Identification of rare diseases by screening a population selected on the basis of routine pathology results-the PATHFINDER project: lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl ester storage disease substudy
Inherited Metabolic Disease
Lysosomal Acid Lipase
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Consultation rates in people with type 2 diabetes with and without vascular complications: a retrospective analysis of 141,328 adults in EnglandDavies, Melanie; Seidu, Samuel; Webb, David; Zaccardi, FrancescoOBJECTIVE: To assess trends in primary and specialist care consultation rates and average length of consultation by cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), or cardiometabolic multimorbidity exposure status. METHODS: Observational, retrospective cohort study used linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care data from 01/01/2000 to 31/12/2018 to assess consultation rates in 141,328 adults with newly diagnosed T2DM, with or without CVD. Patients who entered the study with either a diagnosis of T2DM or CVD and later developed the second condition during the study are classified as the cardiometabolic multimorbidity group. Face to face primary and specialist care consultations, with either a nurse or general practitioner, were assessed over time in subjects with T2DM, CVD, or cardiometabolic multimorbidity. Changes in the average length of consultation in each group were investigated. RESULTS: 696,255 (mean 4.9 years [95% CI, 2.02-7.66]) person years of follow up time, there were 10,221,798 primary and specialist care consultations. The crude rate of primary and specialist care consultations in patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity (N = 11,881) was 18.5 (95% CI, 18.47-18.55) per person years, 13.5 (13.50, 13.52) in patients with T2DM only (N = 83,094) and 13.2 (13.18, 13.21) in those with CVD (N = 57,974). Patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity had 28% (IRR 1.28; 95% CI: 1.27, 1.31) more consultations than those with only T2DM. Patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity had primary care consultation rates decrease by 50.1% compared to a 45.0% decrease in consultations for those with T2DM from 2000 to 2018. Specialist care consultation rates in both groups increased from 2003 to 2018 by 33.3% and 54.4% in patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity and T2DM, respectively. For patients with T2DM the average consultation duration increased by 36.0%, in patients with CVD it increased by 74.3%, and in those with cardiometabolic multimorbidity it increased by 37.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Annual primary care consultation rates for individuals with T2DM, CVD, or cardiometabolic multimorbidity have fallen since 2000, while specialist care consultations and average consultation length have both increased. Individuals with cardiometabolic multimorbidity have significantly more consultations than individuals with T2DM or CVD alone. Service redesign of health care delivery needs to be considered for people with cardiometabolic multimorbidity to reduce the burden and health care costs.
Acute kidney injury associated with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort studyKolhe, Nitin; Fluck, Richard; Selby, Nicholas; Taal, Maarten (2020-10)Background: Initial reports indicate a high incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), but more data are required to clarify if COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for AKI and how COVID-19–associated AKI may differ from AKI due to other causes. We therefore sought to study the relationship between COVID-19, AKI, and outcomes in a retrospective cohort of patients admitted to 2 acute hospitals in Derby, United Kingdom. Methods and findings: We extracted electronic data from 4,759 hospitalised patients who were tested for COVID-19 between 5 March 2020 and 12 May 2020. The data were linked to electronic patient records and laboratory information management systems. The primary outcome was AKI, and secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, need for ventilatory support, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and length of stay. As compared to the COVID-19–negative group (n = 3,374), COVID-19 patients (n = 1,161) were older (72.1 ± 16.1 versus 65.3 ± 20.4 years, p < 0.001), had a greater proportion of men (56.6% versus 44.9%, p < 0.001), greater proportion of Asian ethnicity (8.3% versus 4.0%, p < 0.001), and lower proportion of white ethnicity (75.5% versus 82.5%, p < 0.001). AKI developed in 304 (26.2%) COVID-19–positive patients (COVID-19 AKI) and 420 (12.4%) COVID-19–negative patients (AKI controls). COVID-19 patients aged 65 to 84 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11 to 2.50), needing mechanical ventilation (OR 8.74, 95% CI 5.27 to 14.77), having congestive cardiac failure (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.50), chronic liver disease (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.17 to 10.00), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.97 to 4.01) had higher odds for developing AKI. Mortality was higher in COVID-19 AKI versus COVID-19 patients without AKI (60.5% versus 27.4%, p < 0.001), and AKI was an independent predictor of mortality (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.39 to 4.48). Compared with AKI controls, COVID-19 AKI was observed in a higher proportion of men (58.9% versus 51%, p = 0.04) and lower proportion with white ethnicity (74.7% versus 86.9%, p = 0.003); was more frequently associated with cerebrovascular disease (11.8% versus 6.0%, p = 0.006), chronic lung disease (28.0% versus 19.3%, p = 0.007), diabetes (24.7% versus 17.9%, p = 0.03), and CKD (34.2% versus 20.0%, p < 0.001); and was more likely to be hospital acquired (61.2% versus 46.4%, p < 0.001). Mortality was higher in the COVID-19 AKI as compared to the control AKI group (60.5% versus 27.6%, p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, AKI patients aged 65 to 84 years, (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.77 to 5.35) and ≥85 years of age (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.87 to 6.70), peak AKI stage 2 (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.90), AKI stage 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.57), and COVID-19 (OR 3.80, 95% CI 2.62 to 5.51) had higher odds of death. Limitations of the study include retrospective design, lack of urinalysis data, and low ethnic diversity of the region. Conclusions: We observed a high incidence of AKI in patients with COVID-19 that was associated with a 3-fold higher odds of death than COVID-19 without AKI and a 4-fold higher odds of death than AKI due to other causes. These data indicate that patients with COVID-19 should be monitored for the development of AKI and measures taken to prevent this. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04407156