Identification of rare diseases by screening a population selected on the basis of routine pathology results-the PATHFINDER project: lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl ester storage disease substudy
Inherited Metabolic Disease
Lysosomal Acid Lipase
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Acute kidney injury associated with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort studyKolhe, Nitin; Fluck, Richard; Selby, Nicholas; Taal, Maarten (2020-10)Background: Initial reports indicate a high incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), but more data are required to clarify if COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for AKI and how COVID-19–associated AKI may differ from AKI due to other causes. We therefore sought to study the relationship between COVID-19, AKI, and outcomes in a retrospective cohort of patients admitted to 2 acute hospitals in Derby, United Kingdom. Methods and findings: We extracted electronic data from 4,759 hospitalised patients who were tested for COVID-19 between 5 March 2020 and 12 May 2020. The data were linked to electronic patient records and laboratory information management systems. The primary outcome was AKI, and secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, need for ventilatory support, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and length of stay. As compared to the COVID-19–negative group (n = 3,374), COVID-19 patients (n = 1,161) were older (72.1 ± 16.1 versus 65.3 ± 20.4 years, p < 0.001), had a greater proportion of men (56.6% versus 44.9%, p < 0.001), greater proportion of Asian ethnicity (8.3% versus 4.0%, p < 0.001), and lower proportion of white ethnicity (75.5% versus 82.5%, p < 0.001). AKI developed in 304 (26.2%) COVID-19–positive patients (COVID-19 AKI) and 420 (12.4%) COVID-19–negative patients (AKI controls). COVID-19 patients aged 65 to 84 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11 to 2.50), needing mechanical ventilation (OR 8.74, 95% CI 5.27 to 14.77), having congestive cardiac failure (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.50), chronic liver disease (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.17 to 10.00), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.97 to 4.01) had higher odds for developing AKI. Mortality was higher in COVID-19 AKI versus COVID-19 patients without AKI (60.5% versus 27.4%, p < 0.001), and AKI was an independent predictor of mortality (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.39 to 4.48). Compared with AKI controls, COVID-19 AKI was observed in a higher proportion of men (58.9% versus 51%, p = 0.04) and lower proportion with white ethnicity (74.7% versus 86.9%, p = 0.003); was more frequently associated with cerebrovascular disease (11.8% versus 6.0%, p = 0.006), chronic lung disease (28.0% versus 19.3%, p = 0.007), diabetes (24.7% versus 17.9%, p = 0.03), and CKD (34.2% versus 20.0%, p < 0.001); and was more likely to be hospital acquired (61.2% versus 46.4%, p < 0.001). Mortality was higher in the COVID-19 AKI as compared to the control AKI group (60.5% versus 27.6%, p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, AKI patients aged 65 to 84 years, (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.77 to 5.35) and ≥85 years of age (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.87 to 6.70), peak AKI stage 2 (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.90), AKI stage 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.57), and COVID-19 (OR 3.80, 95% CI 2.62 to 5.51) had higher odds of death. Limitations of the study include retrospective design, lack of urinalysis data, and low ethnic diversity of the region. Conclusions: We observed a high incidence of AKI in patients with COVID-19 that was associated with a 3-fold higher odds of death than COVID-19 without AKI and a 4-fold higher odds of death than AKI due to other causes. These data indicate that patients with COVID-19 should be monitored for the development of AKI and measures taken to prevent this. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04407156
Experiences of using vedolizumab in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in the East Midlands UK - a retrospective observational study.Foley, Stephen; Alam, Mohammad Aftab (2020-07-11)Purpose: Clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of vedolizumab in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Further real-world data is needed to inform clinical practice. The primary outcome was to assess corticosteroid-free and clinical remission after vedolizumab initiation. Secondary outcomes included effect on disease activity scores, biochemical markers, concomitant drug use, endoscopic remission, surgical intervention, hospital admissions and adverse events. Materials and methods: A multi-centre retrospective observational study was conducted with patients initiated on vedolizumab across seven UK hospitals 1/11/14-30/11/16. Clinical disease activity was assessed using the partial Mayo Scores (pMS) and Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI). Clinical remission was defined as HBI ≤4 or pMS <2 with a combined stool frequency and rectal bleeding sub score of ≤1. Clinical response was defined as ≥2-point decrease from baseline in pMS and ≥3-point decrease from baseline in HBI. Results: One hundred ninety-two patients were included in the final analysis. 45% of UC and 10% of CD patients were anti-TNF naive. Over the observation period corticosteroid-free remission rates for UC and CD were 46% and 45%, while clinical remission rates were 52% and 44%, respectively. Time to corticosteroid free remission for UC and CD was 17.6 [IQR: 8.7-29.6] and 14.1 [QR: 6.0-21.7] weeks, respectively. Time to clinical response for UC was 9.4 [IQR: 5.7-15.4] and CD was 9.5 [IQR: 6.1-18.2] weeks. There was a substantial decrease in the concomitant use of immunomodulators and a similar decrease in concomitant corticosteroid use over the study period. Conclusions: Results in this predominately anti-TNF experienced population mirror other published real-world data, demonstrating good clinical effectiveness and a comparable safety profile.