Recent Submissions

  • A Case Report of Migrating Fish Bone to the Thyroid Gland.

    Darraj, Eyad (Dubai Medical Journal, 2020-09)
    Fish bone as a foreign body in the throat is common and frequently seen in emergency departments. In most cases, the bone is stuck in the tonsils or oropharynx, some go further to the laryngopharynx, and in rare cases they may go furthest. The authors report a rare case of a fish bone that migrated to the thyroid gland.
  • What you need to know about assessing a patient with diplopia.

    Chishty, Faaizah (British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 2023-03)
    Diplopia occurs when two images are subjectively seen of a single object. It has a variety of causes, which range in severity from benign to sight or life threatening if left untreated. Clinical assessment of diplopia includes taking a comprehensive history to delineate the exact type of visual disturbance experienced by the patient and examination to pinpoint the aetiology, which is crucial for further management. This article discusses the causes of diplopia, along with risk factors and other associated symptoms, to facilitate diagnosis and management. Efficient and effective diagnosis is important, as some pathologies require immediate treatment to save the eyesight and/or life of the patient. This article will concentrate solely on binocular diplopia.
  • The Use of Lasers in Stapes Surgery.

    Fergie, Neil (2021)
    Abstract Objectives: Otosclerosis is a disease process that usually starts around the oval window, causing fixation of the stapes, resulting in conductive hearing loss. Treatment of the conductive hearing loss caused by otosclerosis consists of either rehabilitation with hearing aids or performing surgery. Given the risks of hearing impairment and vertigo associated with the surgery, there has been a desire to advance the practice to minimize the complications. The so-called "non-contact" or "no touch" techniques with the use of various lasers are in current practice. This review article will cover the surgical aspects, the theory behind laser and the various types used in stapes surgery. It will also review the evidence of laser versus conventional stapes surgery and the comparison of different laser types. Methods: A literature search up to December 2019 was performed using Pubmed and a nonsystematic review of appropriate articles was undertaken. Keywords used were stapes, surgery, laser, stapedectomy, and stapedotomy. Results: Overall, there is no evidence to say laser fenestration is better than conventional fenestration techniques; however, with the micro drill, there is an increased risk of footplate fracture and sensorineural hearing loss. There is an increased risk of tinnitus with the laser compared to conventional techniques. Studies have favored the CO2 laser over potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) and erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Erbium-YAG) lasers for postoperative closure of the air-bone gap; and KTP laser has less thermal, mechanical, and sound effects compared with the thulium and carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers. There is an increased risk if inner ear complications with the thulium laser. Conclusions: It can be deduced that theoretically and practically, the thulium laser is less safe compared to the KTP and CO2 lasers. The choice of laser used depends on the surgeon's preference, as well as availability, cost, side effects profile, as well as ease of use.
  • A core outcome set for research on the management of otitis media with effusion in otherwise-healthy children.

    Fergie, Neil (2020-07)
    Introduction A Core Outcome Set (COS) is an agreed list of outcome domains to be reported by all studies investigating a condition. A COS for Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) in children with cleft palate exists (called MOMENT), but there isn't one for otherwise-healthy children. This study investigates whether the MOMENT COS could also be applicable to otherwise-healthy children. Results A total of 134 people took part: 53 parents/guardians (recruited through UK NHS hospitals) and 81 professionals/researchers (recruited internationally). Overall, 128 (95.5%) agreed that the MOMENT outcomes can also apply to otherwise healthy children (100% parents/guardians, 92.6% professionals/researchers). Conclusions The outcome domains identified in the COS for OME management in children with cleft palate can also be used in otherwise-healthy children.
  • Understanding primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma - A systematic review.

    Tsirevelou, Paraskevi (2019-04)
    INTRODUCTION: The true incidence of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown and likely overestimated in the literature. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the diagnosis, aetiology and incidence of parotid SCC by analysing studies evaluating primary parotid SCC. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane library was performed. A narrative synthesis was done. RESULTS: A total of 14 observational retrospective studies on primary parotid SCC were included. There are currently no standard criteria for ascertainment of primary parotid SCC. Primary parotid SCC is thought to be due to squamous metaplasia within the ductal epithelium and subsequent invasive squamous carcinoma. Histological features that favour primary disease includes SCC confined to parotid parenchyma with no direct communication to the skin and the absence of mucin. Incidence of primary parotid SCC varied from 1.54 to 2.8 cases per million person-years. Around 30%-86% of patients recorded to have primary parotid SCC on clinical records, when scrutinised, were in fact secondary to parotid lymph node involvement following regional advancement from skin or upper aerodigestive tract SCC. CONCLUSION: Primary parotid SCC is rare and it is currently a diagnosis of exclusion. Thorough clinical assessment including endoscopy, preoperative imaging and the scrutiny of histopathological findings allow for differentiation between primary and secondary SCC within the parotid. This thus affects both initial treatment and subsequent follow-up.