complication, atrial flutter (AFL) with 1:1 atrioventricular (AV) conduction is rare, with only few cases reported so far, most of which related to physical activity. In all previous reported cases, 1:1 conduction resulted in ventricular rates of >200 b.p.m. Case summary : We report the case of a 60-year-old woman, who presented to our local emergency department with palpitations related to acute onset AF. The patient developed symptomatic 1:1 AFL with a rate of 192 b.p.m., shortly after administration of intravenous flecainide, which spontaneously converted back to AF and subsequently to sinus rhythm, with further administration of amiodarone and beta-blocker. Discussion : The case raises awareness of this rare but potentially life-threatening complication to those using flecainide for pharmacological cardioversion of AF. QRS complex widening can be seen in the context of very rapid ventricular rates, posing additional diagnostic challenge, especially with rates of <200 b.p.m. Prescribing an AV nodal blocking agent, such as a beta-blocker, together with flecainide reduces significantly the risk of 1:1 conduction and should always be considered.
  • His bundle pacing, learning curve, procedure characteristics, safety and feasibility: insights from a large international observational study

    Bassi, Sukhbinder (2019-10)
    Background: His‐bundle pacing (HBP) provides physiological ventricular activation. Observational studies have demonstrated the techniques' feasibility; however, data have come from a limited number of centers. Objectives: We set out to explore the contemporary global practice in HBP focusing on the learning curve, procedural characteristics, and outcomes. Methods: This is a retrospective, multicenter observational study of patients undergoing attempted HBP at seven centers. Pacing indication, fluoroscopy time, HBP thresholds, and lead reintervention and deactivation rates were recorded. Where centers had systematically recorded implant success rates from the outset, these were collated. Results: A total of 529 patients underwent attempted HBP during the study period (2014‐19) with a mean follow‐up of 217 ± 303 days. Most implants were for bradycardia indications. In the three centers with the systematic collation of all attempts, the overall implant success rate was 81%, which improved to 87% after completion of 40 cases. All seven centers reported data on successful implants. The mean fluoroscopy time was 11.7 ± 12.0 minutes, the His‐bundle capture threshold at implant was 1.4 ± 0.9 V at 0.8 ± 0.3 ms, and it was 1.3 ± 1.2 V at 0.9 ± 0.2 ms at last device check. HBP lead reintervention or deactivation (for lead displacement or rise in threshold) occurred in 7.5% of successful implants. There was evidence of a learning curve: fluoroscopy time and HBP capture threshold reduced with greater experience, plateauing after approximately 30‐50 cases. Conclusion: We found that it is feasible to establish a successful HBP program, using the currently available implantation tools. For physicians who are experienced at pacemaker implantation, the steepest part of the learning curve appears to be over the first 30‐50 cases.