• A day at the cricket: The breath alcohol consequences of a type of very English binge drinking

      Wright, Neil R. (2006)
      Media images of violence and accidents associated with binge drinking raise concerns and the headlines and sound-bites blame heavy intoxication. However, there has been very little attention to breath alcohol concentrations (BACs) associated with bingeing. In this naturalistic study of 12 male spectators at a cricket match, alcohol consumption ranged from 8.5 to 21.7 units and at the end of play BACs ranged 0-61 mu g/100 mL. The implications of these results for the definition of a "binge'' are discussed.
    • Alcohol and the NHS Health Check programme: Could we be left with a hangover?

      Holmes, Mark (2010)
      Alcohol misuse costs the NHS in the order of £2.7 billion per year; the total annual cost to the UK economy has been calculated at up to £25.1 billion. This article will examine if the Department of Health?s NHS Health Check programme policy launched in April 2009 has missed an important opportunity to contribute to tackling the growing health and economic burden of alcohol misuse. The authors believe that alcohol 'identification and brief advice' (IBA) should be a standard requirement for this programme. Consequently the article also provides a practical over view of the principles of IBA.
    • Alcohol and violence in developmental perspective

      Howard, Richard C.; McMurran, Mary (2012)
      The purpose of this chapter is to describe the developmental risk factors that lead to an increased likelihood of adult alcohol-related violence. This is not a straightforward enterprise. In each individual case, a unique set of risk factors pertains over time, and, additionally, a range of protective factors may also be present. These risk and protective factors operate on a range of levels and include individual characteristics, family functioning, school bonding and academic attainment, peer associations, leisure pursuits and employment. Furthermore, there is an interactive effect between the at-risk individual and his or her social environment, which may exacerbate or mitigate problems. The developmental trajectory of interest starts in infancy—or even in utero—and continues into adulthood, and so there is a long story to be told. Our aim is to describe some of the major risk factors for alcohol-related violence across this developmental pathway. To examine alcohol use in relation to violence, we will organise our material in three sections: childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. In each section, we will examine risk factors in the intrapersonal, interpersonal and social domains. Before we do this, it is important to clarify our position on a number of key points—the construct of violence, the construct of antisocial personality and gender issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: chapter)
    • Alcohol misuse: The need to take a preventative approach

      Holmes, Mark (2013)
      Consuming alcohol within moderate and recommended amounts can have its benefits. These include: social inclusion, socialising, positive impacts it can have on providing employment and to the economy. However, not all people drink in moderation. Alcohol misuse (AM) is increasingly becoming a cause for concern in public health, medical reports and criminal justice systems. Reports and strategies continue to highlight the risks and dangers that AM poses for those who engage in harmful drinking. Alongside the risks to the individual, other costs include discord within families and society and further financial pressure on healthcare systems. However, often AM does not come to the attention of health practitioners until it is in its advanced stages, yet it is preventable and is an issue that impacts all age groups from children to older people. Community nurses can play a pivotal, proactive and preventative role in detecting and offering information and brief advice for those in their care. Though this may be challenging and requires innovative thinking in identifying the most suitable approaches to best match the needs of their patients, it is an issue that can be prevented and have untold benefits for individuals, families and societies.
    • Alcohol-related violence defined by ultimate goals: A qualitative analysis of the features of three different types of violence by intoxicated young male offenders

      McMurran, Mary; Jinks, Mary; Howells, Kevin; Howard, Richard C. (2010)
      Based upon a functional approach to understanding aggression, we aimed to identify the occurrence of and to describe the features of three types of alcohol-related violence defined a priori by ultimate goals: (1) violence in pursuit of nonsocial profit-based goals, (2) violence in pursuit of social dominance goals, and (3) violence as defence in response to threat. A sample of 149 young men with offences of violence that were alcohol related was interviewed. Cases were classified and detailed information from the first ten cases in each class (N=30) was subjected to thematic analysis. Intoxicated violence in pursuit of nonsocial profit-based goals was opportunistic and motivated by the desire for more alcohol or drugs. Violence, in these cases, although serious, appeared to be brief. Intoxicated violence in pursuit of social dominance goals was typically precipitated by past or current insult or injury, and was accompanied by strong anger and an adrenaline rush. Attacks were ferocious, and robbing the victim was not uncommon, perhaps to inflict additional humiliation. Feelings of pride and satisfaction were typical and expressions of remorse were uncommon. Regarding intoxicated violence as defence in response to threat, attacks were often expected, and in some cases the respondent made a pre-emptive strike. Weapon use was common in this group. Fear was experienced, but so too was anger. Feelings of excitement were not reported and remorse was common. Further validation of these types is warranted, and the potential implications of these findings for prevention and treatment are discussed.
    • Alcohol-related violence: An endnote

      McMurran, Mary (2012)
      The purpose of this book is to draw together sound information to enlighten policy makers, professionals, and researchers about the theory and evidence that should underpin prevention and treatment approaches. While general approaches to reducing a population's alcohol consumption may aim primarily to reduce health risks, they also have the power to reduce violent crime. This concluding chapter briefly discusses information presented in the book's previous chapters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: chapter)
    • Alcohol-related violence: Prevention and treatment

      McMurran, Mary (2012)
      The strong association between alcohol consumption and violence is undeniable but complex and a large scientific literature has attempted to clarify the relationship between them. This comprehensive text goes farther than any I have seen in illuminating the nature of the link and exploring implications for the treatment and prevention of alcohol-related violence.  It is essential reading both for those interested in reducing a major component of alcohol-related harm and those interested in reducing interpersonal violence. Nick Heather, Professor Emeritus, Northumbria University In addition to being an excellent research in her own right, Mary McMurran is a skilled editor who has worked tirelessly to promote evidence-based practice in corrections and forensic mental health. She knows how to identify hot topics, recruit top-notch authors, and ensure chapter contributions are both scientifically sound and practically useful. This volume is a perfect example. Whether you work on the front lines, as an administrator, or as a researcher or policy analyst, brace yourself: Reading this book will make you rethink how you you deliver services to violent offenders with alcohol use problems. Professor Stephen D Hart, Simon Fraser University. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • Assessment and management of individuals under the influence of alcohol in police custody

      Lawton, John D. (1996)
      Individuals taken into police custody are commonly under the influence of alcohol. Some of these individuals are dependent on alcohol and suffer from withdrawal symptoms. Morbidity and mortality in this group is high, and deaths have been recorded in police custody. There are no specific guidelines on the assessment and management of individuals under the influence of alcohol taken into police custody. This article outlines the clinical features, assessment, investigations and management of these individuals based on a review of the literature.
    • Characteristics of alcohol recovery narratives: Systematic review and narrative synthesis

      Jones, Katy A.; Llewellyn-Beardsley, Joy; Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan (2022)
      BACKGROUND AND AIMSNarratives of recovery from alcohol misuse have been analysed in a range of research studies. This paper aims to produce a conceptual framework describing the characteristics of alcohol misuse recovery narratives that are in the research literature, to inform the development of research, policy, and practice.METHODSSystematic review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Electronic searches of databases (Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, PsychInfo, AMED and SCOPUS), grey literature, and citation searches for included studies were conducted. Alcohol recovery narratives were defined as "first-person lived experience accounts, which includes elements of adversity, struggle, strength, success, and survival related to alcohol misuse, and refer to events or actions over a period of time". Frameworks were synthesised using a three-stage process. Sub-group analyses were conducted on studies presenting analyses of narratives with specific genders, ages, sexualities, ethnicities, and dual diagnosis. The review was prospectively registered (PROSPERO CRD42021235176).RESULTS32 studies were included (29 qualitative, 3 mixed-methods, 1055 participants, age range 17-82years, 52.6% male, 46.4% female). Most were conducted in the United States (n = 15) and Europe (n = 11). No included studies analysed recovery narratives from lower income countries. Treatment settings included Alcoholic Anonymous (n = 12 studies), other formal treatment, and 'natural recovery'. Eight principle narrative dimensions were identified (genre, identity, recovery setting, drinking trajectory, drinking behaviours, stages, spirituality and religion, and recovery experience) each with types and subtypes. All dimensions were present in most subgroups. Shame was a prominent theme for female narrators, lack of sense of belonging and spirituality were prominent for LGBTQ+ narrators, and alienation and inequality were prominent for indigenous narrators.CONCLUSIONSReview provides characteristics of alcohol recovery narratives, with implications for both research and healthcare practice. It demonstrated knowledge gaps in relation to alcohol recovery narratives of people living in lower income countries, or those who recovered outside of mainstream services.PROTOCOL REGISTRATIONProspero registration number: CRD42020164185.
    • Does knowledge of liver fibrosis affect high-risk drinking behaviour (KLIFAD)? protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial

      Jones, Katy A.; Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan (2021)
      INTRODUCTIONHeavy drinkers in contact with alcohol services do not routinely have access to testing to establish the severity of potential liver disease. Transient elastography by FibroScan can provide this information. A recent systematic review suggested providing feedback to patients based on markers of liver injury can be an effective way to reduce harmful alcohol intake. This randomised control trial (RCT) aims to establish the feasibility of conducting a larger national trial to test the effectiveness of FibroScan advice and Alcohol Recovery Video Stories (ARVS) in changing high-risk drinking behaviour in community alcohol services common to UK practice.METHODS AND ANALYSISThis feasibility trial consists of three work packages (WP). WP1: To draft a standardised script for FibroScan operators to deliver liver disease-specific advice to eligible participants having FibroScan. WP2: To create a video library of ARVS for use in the feasibility RCT (WP3). WP3: To test the feasibility of the trial design, including the FibroScan script and video stories developed in WP1 and WP2 in a one-to-one individual randomised trial in community alcohol services. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted at 6 months follow-up for qualitative evaluation. Outcomes will be measures of the feasibility of conducting a larger RCT. These outcomes will relate to: participant recruitment and follow-up, intervention delivery, including the use of the Knowledge of LIver Fibrosis Affects Drinking trial FibroScan scripts and videos, clinical outcomes, and the acceptability and experience of the intervention and trial-related procedures. Data analysis will primarily be descriptive to address the feasibility aims of the trial. All proposed analyses will be documented in a Statistical Analysis Plan.ETHICS AND DISSEMINATIONThis trial received favourable ethical approval from the West of Scotland Research Ethics Service (WoSRES) on 20 January 2021, REC reference: 20/WS/0179. Results will be submitted for publication to a peer-reviewed journal.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERISRCTN16922410.
    • "Drunk people are on a different level": A qualitative study of reflections from students about transitioning and adapting to United Kingdom university as a person who drinks little or no alcohol

      Davies, E. Bethan (2021)
      Background: Though sobriety in young people is on the rise, students who drink little or no alcohol may experience social exclusion at University, impacting well-being. We aim to understand the social experiences of United Kingdom (UK) undergraduate students who drink little or no alcohol. Methods: A mixed-methods study using semi-structured, one-to-one interviews and the 24-Item Social Provisions Scale and Flourishing Scale with 15 undergraduate students who drink little or no alcohol. Descriptive statistics are presented for quantitative data and thematic analysis for qualitative. Results: Eight main themes and four subthemes were generated from thematic analysis summarised in two sections 'views of drinkers from non-drinkers' and 'how peer pressure feels and how people deal with it.' The initial transition to University represented a challenge, where participants struggled to find their 'true' friends. However, students generally had high levels of social provision, well-being and enjoyed close friendships with fewer casual acquaintances. All students experienced some kind of peer pressure (of a varying extremity) and developed coping strategies when in social situations involving alcohol. Fear of missing out on the 'typical' University experience heightened self-imposed expectations to drink. Despite participants acknowledging their counter-normative behaviour, some felt they were subject to stigmatisation by drinkers, doubting their non-drinker status, causing feelings of exclusion or being 'boring.' Their desire to 'be like everyone else' exposed some insight into the negative stereotypes of sobriety, including frustration behind alcohol's status elevation. Conclusion: Students adopt strategies to minimise peer pressure and to fit in. Future research should interrogate drinkers' perceptions of their sober peers to deepen understanding, better break down 'us and them,' and mitigate future expectations within the University drinking culture.
    • Dying for a drink: Alcohol across the lifespan

      Holmes, Mark (2013)
      We are a nation with an alcohol-induced dichotomy: we have a love affair with alcohol but are increasingly aware of its dangers. The pub has been a cornerstone of our society, providing a source of relationships and artistic imagination. However, our nation's favourite drug is also responsible for as many life-years lost as tobacco, but with additional psychological and socio-economic costs.
    • Focus on mental health promotion, obesity and alcohol

      Baldwin, Victoria (2014)
      Chapter nine in 'The Essential Guide to Public Health and Health Promotion' focuses on mental health promotion, obesity and alcohol. The eight sections on mental health promotion supply background information, promotion and prevention, mental health interventions, models of mental health promotion and key principles. The five sub-sections here consider the service user/target group, sustainability, service user co-production, partnership working and evidence and outcomes. There is a concluding summary and a case study. Obesity follows in five sections, beginning with obesity as a public health issue. There are key stages when people are likely to put on weight, and a list of the positive outcomes of reducing weight. The evidence base for weight loss in section two includes an effective range of lifestyle interventions and a list of NICE guidance documents related to obesity, diet and physical activity. Surgical methods of weight loss (bariatric surgery) are discussed. It is only appropriate when all other non-surgical approaches have failed. The six key strategies for maintaining weight loss follow in section four, and current interventions which lists a four-tiered prevention and management of excess weight model. There is a concluding summary. Alcohol consumption follows in two sections. Alcohol as a public health issue notes that excess alcohol consumption costs the NHS an estimated 3.5 billion annually and the issues surrounding reduced consumption and complete abstinence are reviewed. A case study of the Last Orders alcohol prevention service in Nottingham follows with a general discussion of outreach services. Cites numerous references.
    • Health checks: Could we be left with a hangover?

      Holmes, Mark (2010)
      Alcohol misuse costs £2.7 billion a year to the NHS. Mark Holmes and Jamie Waterall ask whether the NHS Health Check programme has missed a chance to help reduce the health risks of alcohol misuse
    • Helping patients to rebuild their lives

      Holmes, Mark (2013)
      Working as an alcohol specialist nurse involves caring for patients across secondary and primary health care settings.
    • Impulsivity and drinking motives predict problem behaviours relating to alcohol use in university students

      Jones, Katy A.; Groom, Madeleine J. (2014)
      AIMS: This study used a four-factor model of impulsivity to investigate inter-relationships between alcohol consumption, impulsivity, motives for drinking and the tendency to engage in alcohol-related problem behaviours.
    • Individual-level interventions for alcohol-related violence: A rapid evidence assessment

      McMurran, Mary (2012)
      BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related violence is of major concern to society. Around half of all violent crimes are alcohol related, and yet interventions for alcohol-related violence are under-developed. Often, offenders receive treatment for substance use or violence, but not the two in nexus.